Kinetics of the inhibition of plasminogen activators by the plasminogen-activator inhibitor. Evidence for 'second-site' interactions.
ABSTRACT: The reactions between plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI) and different plasminogen activators were studied in the presence of chromogenic peptide substrates for the enzymes. Our findings suggest that the rate constants for the reactions of PAI with single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), two-chain tPA, high-Mr urokinase and low-Mr urokinase are high and quite similar (1.6 X 10(7)-3.9 X 10(7) M-1.s-1). A free active site in the enzymes seems to be necessary for their reaction with PAI. Amino acids with antifibrinolytic properties did not interfere with the reactions. However, di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate-inactivated tPA inhibited the reaction between PAI and all plasminogen activators in a similar way. These findings clearly demonstrated that a 'second-site' interaction, in addition to that between the enzyme active site and the inhibitor 'bait' peptide bond, is of importance for the high reaction rate. The reaction rate between PAI and single-chain tPA in the presence of an activator substrate (D-Ile-Pro-Arg p-nitroanilide) was decreased in the presence of fibrin. Fibrin caused a decrease in the Km for the single-chain tPA-substrate reaction. As a consequence, the 'free' concentration of single-chain tPA in the system decreased in the presence of fibrin, affecting the reaction rate between PAI and single-chain tPA. The phenomenon might be of physiological relevance, in the sense that single-chain tPA bound to fibrin in the presence of plasminogen would be protected against inactivation by PAI.
Project description:The structural events taking place during the reaction between PAI-1 (plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1) and the plasminogen activators sc-tPA (single-chain tissue plasminogen activator) and tc-tPA (two-chain tissue plasminogen activator) were studied. Complexes were formed by mixing sc-tPA or tc-tPA with PAI-1 in slight excess (on an activity basis). The complexes were purified from excess PAI-1 by affinity chromatography on fibrin-Sepharose. Examination of the purified complexes by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated that a stoichiometric 1:1 complex is formed between PAI-1 and both forms of tPA. Data obtained from both complexes revealed the amino acid sequences of the parent molecules and, in addition, a new sequence: Met-Ala-Pro-Glu-Glu-. This sequence is found in the C-terminal portion of the intact PAI-1 molecule and thus locates the reactive centre of PAI-1 to Arg346-Met347. The proteolytic activity of sc-tPA is demonstrated by its capacity to cleave the 'bait' peptide bond in PAI-1. The complexes were inactive and dissociated slowly at physiological pH and ionic strength, but rapidly in aq. NH3 (0.1 mol/l). Amidolytic tPA activity was generated on dissociation of the complexes, corresponding to 0.4 mol of tPA/mol of complex. SDS/PAGE of the dissociated complexes indicated a small decrease in the molecular mass of PAI-1, in agreement with proteolytic cleavage of the 'bait' peptide bond during complex-formation.
Project description:Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) level is extremely elevated in the edematous fluid of acutely injured lungs and pleurae. Elevated PAI-1 specifically inactivates pulmonary urokinase-type (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activators (tPA). We hypothesized that plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis may alter epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, a key player in clearing edematous fluid. Two-chain urokinase (tcuPA) has been found to strongly stimulate heterologous human ??? ENaC activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This activity of tcuPA was completely ablated by PAI-1. Furthermore, a mutation (S195A) of the active site of the enzyme also prevented ENaC activation. By comparison, three truncation mutants of the amino-terminal fragment of tcuPA still activated ENaC. uPA enzymatic activity was positively correlated with ENaC current amplitude prior to reaching the maximal level. In sharp contrast to uPA, neither single-chain tPA nor derivatives, including two-chain tPA and tenecteplase, affected ENaC activity. Furthermore, ? but not ? subunit of ENaC was proteolytically cleaved at ((177)GR?KR(180)) by tcuPA. In summary, the underlying mechanisms of urokinase-mediated activation of ENaC include release of self-inhibition, proteolysis of ? ENaC, incremental increase in opening rate, and activation of closed (electrically "silent") channels. This study for the first time demonstrates multifaceted mechanisms for uPA-mediated up-regulation of ENaC, which form the cellular and molecular rationale for the beneficial effects of urokinase in mitigating mortal pulmonary edema and pleural effusions.
Project description:Fibrinolysis is a process responsible for the dissolution of formed thrombi to re-establish blood flow after thrombus formation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) inhibits urokinase-type and tissue-type plasminogen activator (uPA and tPA) and is the major negative regulator of fibrinolysis. Inhibition of PAI-1 activity prevents thrombosis and accelerates fibrinolysis. However, a specific antagonist of PAI-1 is currently unavailable for therapeutic use. We screened a panel of uPA variants with mutations at and near the active site to maximize their binding to PAI-1 and identified a potent PAI-1 antagonist, PAItrap. PAItrap is the serine protease domain of urokinase containing active-site mutation (S195A) and four additional mutations (G37bR-R217L-C122A-N145Q). PAItrap inhibits human recombinant PAI-1 with high potency (Kd = 0.15 nM) and high specificity. In vitro using human plasma, PAItrap showed significant thrombolytic activity by inhibiting endogenous PAI-1. In addition, PAItrap inhibits both human and murine PAI-1, allowing the evaluation in murine models. In vivo, using a laser-induced thrombosis mouse model in which thrombus formation and fibrinolysis are monitored by intravital microscopy, PAItrap reduced fibrin generation and inhibited platelet accumulation following vascular injury. Therefore, this work demonstrates the feasibility to generate PAI-1 inhibitors using inactivated urokinase.
Project description:Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the Food and Drug Administration-approved thrombolytic drug. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort. Precise details, with atomic resolution, of the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 remain unknown despite previous extensive studies. Here, we report the crystal structure of the tPA·PAI-1 Michaelis complex, which shows significant differences from the structure of its urokinase-type plasminogen activator analogue, the uPA·PAI-1 Michaelis complex. The PAI-1 reactive center loop adopts a unique kinked conformation. The structure provides detailed interactions between tPA 37- and 60-loops with PAI-1. On the tPA side, the S2 and S1? pockets open up to accommodate PAI-1. This study provides structural basis to understand the specificity of PAI-1 and to design newer generation of thrombolytic agents with reduced PAI-1 inactivation.
Project description:Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide . Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the FDA-approved thrombolytic drug for ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. tPA is a multi-domain serine protease of the trypsin-family  and catalyses the critical step in fibrinolysis , converting the zymogen plasminogen to the active serine protease plasmin, which degrades the fibrin network of thrombi and blood clots. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)  (Fig. 1). Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort . Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA) is a newer generation of tPA variant showing slower inhibition by PAI-1 . Extensive studies to understand the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 have been carried out , , , , , , , , , , , , however, the precise details at atomic resolution remain unknown. We report the crystal structure of tPA·PAI-1 complex here. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a PAI-1 variant (14-1B) containing four mutations (N150H, K154T, Q319L, and M354I), and a tPA serine protease domain (tPA-SPD) variant with three mutations (C122A, N173Q, and S195A, in the chymotrypsin numbering) ; (2) formation of a tPA-SPD·PAI-1 Michaëlis complex in vitro ; and (3) solving the three-dimensional structure for this complex by X-ray crystallography [deposited in the PDB database as 5BRR]. The data explain the specificity of PAI-1 for tPA and uPA , , and provide structural basis to design newer generation of PAI-1-resistant tPA variants as thrombolytic agents .
Project description:The experiments described in this paper were designed to examine the specific binding of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to cultured human aortic endothelial (HAE) cells. When 125I-labelled tPA was incubated with the cells at 4 degrees C, binding was found to plateau within 90 min after incubations were begun. Binding was saturable and the bound enzyme dissociated from the sites with a half-time of approx. 48 min. Scatchard analyses were performed using tPA molecules isolated from human melanoma and colon cells as well as from C127 and Chinese hamster ovary cells that had been transfected with the human tPA gene. These enzymes showed very similar binding characteristics in spite of the fact that they differ substantially in the types of sugars which comprise their side chains. Neither the chainedness of the molecules (one-chain or two-chain) nor the sites at which they are glycosylated (type I or type II) appear to affect their ability to interact with binding sites. The tPA molecules were found to have an average equilibrium dissociation constant of (1.15 +/- 0.10) x 10(-9) M and HAE cells appeared to have a single, homogeneous population of independent binding sites present at a concentration of (1.57 +/- 0.13) x 10(6) sites per cell. Lowering the pH of the binding buffer from 7.4 to 6.5 resulted in a reversible increase in specific binding of between 2-fold and 7-fold depending upon the particular preparation of cells. Preincubation of tPA with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) was found to have little effect on binding, suggesting that tPA interacts at sites distinct from surface-bound PAI-1. No evidence for either internalization or degradation of tPA was observed in assays run at 37 degrees C. This suggests that, like urokinase, tPA remains on cell surfaces for an extended period of time.
Project description:1. Possible interactions between fibrin(ogen) and heparin in the control of plasminogen activation were studied in model systems using the thrombolytic agents tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase and streptokinase.plasminogen activator complex and the substrates Glu- and Lys-plasminogen. 2. Both t-PA and urokinase activities were promoted by heparin and by pentosan polysulphate, but not by chondroitin sulphate or hyaluronic acid. The effect was on Km. 3. In the presence of soluble fibrin (and its mimic, CNBr-digested fibrinogen) the effect of heparin on t-PA was attenuated, although not abolished. In studies using a monoclonal antibody and 6-aminohexanoic acid, it was found that heparin and fibrin did not seem to share a binding site on t-PA. 4. The activity of t-PA B-chain was unaffected by heparin, so the binding site is located on the A-chain of t-PA (and urokinase). 5. Fibrin potentiated the activity of heparin on urokinase. The activity of streptokinase.plasminogen was unaffected by heparin whether or not fibrin was present. 6. If these influences of heparin and fibrin also occur in vivo, then, in the presence of heparin, the relative fibrin enhancement of t-PA will be diminished and the likelihood of systemic activation by t-PA is increased.
Project description:Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial.
Project description:Accumulation and deposition of A? is one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impaired A? degradation may be one mechanism of accumulation. Plasmin is the key protease of the plasminogen system and can cleave A?. Plasmin is activated from plasminogen by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). The activators are regulated by inhibitors which include plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and neuroserpin. Plasmin is also regulated by inhibitors including ?2-antiplasmin and ?2-macroglobulin. Here, we investigate the mRNA levels of the activators and inhibitors of the plasminogen system and the protein levels of tPA, neuroserpin and ?2-antiplasmin in post-mortem AD and control brain tissue. Distribution of the activators and inhibitors in human brain sections was assessed by immunoperoxidase staining. mRNA measurements were made in 20 AD and 20 control brains by real-time PCR. In an expanded cohort of 38 AD and 38 control brains tPA, neuroserpin and ?2-antiplasmin protein levels were measured by ELISA. The activators and inhibitors were present mainly in neurons and ?2-antiplasmin was also associated with A? plaques in AD brain tissue. tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and ?2-antiplasmin mRNA were all significantly increased in AD compared to controls, as were tPA and ?2-antiplasmin protein, whereas neuroserpin mRNA and protein were significantly reduced. ?2-macroglobulin mRNA was not significantly altered in AD. The increases in tPA, uPA, PAI-1 and ?2-antiplasmin may counteract each other so that plasmin activity is not significantly altered in AD, but increased tPA may also affect synaptic plasticity, excitotoxic neuronal death and apoptosis.
Project description:Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), together with its physiological target urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), plays a pivotal role in fibrinolysis, cell migration, and tissue remodeling and is currently recognized as being among the most extensively validated biological prognostic factors in several cancer types. PAI-1 specifically and rapidly inhibits uPA and tissue-type PA (tPA). Despite extensive structural/functional studies on these two reactions, the underlying structural mechanism has remained unknown due to the technical difficulties of obtaining the relevant structures. Here, we report a strategy to generate a PAI-1·uPA(S195A) Michaelis complex and present its crystal structure at 2.3-? resolution. In this structure, the PAI-1 reactive center loop serves as a bait to attract uPA onto the top of the PAI-1 molecule. The P4-P3' residues of the reactive center loop interact extensively with the uPA catalytic site, accounting for about two-thirds of the total contact area. Besides the active site, almost all uPA exosite loops, including the 37-, 60-, 97-, 147-, and 217-loops, are involved in the interaction with PAI-1. The uPA 37-loop makes an extensive interaction with PAI-1 ?-sheet B, and the 147-loop directly contacts PAI-1 ?-sheet C. Both loops are important for initial Michaelis complex formation. This study lays down a foundation for understanding the specificity of PAI-1 for uPA and tPA and provides a structural basis for further functional studies.