Purification and characterization of two wheat-embryo protein phosphatases.
ABSTRACT: Two protein phosphatases (enzymes I and II) were extensively purified from wheat embryo by a procedure involving chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B, DEAE-Sephacel and Ultrogel AcA 44. Preparations of enzyme I (Mr 197,000) are heterogeneous. Preparations of enzyme II (Mr 35,000) contain only one major polypeptide (Mr 17,500), which exactly co-purifies with protein phosphatase II on gel filtration and is not present in preparations of enzyme I. However, this major polypeptide has been identified as calmodulin. Calmodulin and protein phosphatase II can be separated by further chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B. Protein phosphatases I and II do not require Mg2+ or Ca2+ for activity. Both enzymes catalyse the dephosphorylation of phosphohistone H1 (phosphorylated by wheat-germ Ca2+-dependent protein kinase) and of phosphocasein (phosphorylated by wheat-germ Ca2+-independent casein kinase), but neither enzyme dephosphorylates a range of non-protein phosphomonoesters tested. Both enzymes are inhibited by Zn2+, Hg2+, vanadate, molybdate, F-, pyrophosphate and ATP.
Project description:Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity was detected at pH 7.5 in head extracts of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This activity was abolished by iodoacetate, but was unaffected by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. These properties resemble those of the Ca2+-dependent thiol-proteinase calpain. The activity appeared at Mr 280,000 on Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography. DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two activity peaks, with elution positions corresponding to vertebrate calpains I and II. The fly head enzymes were inhibited by a heat-stable and trypsin-sensitive component of the fly head extract, which also inhibited calpains from rat kidney. The inhibitor emerged from Sepharose CL-6B columns at Mr 310,000 and from DEAE-cellulose at a position corresponding to the protein inhibitor calpastatin from other sources. It is concluded that Drosophila heads comprise the Ca2+-dependent calpain-calpastatin proteolytic system.
Project description:Proteinase I, an enzyme previously shown to be able to degrade contractile and cytoskeletal elements of white-croaker (Micropogon opercularis) myofibrils, was purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, octyl-Sepharose CL 4B and arginine-Sepharose 4B. Its Mr was determined to be 269,000 by Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration. Under denaturing conditions, the enzyme dissociated into two subunits with Mr 20,000 and 15,500, in a molar ratio of 1.8:1. Proteinase I showed a pH optimum of 8.5. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by several serine proteinase inhibitors, whereas inhibitors of the other types of proteinases did not affect, or only scarcely affected, its activity. Several N-terminal-blocked 4-methyl-7-coumarylamide substrates having either arginine or lysine residues adjacent to the fluorogenic group were efficiently hydrolysed by the enzyme. These results indicate that proteinase I is a trypsin-like serine proteinase. The enzyme appears to be distinct from other proteinases previously described in skeletal muscle, and might be involved in the catabolism of myofibrillar proteins.
Project description:Rat factor D has been purified to homogeneity (10,559-fold) from serum by chromatography on CM-Sepharose Fast Flow, phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Mono S and has been shown to resemble its human and mouse counterparts both in substrate specificity and in its susceptibility to inhibition by the organophosphorous inhibitor di-isopropylfluorophosphate. The rat enzyme, however, is heavily glycosylated and binds to wheat-germ lectin-Sepharose 6MB and 5-hydroxytryptamine-agarose, but not to concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. All of the carbohydrate chains are N-linked. Enzymic removal of this carbohydrate decreased the Mr by approx. 15,000. The deglycosylated rat enzyme had the same mobility as native human factor D on SDS/PAGE, corresponding to an Mr of 24,500. N-Terminal sequence analysis of the first 30 amino acids of rat factor D highlighted the sequence similarity with human factor D (greater than 76%) and, in particular, with mouse adipsin (greater than 93%).
Project description:Homogeneous glucokinase (EC 22.214.171.124) from the thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated on the large scale by using four major steps: precipitation of extraneous material at pH 5.5, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, pseudo-affinity chromatography on Procion Brown H-3R-Sepharose 4B and gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of about 330 units/mg of protein and was shown to exist as a dimer of subunit Mr 33,000. Kinetic parameters for the enzyme were determined with a variety of substrates. The glucokinase was highly specific for alpha-D-glucose, and the only other sugar substrate utilized was N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine. The enzyme shows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value of 150 microM for alpha-D-glucose. The glucokinase was maximally active at pH 9.0.
Project description:N-Acetyl-beta-hexosaminidases A and B were purified to homogeneity from human placenta. In the initial step of purification, the enzymes were adsorbed on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and eluted from the column with alpha-methyl D-mannosides. Subsequent purification steps included DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, QAE-Sephadex [diethyl-(2-hydroxypropyl)aminoethyl-Sephadex] column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and preparative disc polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, followed by another QAE-Sephadex chromatography for the hexosaminidase A preparation, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, calcium phosphate gel chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, QAE-Sephadex chromatography and CM-cellulose chromatography for the hexosaminidase B preparation. The purified preparations, particularly hexosaminidase A, had significantly higher specific enzyme activities than previously reported. The preparations moved on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as single protein bands, which also stained for enzyme activity. Sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation indicated homogenous dispersion of the enzymes, and the molecular weight was estimated as about 110000 for both enzymes. Complete amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the two isoenzymes were determined, and, in contrast with previous suggestions, no sialic acid was found in the enzymes.
Project description:Two large-scale methods based primarily on the use of procainamide-Sepharose gels were developed for the purification of horse and human serum non-specific cholinesterases. With method I, the procainamide-Sepharose 4B gel was used in the first step to handle large volumes of serum. With method II, the procainamide-Sepharose 4B gel was used in the final step to obtain pure enzyme. Although both methods gave electrophoretically pure cholinesterase preparations in good yields, they were significantly more efficient at purifying the horse enzyme than the human enzyme. To study this problem, the relative binding of human and horse cholinesterases to procainamide-, methylacridinium (MAC)-, m-trimethylammoniophenyl (m-PTA)- and p-trimethylammoniophenyl (p-PTA)-Sepharose 4B gels were measured, by using two approaches. In one, binding was measured by a procedure involving equilibration of pure cholinesterase in a small volume of diluted gel slurry (4%, v/v). A partially purified preparation of Electrophorus acetylcholinesterase was included. Pure human cholinesterase bound consistently more tightly to each of the gels than did horse cholinesterase, and the acetylcholinesterase appeared to bind the gels 10-100 times more tightly than did the non-specific cholinesterases. The order of binding for the cholinesterases, beginning with the tightest, was: procainamide-Sepharose 4B, MAC-Sepharose 4B, p-PTA-Sepharose 4B and m-PTA-Sepharose 4B. For the acetylcholinesterase the order was: MAC-Sepharose 4B, procainamide-Sepharose 4B, p-PTA-Sepharose 4B and m-PTA-Sepharose 4B. The second approach involved passing native sera or partially purified sera fractions through 1 ml test columns of each of the four affinity gels to determine their retention capacity for the cholinesterases. With these impure samples, the MAC-Sepharose 4B gels proved superior to the procainamide-Sepharose 4B gels at retaining human cholinesterase, but the opposite was true for the horse cholinesterase.
Project description:Rat hepatic uroporphyrinogen III co-synthase was isolated and purified 73-fold with a 13% yield by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, Sephadex G-100 (superfine grade) and folate-AH-Sepharose 4B. The purified co-synthase has an Mr of approx. 42 000, and is resolved into two bands, each possessing co-synthase activity, by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A factor was dissociated from the purified co-synthase. Results of both microbiological and competitive protein-binding assays suggest that it is a pteroylpolyglutamate. The isolated pteroylpolyglutamate factor was co-eluted with authentic N5-methyltetrahydropteroylheptaglutamate on DEAE-Sephacel. Uroporphyrinogen III is formed by cosynthase-free preparations of uroporphyrinogen I synthase in the presence of tetrahydropteroylglutamate. Tetrahydropeteroylheptaglutamate is also able to direct the formation of equivalent amounts of uroporphyrinogen III at a concentration approximately one-hundredth that of tetrahydropteroylmonoglutamate. These results suggest that a reduced pteroylpolyglutamate factor is associated with rat hepatic uroporphyrinogen III co-synthase, and that this may function as a coenzyme for the biosynthesis of uroporphyrinogen III.
Project description:The invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase, EC 126.96.36.199) of the rumen holotrich ciliate Isotricha prostoma has been purified. This is the first report of an enzyme purification from a known species of rumen protozoon. Cells were disrupted by ultrasonic treatment and the enzyme was purified from the cell-free extract by three successive liquid column chromatographies (Sepharose CL4B/octyl-Sepharose CL4B, DE52 DEAE-cellulose and concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B). This resulted in a 160-fold purification and a 15% yield. The major form of the purified enzyme was a tetramer with Mr about 350,000 that was readily dissociated by electrophoresis. The invertase was heterogeneous, as five types of monomers were shown by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis after denaturation. Part of this heterogeneity was due to different glycosylated forms of one of the polypeptides present in the purified enzyme. Isotricha prostoma invertase exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5-6.0 and 50 degrees C. The kinetic properties of the purified enzyme were very similar to those of invertases from other sources such as yeast or plants (substrate and product inhibition, transferase activity).
Project description:A set of four proteins, termed calcimedins, are isolatable from smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle by using a fluphenazine-Sepharose affinity column. The calcimedins show apparent Mr values of 67,000, 35,000, 33,000 and 30,000 by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The 67,000-Mr calcimedin (67 kDa calcimedin) has now been purified to homogeneity by using DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by Ca2+-dependent binding to phenyl-Sepharose. The amino acid analysis of the 67 kDa calcimedin shows this protein does not contain trimethyl-lysine but does contain 2 mol of tryptophan/mol of protein. The 67 kDa calcimedin shows positive ellipticity in the near-u.v. range with c.d. Ca2+-binding studies indicate one high-affinity Ca2+-binding site with Kd 0.4 microM. The data show that the 67 kDa calcimedin is distinct from other Ca2+-binding proteins described to date.
Project description:1. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose 6-phosphate-NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 188.8.131.52) from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B with retention of about 3% of enzyme activity. This uncharged preparation was stable for up to 4 months when stored in borate buffer, pH7.6, at 4 degrees C. 2. Stable enzyme preparations with negative or positive overall charge were made by adding valine or ethylenediamine to the CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B 30min after addition of the enzyme. 3. These three immobilized enzyme preparations retained 40-60% of their activity after 15 min at 50 degrees C. The soluble enzyme is inactivated by these conditions. 4. The soluble enzyme lost 45 and 100% of its activity on incubation for 3h at pH6 and 10 respectively. The three immobilized-enzyme preparations were completely stable over this entire pH range. 5. The pH optimum of the positively and negatively charged immobilized-enzyme preparations were about 8 and 9 respectively. The soluble enzyme and the uncharged immobilized enzyme had an optimum pH at about 8.5 6. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase immobilized on CNBr-activated Sephadex G-25 was unstable, as was enzyme attached to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B to which glycine, asparitic acid, valine or ethylenediamine was added at the same time as the enzyme.