Palmitate inhibits liver glycolysis. Involvement of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the glucose/fatty acid cycle.
ABSTRACT: In hepatocytes from overnight-fasted rats incubated with glucose, palmitate decreased the production of lactate, the detritiation of [2-3H]- and [3-3H]-glucose, and the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Similarly, perfusion of hearts from fed rats with beta-hydroxybutyrate resulted in an inhibition of the detritiation of [3-3H]glucose and a fall in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. This fall could result from an increase in citrate (hepatocytes and heart) and sn-glycerol 3-bisphosphate concentration. It is suggested that a fall in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration participates in the inhibition of glycolysis by fatty acids and ketone bodies.
Project description:Injection of insulin to fed rats diminished the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in white adipose tissue. Incubation of epididymal fat-pads or adipocytes with insulin stimulated lactate release and sugar detritiation and also decreased fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Such a decrease was, however, not observed in fat-pads from starved or alloxan-diabetic rats. Incubation of adipocytes from fed rats with various concentrations of glucose or fructose led to a dose-dependent rise in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate which correlated with lactate output and detritiation of 3-3H-labelled sugar. In adipocytes from fed rats, palmitate stimulated the detritiation of [3-3H]glucose without affecting lactate production and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Incubation of epididymal fat-pads from fed rats in the presence of antimycin stimulated lactate output but decreased fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Changes in lipolytic rates brought about by noradrenaline, insulin, adenosine and corticotropin in adipocytes from fed rats were not related to changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate or to rates of lactate output. In fed rats, the activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase was not changed after treatment of adipocytes with insulin, noradrenaline or adenosine. It is suggested that the decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration observed after insulin treatment can be explained by the increase in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, an inhibitor of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase.
Project description:Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes from fasted rats with 0-6 mM-glucose caused an increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] (0.2 to about 5 nmol/g) without net lactate production. A release of 3H2O from [3-3H]glucose was, however, detectable, indicating that phosphofructokinase was active and that cycling occurred between fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A relationship between [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] and lactate production was observed when hepatocytes were incubated with [glucose] greater than 6 mM. Incubation with glucose caused a dose-dependent increase in [hexose 6-phosphates]. The maximal capacity of liver cytosolic proteins to bind fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was 15 nmol/g, with affinity constants of 5 X 10(6) and 0.5 X 10(6) M-1. One can calculate that, at 5 microM, more than 90% of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is bound to cytosolic proteins. In livers of non-anaesthetized fasted mice, the activation of glycogen synthase was more sensitive to glucose injection than was the increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate], whereas the opposite situation was observed in livers of fed mice. Glucose injection caused no change in the activity of liver phosphofructokinase-2 and decreased the [hexose 6-phosphates] in livers of fed mice.
Project description:1. Incubation of hepatocytes from fed or starved rats with increasing glucose concentrations caused a stimulation of lactate production, which was further increased under anaerobic conditions. 2. When glycolysis was stimulated by anoxia, [fructose 2,6-bis-phosphate] was decreased, indicating that this ester could not be responsible for the onset of anaerobic glycolysis. In addition, the effect of glucose in increasing [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] under aerobic conditions was greatly impaired in anoxic hepatocytes. [Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] was also diminished in ischaemic liver, skeletal muscle and heart. 3. The following changes in metabolite concentration were observed in anaerobic hepatocytes: AMP, ADP, lactate and L-glycerol 3-phosphate were increased; ATP, citrate and pyruvate were decreased: phosphoenolpyruvate and hexose 6-phosphates were little affected. Concentrations of adenine nucleotides were, however, little changed by anoxia when hepatocytes from fed rats were incubated with 50 mM-glucose. 4. The activity of ATP:fructose 6-phosphate 2-phosphotransferase was not affected by anoxia but decreased by cyclic AMP. 5. The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the regulation of glycolysis is discussed.
Project description:Glucose caused a sustained and dose-related increase in the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content of isolated pancreatic islets, as well as of purified pancreatic B-cells. With isolated B-cells, the glucose saturation curve was sigmoidal and superimposable on that obtained with hepatocytes isolated from unfed rats. However, the response to glucose was notably faster in purified B-cells than in isolated hepatocytes. In contrast again with the situation prevailing in the liver, glucagon failed to decrease significantly the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in either islets or purified B-cells. It is proposed that, in the process of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, an early increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate formation may, by causing activation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, allow glycolysis to keep pace with the rate of glucose phosphorylation.
Project description:Proglycosyn and resorcinol stimulate glycogen synthesis and inhibit glycolysis in hepatocytes. The former effect is attributed to inactivation of phosphorylase mediated by glucuronidated metabolites. This study investigated the mechanism by which resorcinol inhibits glycolysis. Resorcinol (150 microM) inhibited glycolysis in hepatocytes incubated with glucose (15-35 mM) but not with dihydroxyacetone (10 mM). The inhibition of glycolysis at elevated glucose concentration was associated with inhibition of glucose-induced dissociation of glucokinase and aldolase. The resorcinol concentration that caused half-maximal inhibition (20-43 microM) increased with increasing glucose concentration (15-35 mM). Resorcinol inhibited the translocation of glucokinase and the stimulation of detritiation of [2-3H]glucose and [3-3H]glucose caused by sorbitol (10-200 microM), but it potentiated the stimulation of glycogen synthesis. The inhibition of glycolysis by resorcinol could not be accounted for by diversion of substrate to glycogen. The glucose 6-phosphate content correlated with the free glucokinase activity. Resorcinol counteracted the increase in glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate caused by elevated glucose concentration or by sorbitol. The suppression of glucose 6-phosphate at high glucose concentration (15-35 mM) could be explained by the low activity of free glucokinase. However, the suppression at 5 mM glucose was due in part to an independent mechanism. The effect of resorcinol on glucokinase translocation was partly counteracted by galactosamine, which suppresses UDP-glucose and inhibits glucuronide formation, and was mimicked by phenol and p-nitrophenol but not by p-nitrophenylglucuronide. It is concluded that resorcinol inhibits glycolysis at elevated glucose concentration or when stimulated by sorbitol through increased glucokinase binding. The results indicate a link between glucuronidation and glucokinase translocation.
Project description:Hepatocytes from overnight-starved rats were incubated with 1-20 mM-fructose, -dihydroxyacetone, -glycerol, -alanine or -lactate and -pyruvate with or without 0.1 microM-glucagon. The production of glucose and lactate was measured, as was the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The concentrations of fructose (below 5 mM) and dihydroxyacetone (above 1 mM) that gave rise to an increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were those at which a glucagon effect on the production of glucose and lactate could be observed. Glycerol had no effect on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content or on production of lactate, and glucagon did not stimulate the production of glucose from this precursor. With alanine or lactate/pyruvate as substrates, glucagon stimulated glucose production whether the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was increased or not. The extent of inactivation of pyruvate kinase by glucagon was not affected by the presence of the various gluconeogenic precursors. The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the effect of glucagon on gluconeogenesis from precursors entering the pathway at the level of triose phosphates or pyruvate is discussed.
Project description:Treatment of rats with hypoglycaemic doses of hypoglycin has been shown to abolish the relative detritiation of [2-3H,U-14C]glucose [Osmundsen, Billington, Taylor & Sherratt (1978) Biochem. J. 170, 337-342], indicating that both the Cori and the glucose/glucose 6-phosphate cycles were inhibited in vivo. This inhibition was confirmed and, in addition, it was shown that the conversion in vivo of both [14C]lactate and [14C]fructose into glucose was decreased after hypoglycin treatment. These results suggest that hypoglycin poisoning results in the inhibition in vivo of glucose-6-phosphatase activity, which participates in the overall inhibition of gluconeogenesis and hypoglycaemia. Clofibrate feeding apparently protected the rats against the inhibition of the fructose-to-glucose conversion by hypoglycin. However, in isolated hepatocytes prepared from hypoglycin-treated rats, the conversion of [14C]fructose into glucose and the recycling of [2-3H,U-14C]glucose were not different from that in control hepatocytes. This suggests that the inhibition was lost during preparation of the hepatocytes. The direct measurement of glucose-6-phosphatase activity showed that it was inhibited when measured in concentrated, but not dilute, homogenates prepared from hypoglycin-treated rats.
Project description:We investigated whether hepatocytes permeabilized with alpha-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus are a valid model for studying the channelling of intermediates of glycolysis between glucokinase and triosephosphate isomerase. These cells are permeable to 2-aminoisobutyrate, ATP, glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) and fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate [Fru(2,6)P(2)], but maintain cell integrity in the presence of ATP as judged by the retention of cytoplasmic enzymes. During incubation with 25 mM glucose, an ATP-generating system and saturating concentrations of Fru(2,6)P(2), rates of detritiation of [2-(3)H]glucose and [3-(3)H]glucose were similar. Exogenous Glc6P (1 mM) and to a lesser extent fructose 6-phosphate, but not Fru(1, 6)P(2), decreased the rate of detritiation of [3-(3)H]glucose. During incubation with 25 mM glucose and Glc6P (0.2-1 mM), with either [3-(3)H]glucose or [3-(3)H]Glc6P as labelled substrate, there was dilution of metabolism of [3-(3)H]glucose with increasing Glc6P but no overall increase in glycolytic flux from glucose and Glc6P, indicating that glycolysis is apparently saturated with Glc6P despite the permeability of the cells to this metabolite. These findings could be explained by partial channelling of Glc6P between glucokinase and glycolysis in the presence of saturating concentrations of Fru(2,6)P(2). They provide an alternative explanation for the concept that there is more than one Glc6P pool.
Project description:5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside (AICAriboside; Z-riboside), the nucleotide corresponding to AICAribotide (AICAR or ZMP), an intermediate of the 'de novo' pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, has been shown to inhibit gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes [Vincent, Marangos, Gruber & Van den Berghe (1991) Diabetes 40, 1259-1266]. We now report that glycosis is also inhibited and even more sensitive to AICAriboside in these cells. In hepatocyte suspensions from fasted rats, production of lactate from 15 mM-glucose was half-maximally inhibited by 25-50 microM-AICAriboside. AICAriboside influenced two regulatory steps of glycolysis: (1) it decreased the release of 3H2O from [2-3H]glucose and the concentrations of both glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, indicating that it diminished the phosphorylation of glucose by glucokinase; (2) it decreased the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), the main physiological stimulator of liver 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. Further studies showed that AICAriboside induced an inactivation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, the enzyme that produces Fru-2,6-P2, without affecting the concentration of cyclic AMP. Similarly to the inhibiton of gluconeogenesis by AICAriboside, the inhibition of glycolysis became apparent after an approx. 10 min latency and persisted when the cells were washed after addition of AICAriboside, strongly suggesting that the effects were also exerted by the Z-nucleotides, which accumulate after addition of AICAriboside to hepatocytes. An increased uptake of lactate was evident when 50-200 microM-AICAriboside was added 15 min after addition of glucose. This can be explained by the higher sensitivity of glycolysis, as compared with gluconeogenesis, to inhibition by AICAriboside, and reveals the simultaneous operation of both processes.
Project description:The metabolism of [2-3H]lactate was studied in isolated hepatocytes from fed and starved rats metabolizing ethanol and lactate in the absence and presence of fructose. The yields of 3H in ethanol, water, glucose and glycerol were determined. The rate of ethanol oxidation (3 mumol/min per g wet wt.) was the same for fed and starved rats with and without fructose. From the detritiation of labelled lactate and the labelling pattern of ethanol and glucose, we calculated the rate of reoxidation of NADH catalysed by lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase and triosephosphate dehydrogenase. The calculated flux of reducing equivalents from NADH to pyruvate was of the same order of magnitude as previously found with [3H]ethanol or [3H]xylitol as the labelled substrate [Vind & Grunnet (1982) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 720, 295-302]. The results suggest that the cytoplasm can be regarded as a single compartment with respect to NAD(H). The rate of reduction of acetaldehyde and pyruvate was correlated with the concentration of these metabolites and NADH, and was highest in fed rats and during fructose metabolism. The rate of reoxidation of NADH catalysed by lactate dehydrogenase was only a few per cent of the maximal activity of the enzymes, but the rate of reoxidation of NADH catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase was equal to or higher than the maximal activity as measured in vitro, suggesting that the dissociation of enzyme-bound NAD+ as well as NADH may be rate-limiting steps in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction.