Virological properties and nucleotide sequences of Cas-E-type endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia viruses in South Asian wild mice, Mus musculus castaneus.
ABSTRACT: Two types of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs), termed AKV- and Cas-E-type MuLVs, differ in nucleotide sequence and distribution in wild mouse subspecies. In contrast to AKV-type MuLV, Cas-E-type MuLV is not carried by common laboratory mice. Wild mice of Mus musculus (M. m.) castaneus carry multiple copies of Cas-E-type endogenous MuLV, including the Fv-4(r) gene that is a truncated form of integrated MuLV and functions as a host's resistance gene against ecotropic MuLV infection. Our genetic cross experiments showed that only the Fv-4(r) gene was associated with resistance to ecotropic F-MuLV infection. Because the spontaneous expression of infectious virus was not detected in M. m. castaneus, we generated mice that did not carry the Fv-4(r) gene but did carry a single or a few endogenous MuLV loci. In mice not carrying the Fv-4(r) gene, infectious MuLVs were isolated in association with three of six Cas-E-type endogenous MuLV loci. The isolated viruses showed a weak syncytium-forming activity for XC cells, an interfering property of ecotropic MuLV, and a slight antigenic variation. Two genomic DNAs containing endogenous Cas-E-type MuLV were cloned and partially sequenced. All of the Cas-E-type endogenous MuLVs were closely related, hybrid-type viruses with an ecotropic env gene and a xenotropic long terminal repeat. Duplications and a deletion were found in a restricted region of the hypervariable proline-rich region of Env glycoprotein.
Project description:Polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are generated by recombination of ecotropic MuLVs with env genes of a family of endogenous proviruses in mice, resulting in viruses with an expanded host range and greater virulence. Inbred mouse strains contain numerous endogenous proviruses that are potential donors of the env gene sequences of polytropic MuLVs; however, the precise identification of those proviruses that participate in recombination has been elusive. Three different structural groups of proviruses in NFS/N mice have been described and different ecotropic MuLVs preferentially recombine with different groups of proviruses. In contrast to other ecotropic MuLVs such as Friend MuLV or Akv that recombine predominantly with a single group of proviruses, Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) recombines with at least two distinct groups. In this study, we determined that only three endogenous proviruses, two of one group and one of another group, are major participants in recombination with M-MuLV. Furthermore, the distinction between the polytropic MuLVs generated by M-MuLV and other ecotropic MuLVs is the result of recombination with a single endogenous provirus. This provirus exhibits a frameshift mutation in the 3' region of the surface glycoprotein-encoding sequences that is excluded in recombinants with M-MuLV. The sites of recombination between the env genes of M-MuLV and endogenous proviruses were confined to a short region exhibiting maximum homology between the ecotropic and polytropic env sequences and maximum stability of predicted RNA secondary structure. These observations suggest a possible mechanism for the specificity of recombination observed for different ecotropic MuLVs.
Project description:A new virus previously arose in BALB/c females mated repeatedly to C57BL/6 (B6) males and then injected with fixed, activated B6 male spleen cells (V. S. Ter-Grigorov, O. Krifuks, E. Liubashevsky, A. Nyska, Z. Trainin, and V. Toder, Nat. Med. 3:37-41, 1997). In the present study, BALB/cJ mice inoculated with virus-containing plasma from affected mice developed splenomegaly, which was caused by increased numbers of Sca-1(+) Lin(-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their differentiated progeny. Biological and molecular analyses of a new virus revealed a mixture of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). These MuLVs comprised ecotropic and mink lung cell focus-forming (MCF) virus classes and are termed Rauscher-like MuLVs because they bear numerous similarities to the ecotropic and MCF viruses of the Rauscher MuLV complex but do not include a spleen focus-forming virus. The ecotropic virus component alone transferred some disease characteristics, while MCF virus alone did not. Thus, we have described a novel virus mixture, termed Rauscher-like MuLV, that causes an increase in hematopoiesis due to activation of pluripotent HSC. Experiments using mice and a protocol that replicated the pregnancy and immunization strategy of the original experiment demonstrated that endogenous BALB/c mouse ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs are activated by these treatments. Emv1 was expressed in the spleens of multiparous mice but not in those of virgin mice, and Bxv1Emv1-pseudotyped MuLVs were recovered following injection of fixed, activated B6 cells. Thus, multiple pregnancies and allostimuli appear to have provided the signals required for activation of and recombination among endogenous viruses and could have resulted in generation of the Rauscher-like MuLV mixture.
Project description:Akv is an endogenous, ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) of the AKR strain. It has served as a prototype nonpathogenic or weakly pathogenic reference virus for studies of closely related potent lymphomagenic viruses such as the T-lymphomagenic SL3-3. We here report that Akv and an Akv mutant (Akv1-99) with only one copy of the 99-bp transcriptional enhancer induce malignant lymphomas with nearly 100% incidence and mean latency periods of 12 months after injection into newborn NMRI mice. Molecular analysis of tumor DNA showed that the majority of the tumors were of the B-cell type. Sequence analysis of proviral transcriptional enhancers in DNA of B-cell lymphomas revealed conservation of the enhancer sequence, as well as a lack of sequence duplications of the Akv1-99 variant, while the repeat copy number in Akv was subject to fluctuations. In support of a B-cell specificity of the Akv enhancer, a murine plasmacytoma cell line was found to sustain three- to fivefold-higher transient transcriptional activity upon the Akv and Akv1-99 enhancers than upon the enhancer of the T-lymphomagenic SL3-3 MuLV. Thus, the overall picture is that Akv MuLV possesses a B- lymphomagenic potential and that the second copy of the 99-bp sequence seems to be of minor importance for this potential. However, in one animal the lymphomas induced by Akv1-99 were of the T-cell type. Among the 24 tumors analyzed only this one harbored a clonal proviral integration in the c-myc locus. This provirus had undergone a duplication of a 113-bp sequence of the enhancer region, partly overlapping with the 99-bp repeat of Akv, as well as a few single nucleotide alterations within and outside the repeats. Taken together with previous studies, our results suggest that T- versus B-lymphomagenic specificity of the enhancer is governed by more than one nucleotide difference and that alterations in binding sites for transcription factors of the AML1 and nuclear-factor-1 families may contribute to this specificity.
Project description:Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) M813 was originally isolated from the Southeast Asian rodent Mus cervicolor. As with the ecotropic MuLVs derived from Mus musculus, its host range is limited to rodent cells. Earlier studies have mapped its receptor to chromosome 2, but it has not been established whether M813 shares a common receptor with any other MuLVs. In this study, we have performed interference assays with M813 and viruses from four interference groups of MuLV. The infection efficiency of M813 was not compromised in cells expressing any one of the other MuLVs, demonstrating that M813 must use a distinct receptor for cell entry. The entire M813 env coding region was molecularly cloned. Sequence analysis revealed high similarity with other MuLVs but with a unique receptor-binding domain. Substitution of M813 env sequences in Moloney MuLV resulted in a replication-competent virus with a host range and interference profile similar to those of the biological clone M813. M813 thus defines a novel receptor interference group of type C MuLVs.
Project description:One of the unique features of gammaretroviruses is that they contain an additional extended form of Gag, glyco-gag, which initiates in the leader sequence. MuLV glyco-gag, gPr80Gag, promotes retrovirus replication and disease progression. Although virtually all infectious MuLVs encode glyco-gag, XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) lacks the classical gPr80Gag sequence. We examined XMRV to determine if its leader sequence contains glyco-gag activity, whether the presence of conventional gPr80Gag affects replication of XMRV, and we describe the evolution of glyco-gag-deficient MuLVs in Mus.We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). A chimeric XMRV encoding the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) leader sequence (MXMRV) demonstrated that M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitated MXMRV release and increased infectivity. Infectivity assays with several cell lines showed that glyco-gag increases XMRV infectivity in all cell lines tested, but the level of this increase varies in different cell lines. Because MuLV glyco-gag counteracts mouse APOBEC3, we investigated whether M-MuLV glyco-gag enhances XMRV infection by counteracting human APOBEC3. Comparison of hAPOBEC3 isoforms expressed in different cell lines indicated that hA3B was the most likely candidate for a restrictive hA3. However over-expression of hA3B showed no enhanced restriction of infection by XMRV compared to MXMRV. Endogenous MuLVs in the sequenced mouse genome were screened for canonical glyco-gag, which was identified in two clades of xenotropic MuLVs (X-MuLVs) and ecotropic MuLVs, but not in other X-MuLVs or in any polytropic MuLVs.M-MuLV glyco-gag facilitates XMRV replication, and the leader sequence region in XMRV does not encode proteins equivalent to M-MuLV glyco-gag. The fact that the ability of glyco-gag to enhance XMRV infection varies in different cell lines suggests a glyco-gag sensitive restrictive factor that further reduces XMRV infectivity. The M-MuLV glyco-gag enhancement for XMRV replication is through a hAPOBEC3 independent mechanism. The absence of glyco-gag in MuLVs carried by western European mice suggests that loss of this sequence is a relatively recent event with limited subspecies distribution.
Project description:Approximately 10% of the mouse genome is constituted by endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), and a number of mouse ERVs remain active. Many copies of endogenous murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are detected in the genomes of inbred mouse strains. Some of these MuLVs are transcriptionally active or produce infectious virus particles. Previously, we identified partial env sequences of new xenotropic MuLVs (X-MuLVs) from a senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strain. In the present study, we investigated and characterized the complete sequences of the X-MuLVs. The complete genomes and open reading frames (ORFs) of two X-MuLVs, designated xmlv15 and xmlv18 (accession nos. HQ154630 and HQ154631, respectively), were molecularly cloned from the genome of the SAM mice. We confirmed that the xmlv15 and xmlv18 sequences are distinct from all known MuLV genomes and are most similar to DG-75 MuLV. Moreover, we found that common strains of laboratory mice carry our newly identified xmlvs. Additionally, the expression levels of xmlv15-related sequences were much higher in C57BL and ICR mice than in the SAM strains without any stimulators. Our findings suggest that a specific group of endogenous MuLVs is constitutively expressed in the brain and that they may participate in normal functions and/or pathogenic conditions.
Project description:Mammalian genomes harbor a large number of retroviral elements acquired as germ line insertions during evolution. Although many of the endogenous retroviruses are defective, several contain one or more intact viral genes that are expressed under certain physiological or pathological conditions. This is true of the endogenous polytropic retroviruses that generate recombinant polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). In these recombinants the env gene sequences of exogenous ecotropic MuLVs are replaced with env gene sequences from an endogenous polytropic retrovirus. Although replication-competent endogenous polytropic retroviruses have not been observed, the recombinant polytropic viruses are capable of replicating in numerous species. Recombination occurs during reverse transcription of a virion RNA heterodimer comprised of an RNA transcript from an endogenous polytropic virus and an RNA transcript from an exogenous ecotropic MuLV RNA. It is possible that homodimers corresponding to two full-length endogenous RNA genomes are also packaged. Thus, infection by an exogenous virus may result not only in recombination with endogenous sequences, but also in the mobilization of complete endogenous retrovirus genomes via pseudotyping within exogenous retroviral virions. We report that the infection of mice with an ecotropic virus results in pseudotyping of intact endogenous viruses that have not undergone recombination. The endogenous retroviruses infect and are integrated into target cell genomes and subsequently replicate and spread as pseudotyped viruses. The mobilization of endogenous retroviruses upon infection with an exogenous retrovirus may represent a major interaction of exogenous retroviruses with endogenous retroviruses and may have profound effects on the pathogenicity of retroviral infections.
Project description:PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a neuropathogenic variant of Friend MuLV (F-MuLV). Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that unlike the parental F-MuLV, PVC-211 MuLV can infect rat brain capillary endothelial cells efficiently and that it has acquired genetic changes responsible for its expanded cellular tropism. To determine if PVC-211 MuLV also has expanded its host range, we tested its infectivity on Chinese hamster ovary-derived CHO-K1 cells, which are generally resistant to ecotropic MuLV. The results indicated that PVC-211 MuLV, but not F-MuLV, was highly infectious for CHO-K1 cells. Studies using glycosylation inhibitors and glycosylation mutants of CHO-K1 cells, as well as interference studies, suggested that PVC-211 MuLV has acquired the ability to interact with the ecotropic MuLV receptor on CHO-K1 cells that has undergone glycosylation-dependent modification. Using chimeric viruses between PVC-211 MuLV and F-MuLV, we were able to localize the viral genetic element crucial for CHO-K1 cell tropism within the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV and show that glycine at position 116 and lysine at position 129 of the envelope glycoprotein SU were important. These viral determinants also appear to confer tropism for other hamster cells resistant to ordinary ecotropic MuLVs. Further studies on the interaction between PVC-211 MuLV and the receptor on hamster cells may provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms for receptor recognition and binding by viral envelope glycoproteins.
Project description:PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a replication-competent, ecotropic type C retrovirus that was isolated after passage of the Friend virus complex through F344 rats. Unlike viruses in the Friend virus complex, it does not cause erythroleukemia but causes a rapidly progressive hind limb paralysis when injected into newborn rats and mice. We have isolated an infectious DNA clone (clone 3d) of this virus which causes neurological disease in animals as efficiently as parental PVC-211 MuLV. The restriction map of clone 3d is very similar to that of the nonneuropathogenic, erythroleukemogenic Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV), suggesting that PVC-211 MuLV is a variant of F-MuLV and that no major structural alteration was involved in its derivation. Studies with chimeric viruses between PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d and wild-type F-MuLV clone 57 indicate that at least one determinant for neuropathogenicity resides in the 2.1-kb XbaI-ClaI fragment containing the gp70 coding region of PVC-211 MuLV. Compared with nonneuropathogenic ecotropic MuLVs, the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV encodes four unique amino acids in the gp70 protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis also revealed a deletion in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d compared with F-MuLV clone 57. In contrast to the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV, particular sequences within the U3 region of the viral LTR do not appear to be required for neuropathogenicity. However, the changes in the LTR of PVC-211 MuLV may be responsible for the failure of this virus to cause erythroleukemia, because chimeric viruses containing the U3 region of F-MuLV clone 57 were erythroleukemogenic whereas those with the U3 of PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d were not.
Project description:Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) induce leukemias and lymphomas in mice. We have used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to determine the hematopoietic phenotypes of tumor cells induced by a number of MuLVs. Tumor cells induced by ecotropic Moloney, amphotropic 4070A, and 10A1 MuLVs and by two chimeric MuLVs, Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1), were examined with antibodies to 13 lineage-specific cell surface markers found on myeloid cell, T-cell, and B-cell lineages. The chimeric Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1) MuLVs, consisting of Moloney MuLV with the carboxy half of the Pol region and nearly all of the Env region of 4070A and 10A1, respectively, were constructed to examine the possible influence of these sequences on Moloney MuLV-induced tumor cell phenotypes. In some instances, these phenotypic analyses were supplemented by Southern blot analysis for lymphoid cell-specific genomic DNA rearrangements at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain, the T-cell receptor gamma, and the T-cell receptor beta loci. The results of our analysis showed that Moloney MuLV, 4070A, Mo(4070A), and Mo(10A1) induced mostly T-cell tumors. Moloney MuLV and Mo(4070A) induced a wide variety of T-cell phenotypes, ranging from immature to mature phenotypes, while 4070A induced mostly prothymocyte and double-negative (CD4- CD8-) T-cell tumors. The tumor phenotypes obtained with 10A1 and Mo(10A1) were each less variable than those obtained with the other MuLVs tested. 10A1 uniformly induced a tumor consisting of lineage marker-negative cells that lack lymphoid cell-specific DNA rearrangements and histologically appear to be early undifferentiated erythroid cell-like precursors. The Mo(10A1) chimera consistently induced an intermediate T-cell tumor. The chimeric constructions demonstrated that while 4070A 3' pol and env sequences apparently did not influence the observed tumor cell phenotypes, the 10A1 half of pol and env had a strong effect on the phenotypes induced by Mo(10A1) that resulted in a phenotypic consistency not seen with other viruses. This result implicates 10A1 env in an active role in the tumorigenic process.