Half of the (Na+ + K+)-transporting-ATPase-associated K+-stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity of gastric epithelial cells is exposed to the surface exterior.
ABSTRACT: Ouabain inhibited 86RbCl uptake by 80% in rabbit gastric superficial epithelial cells (SEC), revealing the presence of a functional Na+,K+-ATPase [(Na+ + K+)-transporting ATPase] pump. Intact SEC were used to study the ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-pNPPase (K+-stimulated p-nitrophenyl phosphatase) activities before and after lysis. Intact SEC showed no Na+,K+-ATPase and insignificant Mg2+-ATPase activity. However, appreciable K+-pNPPase activity sensitive to ouabain inhibition was demonstrated by localizing its activity to the cell-surface exterior. The lysed SEC, on the other hand, demonstrated both ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-pNPPase activities. Thus the ATP-hydrolytic site of Na+,K+-ATPase faces exclusively the cytosol, whereas the associated K+-pNPPase is distributed equally across the plasma membrane. The study suggests that the cell-exterior-located K+-pNPPase can be used as a convenient and reliable 'in situ' marker for the functional Na+,K+-ATPase system of various isolated cells under noninvasive conditions.
Project description:Studies with intact and lysed gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that there are two pNPP (p-nitrophenyl phosphate)-and one ATP-hydrolytic sites within the gastric H+, K+-ATPase [(H+ + K+)-transporting ATPase] complex. Whereas the ATPase site is located exclusively on the vesicle exterior, the pNPPase sites are distributed equally on both sides of the bilayer. Competition by ATP for the pNPPase reaction on the vesicle exterior suggests that both ATP and pNPP are hydrolysed at the same catalytic site present at the outside surface of the intact vesicles. However, a biphasic inhibition of the K+-pNPPase (K+-stimulated pNPPase) by ATP in the lysed vesicles suggest the pNPPase site of the vesicle interior to have very low affinity (Ki approximately equal to 1.2 mM) for ATP compared with the vesicle exterior (Ki approximately equal to 0.2 mM). Studies with spermine, which competes with K+ for the K+-pNPPase reaction without inhibiting the H+, K+-ATPase, suggest there are two separate K+ sites for the pNPPase reaction and another distinct K+ site for the ATPase reaction. In contrast with the K+ site for the ATPase, which is located opposite to the catalytic site across the bilayer, both the K+ and the catalytic site for the pNPPase are located on the same side. The data clearly demonstrate that the pNPPase is not a manifestation of the phosphatase step of the total H+, K+-ATPase reaction. The K+-pNPPase associated with the Na+, K+-ATPase also has properties strikingly similar to the gastric K+-pNPPase system, suggesting a resemblance in the basic operating principle of the two ion-transporting enzymes. A unified model has been proposed to explain the present data and many other observations reported in the literature for the ATPase-mediated transport of univalent cations.
Project description:1. An ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) preparation obtained from pig brain microsomes by treatment with sodium iodide showed four apparently different ouabain-sensitive activities under various conditions. They were (a) ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase, (b) K(+)-stimulated ATPase, (c) (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and (d) Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activities. 2. These activities showed the same substrate specificity, ATP being preferentially hydrolysed and CTP slightly. AMP was not hydrolysed. 3. These activities were inhibited by low concentration of ouabain. The concentration producing 50% inhibition was 0.1mum for ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase, 0.2mum for K(+)-stimulated ATPase, 0.1mum for (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and 0.003mum for Na(+)-stimulated ATPase activity. 4. The ouabain-sensitive ATPase activities were inactivated by N-ethylmaleimide but the insensitive ATPase activity was not. 5. The three ouabain-sensitive ATPase activities were inhibited about 50% by 1mm-Ca(2+), whereas the ouabain-sensitive Mg(2+)-stimulated ATPase activity was activated by the same concentration of Ca(2+). The preparation was treated with ultrasonics at 20kcyc./sec. The 2min. ultrasonic treatment inactivated the ATPase activities by 50%. 7. The temperature coefficient Q(10) was 6.6 for K(+)-stimulated ATPase activity, 3.7 for (Na(+),K(+))-stimulated ATPase and 2.6 for Na(+)-stimulated ATPase. 8. Organic solvents inactivated the ATPase activities, to which treatment the K(+)-stimulated ATPase was the most resistant. 9. The phosphorylation of the enzyme preparation became less dependent on Na(+) with decreasing pH. This Na(+)-independent phosphorylation at low pH was sensitive to K(+) and hydroxylamine as well as the Na(+)-dependent phosphorylation at neutral pH.
Project description:In order to test the hypothesis that Na+, K+-ATPase (Na+,K+-dependent ATPase) is involved in the noradrenaline-mediated stimulation of respiration in brown adipose tissue, the effects of noradrenaline on Na+,K+-ATPase in isolated brown-fat-cell membrane vesicles, and on 22Na+ and K+ (86Rb+) fluxes across the membranes of intact isolated cells, were measured. The ouabain-sensitive fraction of the K+-dependent ATPase activity in the isolated membrane-vesicle preparation was small and was not affected by the presence of noradrenaline in the incubation media. The uptake of 86Rb+ into intact hormone-sensitive cells was inhibited by 80% by ouabain, but it was insensitive to the presence of noradrenaline. 22Na+ uptake and efflux measured in the intact cells were 8 times more rapid than the 86Rb+ fluxes and were unaffected by ouabain. This indicated the presence of a separate, more active, transport system for Na+ than the Na+,K+-ATPase. This is likely to be a Na+/Na+ exchange activity under normal aerobic conditions. However, under anaerobic conditions, or conditions simulating anaerobiosis (2 mM-NaCN), the unidirectional uptake of Na+ increased dramatically, while efflux was unaltered.
Project description:Exposure of intact cells to selective inhibitors of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase such as ouabain activates several growth-related cell signaling pathways. It has been suggested that the initial event of these pathways is the binding of ouabain to a preexisting complex of Src with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase of the plasma membrane. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of Src in the ouabain-induced activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase 1A (PI3K1A) and its downstream consequences. When fibroblasts devoid of Src (SYF cells) and controls (Src(++) cells) were exposed to ouabain, PI3K1A, Akt, and proliferative growth were similarly stimulated in both cell lines. Ouabain-induced activation of Akt was not prevented by the Src inhibitor PP2. In contrast, ERK1/2 were not activated by ouabain in SYF cells but were stimulated in Src(++) cells; this was prevented by PP2. In isolated adult mouse cardiac myocytes, where ouabain induces hypertrophic growth, PP2 also did not prevent ouabain-induced activation of Akt and the resulting hypertrophy. Ouabain-induced increases in the levels of co-immunoprecipitation of the α-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with the p85 subunit of PI3K1A were noted in SYF cells, Src(++) cells, and adult cardiac myocytes. In conjunction with previous findings, the results presented here indicate that (a) if there is a preformed complex of Src and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, it is irrelevant to ouabain-induced activation of the PI3K1A/Akt pathway through Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and (b) a more likely, but not established, mechanism of linkage of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase to PI3K1A is the ouabain-induced interaction of a proline-rich domain of the α-subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with the SH3 domain of the p85 subunit of PI3K1A.
Project description:Interpeptide cross-linking of alpha-subunits with concomitant loss of Na+ + K+-transporting ATPase (Na+, K+-ATPase) activity was found when the purified lamb kidney enzyme was treated with the bifunctional thiol reagent 4,4'-difluoro-3,3'-dinitrodiphenyl sulphone (F2DNS). Several forms of the enzyme could be clearly distinguished: one binding ATP (non-phosphorylated enzyme, E1 X ATP), a phosphorylated form (E2-P) and a phosphoenzyme-ouabain complex (E2P X ouabain). A polypeptide of approx. Mr 240 000 and probable alpha 2 composition comprised up to 5-20% of the total polypeptides after reaction of the lamb kidney Na+, K+-ATPase with F2DNS. The amount of this polypeptide formed was related to the conformational state of the enzyme. The presence of adenine nucleotide greatly diminished the amount of 240 000-Mr polypeptide formed and provides evidence for an enzyme-adenine-nucleotide complex under conditions where the enzyme is not phosphorylated. F2DNS reacted with the enzyme in the presence of Mg2+, Pi and ouabain to form a new polypeptide with an approx. Mr of 116 000, and comprised 23% of the total, whereas the 240 000-Mr polypeptide comprised 9% of the total. This suggests that the 116 000-Mr polypeptide is a characteristic marker of the E2P X ouabain complex. By using specific antibodies it was established that both the 240 000- and 116 000-Mr polypeptides contained alpha-, but not beta-, subunits of the Na+, K+-ATPase.
Project description:The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is an almost ubiquitous integral membrane protein within the animal kingdom. It is also the selective target for cardiotonic derivatives, widely prescribed inhibitors for patients with heart failure. Functional studies revealed that ouabain-sensitive residues distributed widely throughout the primary sequence of the protein. Recently, structural work has brought some consensus to the functional observations. Here, we use a spectroscopic approach to estimate distances between a fluorescent ouabain and a lanthanide binding tag (LBT), which was introduced at five different positions in the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase sequence. These five normally functional LBT-Na(+)/K(+) ATPase constructs were expressed in the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, operating under physiological internal and external ion conditions. The spectroscopic data suggest two mutually exclusive distances between the LBT and the fluorescent ouabain. From the estimated distances and using homology models of the LBT-Na(+)/K(+) ATPase constructs, approximate ouabain positions could be determined. Our results suggest that ouabain binds at two sites along the ion permeation pathway of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. The external site (low apparent affinity) occupies the same region as previous structural findings. The high apparent affinity site is, however, slightly deeper toward the intracellular end of the protein. Interestingly, in both cases the lactone ring faces outward. We propose a sequential ouabain binding mechanism that is consistent with all functional and structural studies.
Project description:Cardiotonic steroids (such as ouabain) signaling through Na/K-ATPase regulate sodium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. We report here that reactive oxygen species are required to initiate ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine prevented ouabain-stimulated Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling, protein carbonylation, redistribution of Na/K-ATPase and sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3, and inhibition of active transepithelial (22)Na(+) transport. Disruption of the Na/K-ATPase·c-Src signaling complex attenuated ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation. Ouabain-stimulated protein carbonylation is reversed after removal of ouabain, and this reversibility is largely independent of de novo protein synthesis and degradation by either the lysosome or the proteasome pathways. Furthermore, ouabain stimulated direct carbonylation of two amino acid residues in the actuator domain of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit. Taken together, the data indicate that carbonylation modification of the Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit is involved in a feed-forward mechanism of regulation of ouabain-mediated renal proximal tubule Na/K-ATPase signal transduction and subsequent sodium transport.
Project description:In the standard [3H]ouabain-binding assay for quantification of the Na,K-ATPase (Na+ + K+-dependent ATPase) concentration in rat skeletal muscles, samples are incubated for 2 X 60 min in 1 microM-[3H]ouabain at 37 degrees C followed by a wash-out for 4 X 30 min at 0 degree C. To obtain accurate determinations, values determined by this standard assay should be corrected for non-specific uptake and retention of [3H]ouabain (11% overestimation), loss of specifically bound [3H]ouabain during wash-out (21% underestimation), evaporation from muscle samples during weighing (4% overestimation), impurity of [3H]ouabain (5% underestimation) and incomplete saturation of [3H]ouabain binding sites (6% underestimation). Thus corrected the standard [3H]ouabain-binding assay determines the total Na,K-ATPase concentration. Hence, in the soleus muscle of 12-week-old rats the total [3H]ouabain-binding-site concentration is 278 +/- 20 pmol/g wet wt. This is at variance with the evaluation of the Na,K-ATPase concentration from Na,K-ATPase activity measurements in muscle membrane fractions, where the recovery of Na,K-ATPase is only 2-18%. Quantification of the total Na,K-ATPase concentration is of particular importance since it is a prerequisite for the discussion of quantitative aspects of the Na,K-ATPase.
Project description:In this study the possible role of Na+ influx, arachidonate mediators and alpha-subunit phosphorylation in the stimulatory response of hepatic Na+/K(+)-ATPase to glucagon was examined. Glucagon stimulation of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes reached maximal levels in less than 1 min after hormone addition and was half-maximal (EC50) at a concentration of 2.4( +/- 1.3) x 10(-10) M. Analysis of the K(+)-dependence of this response indicates an effect on the apparent Vmax. for K+ with no significant change in the apparent kappa 0.5. Unlike monensin, glucagon stimulation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase-mediated transport activity was not associated with an increase in 22Na+ influx. This indicates that the stimulation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase by glucagon is not secondary to an increase in Na+ influx. A role for arachidonate mediators in this effect also appears unlikely because neither basal nor glucagon-stimulated ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake was significantly affected by supramaximal concentrations of cyclo-oxygenase, lipoxygenase, cytochrome p-450 or phospholipase A2 inhibitors. To study the possible role of protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation in the stimulation of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake, hepatocytes were metabolically radiolabelled with [32P]P(i), Glucagon stimulated incorporation of 32P into a 95 kDa phosphoprotein that comigrates with Na+/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit immunoreactivity in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The alpha-subunit could be immunoprecipitated from detergent-solubilized particulate fractions of hepatocytes using an anti-(rat kidney Na+/K(+)-ATPase) serum. When hepatocytes were metabolically radiolabelled with [32P]P(i), the immunoprecipitated alpha-subunit contained 32P. Glucagon increased the incorporation of 32P into the immunoprecipitated subunit by 197 +/- 21% (n = 6). Similar results were observed with a rabbit anti-peptide serum ('anti-LEAVE' serum) prepared against an amino acid sequence in the alpha-subunit. The EC50 for glucagon-stimulated phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit (approximately 1 x 10(-10) M) was very close to that for glucagon stimulation of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake. In conclusion, it appears that glucagon stimulation of hepatic Na+/K(+)-ATPase-mediated transport activity is not secondary to increases in Na+ influx or changes in the levels of an arachidonate mediator. The data provide support for the hypothesis that glucagon stimulation of Na(+)-pump activity in hepatocytes may be related to protein kinase-mediated changes in the phosphorylation state of the alpha-subunit.
Project description:The long-term adaptation of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase to hypertonicity was studied using the bovine renal epithelial cell line NBL-1. Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity measured in intact cells as the ouabain-sensitive fraction of Rb+ uptake was stimulated (40% above controls) after incubating the cells in hypertonic medium. This stimulation was not correlated with significant changes in the amount of Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit protein. Nevertheless, the amount of alpha 1 but not beta 1 subunit mRNA progressively increased after hypertonic shock (3-4-fold above basal values). These results suggest that the alpha 1 subunit gene is modulated by medium osmolarity, although this does not necessarily involve enhanced translation of the mRNA into active alpha 1 protein. Indeed, the increase in the biological activity of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is abolished when the electrochemical Na+ transmembrane gradient is depleted by monensin, which is consistent with a post-translational effect on the activity of the sodium pump. A furosemide-sensitive component of Rb+ uptake, attributable to Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter activity, was very low when cells were cultured in a regular medium, but was greatly induced after hypertonic shock. This induction could not be blocked by cycloheximide. Colcemide addition slightly reduced the absolute increase in Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter activity, while cytochalasin B significantly potentiated the effect triggered by hypertonic shock. It is concluded: (i) that in NBL-1 cells the alpha 1 but not the beta 1 subunit of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is encoded by an osmotically sensitive gene, and (ii) that the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter, although an osmotically sensitive carrier, is induced by a mechanism that is independent of protein synthesis but may rely, in an undetermined manner, on the structure of the cytoskeletal network.