Analysis of the interactions between properdin, the third component of complement (C3), and its physiological activation products.
ABSTRACT: The interactions of properdin with both surface-bound and fluid-phase C3 (the third component of complement) and its activation products have been investigated by using a purified preparation of the 'native' form. At physiological ionic strength, a weak interaction with cell-bound C3b (the larger activation fragment of C3) could be demonstrated. In the presence of Factor B this interaction was enhanced, and further enhancement was seen when C3bBb sites were formed on the erythrocytes. The avidities of properdin for cell-bound iC3b (the initial product of Factors I and H action on C3b) and C3b were compared at low ionic strength, with that measured for iC3b being less than that for C3b. In contrast, the affinities of properdin for fluid-phase C3b, iC3b and C3c (the larger product of Factors I and H or CR1 (the C3b receptor) action on iC3b) were all very similar, and apparently much weaker than that for cell-bound C3b. No interaction with either native C3 or, more surprisingly, C3i (haemolytically inactive C3) could be detected. Properdin also inhibited Factor I binding to, and action upon, cell-bound C3b, but did not inhibit Factor I action on fluid-phase C3b. These data permit a more detailed description of the roles of properdin in the alternative pathway of complement activation, emphasizing its importance in concentrating activation at the activating surface.
Project description:Nascent C3b can form ester bonds with various target molecules on the cell surface and in the fluid phase. Previously, we showed that C3b(2)--IgG complexes represent the major covalent product of C3 activation in serum [Lutz, Stammler, Jelezarova, Nater and Späth (1996) Blood 88, 184--193]. In the present report, binding of alternative pathway proteins to purified C3b(2)--IgG complexes was studied in the fluid phase by using biotinylated IgG for C3b(2)--IgG generation and avidin-coated plates to capture complexes. Up to seven moles of properdin 'monomer' bound per mole of C3b(2)--IgG at physiological conditions in the absence of any other complement protein. At low properdin/C3b(2)--IgG ratios bivalent binding was preferred. Neither factor H nor factor B affected properdin binding. On the other hand, properdin strongly stimulated factor B binding. Interactions of all three proteins with C3b(2)--IgG exhibited pH optima. An ionic strength optimum was most pronounced for properdin, while factor B binding was largely independent of the salt concentration. C3b(2)--IgG complexes were powerful precursors of the alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the presence of properdin, C3 convertase generated from C3b(2)--IgG cleaved about sevenfold more C3 than the enzyme generated on C3b. C3b(2)--IgG complexes could therefore maintain the amplification loop of complement longer than free C3b.
Project description:The covalent binding of complement fragment C3b to zymosan by the action of the alternative-pathway C3 convertase and the reversible binding of several complement proteins (component C5, factor B, beta 1H and properdin) to C3b on zymosan have been investigated. When C3b is deposited on zymosan after activation by a surface-bound C3 convertase, the C3b molecules are deposited in foci around the C3 convertase site, with an average of 30 C3b molecules per site. The association constants of C5, factor B, beta 1H, and properdin for C3b bound to zymosan have been determined. The association constants ranged from 6.5 x 10(-5) M-1 for factor B to 2.9 x 10(7) M-1 for properdin. An approximate stoichiometry of 1 : 1 for C5, factor B, and properdin binding to C3b has been observed. Curvilinear Scatchard plots were observed for beta 1H binding to C3b, with the maximal extrapolated ratio of beta 1H to C3b of 0.32. Physiological amounts of properdin increase by 7-fold the affinity constant for factor B binding to C3b with no alteration in the stoichiometry. Similarly, physiological amounts of factor B increase the affinity constant of properdin to C3b about 4-fold with only a small measured difference in stoichiometry. Competition binding studies and protein modification suggest that C5, factor B, beta 1H, and properdin each bind to a distinct region on C3b.
Project description:The interactions between Factor B (B), its activation products Ba and Bb, properdin (P) and C3i or C3b, components that together form the alternative-pathway C3 convertase enzyme of human complement, have been analysed. Fluid-phase complexes of the purified components C3i, B and P were probed with the homobifunctional cross-linking reagent disuccinimidyl tartarate, and efficient cross-linking of B to P was observed. The 140 kDa B-P conjugate formed was cleaved by Factor D to yield a single product of 85 kDa. This is consistent with a Ba-P heterodimer, and suggests that the initial interaction of B and P includes an interaction of P with the Ba domain of intact B. (The Ba fragment is not retained in the active P-stabilized complex, C3bBbP). By contrast, no cross-linking of P to the Bb domain of B could be demonstrated. Binding studies on cellular intermediates also provided evidence for a site of interaction between B and P, with high concentrations of B inhibiting P binding to EAC3b (sheep erythrocytes coated with antibody and C3b). Neither isolated Ba nor Bb had any effect on the P-EAC3b interaction. High concentrations of B also accelerated the decay of the functional EAC3bBbP complex. These data indicate that the positive co-operativity of binding to C3i or to C3b between B and P is mediated, at least in part, through a direct interaction between B and P.
Project description:Elevated numbers of activated platelets circulate in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis and coronary disease. Activated platelets can activate the complement system. Although complement activation is essential for immune responses and removal of spent cells from circulation, it also contributes to inflammation and thrombosis, especially in patients with defective complement regulation. Proinflammatory activated leukocytes, which interact directly with platelets in response to vascular injury, are among the main sources of properdin, a positive regulator of the alternative pathway. The role of properdin in complement activation on stimulated platelets is unknown. Our data show that physiological forms of human properdin bind directly to human platelets after activation by strong agonists in the absence of C3, and bind nonproportionally to surface CD62P expression. Activation of the alternative pathway on activated platelets occurs when properdin is on the surface and recruits C3b or C3(H2O) to form C3b,Bb or a novel cell-bound C3 convertase [C3(H2O),Bb], which normally is present only in the fluid phase. Alternatively, properdin can be recruited by C3(H2O) on the platelet surface, promoting complement activation. Inhibition of factor H-mediated cell surface complement regulation significantly increases complement deposition on activated platelets with surface properdin. Finally, properdin released by activated neutrophils binds to activated platelets. Altogether, these data suggest novel molecular mechanisms for alternative pathway activation on stimulated platelets that may contribute to localization of inflammation at sites of vascular injury and thrombosis.
Project description:Membrane cofactor protein (MCP or gp45-70) of the complement system is a cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of fluid-phase C3b and C3b-like C3, which opens the thioester bond. In the present study the activity of MCP was further characterized. Unexpectedly, in the absence of factor I, MCP stabilized the alternative- and, to a lesser extent, the classical-pathway cell-bound C3 convertases and thereby enhanced C3b deposition. Soluble MCP, if added exogenously, hardly functioned as cofactor for the cleavage of erythrocyte-bound C3b to iC3b; i.e. its activity, compared with the cofactor activity of factor H, was inefficient, since less than 10% of the bound C3b was MCP-sensitive. Further, exogenously added soluble MCP was also a weak cofactor for the cleavage of C3b bound to zymosan. Likewise, factor I, in the presence of cells bearing MCP, cleaved fluid-phase C3b inefficiently. These results imply that MCP has very little extrinsic cofactor activity for factor I. In contrast, exogenously added MCP and factor I mediated efficient cleavage of erythrocyte-bound C3b if the concentration of Nonidet P40 was sufficient to solubilize the cells. Interestingly, soluble MCP and factor I degraded C3b attached to certain solubilized acceptor membrane molecules more readily than others. The cleavage reaction of fluid-phase and cell-bound C3b by soluble MCP and factor I produced iC3b, but no C3c and C3dg. These and prior data indicate that soluble MCP has potent cofactor activity for fluid-phase C3b or C3b bound to solubilized molecules, but acts inefficiently towards C3b on other cells. This functional profile is unique for a C3b/C4b binding protein and, taken together with its wide tissue distribution, suggests an important role for MCP in the regulation of the complement system.
Project description:Properdin stabilizes the alternative C3 convertase (C3bBb), whereas its role as pattern-recognition molecule mediating complement activation is disputed for decades. Previously, we have found that soluble collectin-12 (sCL-12) synergizes complement alternative pathway (AP) activation. However, whether this observation is C3 dependent is unknown. By application of the C3-inhibitor Cp40, we found that properdin in normal human serum bound to Aspergillus fumigatus solely in a C3b-dependent manner. Cp40 also prevented properdin binding when properdin-depleted serum reconstituted with purified properdin was applied, in analogy with the findings achieved by C3-depleted serum. However, when opsonized with sCL-12, properdin bound in a C3-independent manner exclusively via its tetrameric structure and directed in situ C3bBb assembly. In conclusion, a prerequisite for properdin binding and in situ C3bBb assembly was the initial docking of sCL-12. This implies a new important function of properdin in host defense bridging pattern recognition and specific AP activation.
Project description:Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.
Project description:Complement is an essential component of innate immunity. Its activation results in the assembly of unstable protease complexes, denominated C3/C5 convertases, leading to inflammation and lysis. Regulatory proteins inactivate C3/C5 convertases on host surfaces to avoid collateral tissue damage. On pathogen surfaces, properdin stabilizes C3/C5 convertases to efficiently fight infection. How properdin performs this function is, however, unclear. Using electron microscopy we show that the N- and C-terminal ends of adjacent monomers in properdin oligomers conform a curly vertex that holds together the AP convertase, interacting with both the C345C and vWA domains of C3b and Bb, respectively. Properdin also promotes a large displacement of the TED (thioester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domains of C3b, which likely impairs C3-convertase inactivation by regulatory proteins. The combined effect of molecular cross-linking and structural reorganization increases stability of the C3 convertase and facilitates recruitment of fluid-phase C3 convertase to the cell surfaces. Our model explains how properdin mediates the assembly of stabilized C3/C5-convertase clusters, which helps to localize complement amplification to pathogen surfaces.
Project description:Introduction: Proteinuria contributes to progression of renal damage, partly by complement activation on proximal tubular epithelial cells. By pattern recognition, properdin has shown to bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans on tubular epithelium and can initiate the alternative complement pathway (AP). Properdin however, also binds to C3b(Bb) and properdin binding to tubular cells might be influenced by the presence of C3b(Bb) on tubular cells and/or by variability in properdin proteins in vitro. In this study we carefully evaluated the specificity of the properdin - heparan sulfate interaction and whether this interaction could be exploited in order to block alternative complement activation. Methods: Binding of various properdin preparations to proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) and subsequent AP activation was determined in the presence or absence of C3 inhibitor Compstatin and properdin inhibitor Salp20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan dependency of the pattern recognition of properdin was evaluated on PTEC knocked down for syndecan-1 by shRNA technology. Solid phase binding assays were used to evaluate the effectivity of heparin(oids) and recombinant Salp20 to block the pattern recognition of properdin. Results: Binding of serum-derived and recombinant properdin preparations to PTECs could be dose-dependently inhibited (P < 0.01) and competed off (P < 0.01) by recombinant Salp20 (IC50: ~125 ng/ml) but not by Compstatin. Subsequent properdin-mediated AP activation on PTECs could be inhibited by Compstatin (P < 0.01) and blocked by recombinant Salp20 (P < 0.05). Syndecan-1 deficiency in PTECs resulted in a ~75% reduction of properdin binding (P = 0.057). In solid-phase binding assays, properdin binding to C3b could be dose-dependently inhibited by recombinant Salp20> heparin(oid) > C3b. Discussion: In this study we showed that all properdin preparations recognize heparan sulfate/syndecan-1 on PTECs with and without Compstatin C3 blocking conditions. In contrast to Compstatin, recombinant Salp20 prevents heparan sulfate pattern recognition by properdin on PTECs. Both complement inhibitors prevented properdin-mediated C3 activation. Binding of properdin to C3b could also be blocked by heparin(oids) and recombinant Salp20. This work indicates that properdin serves as a docking station for AP activation on PTECs and a Salp20 analog or heparinoids may be viable inhibitors in properdin mediated AP activation.
Project description:The different fragments of the third complement component, C3, generated upon complement activation/inactivation have the ability to bind to several other complement components and receptors as well as to proteins of foreign origin. These multiple reactivities of C3 fragments are associated with a series of conformational changes occurring in the C3 molecule during its degradation. The conformations acquired by the different C3 fragments are also associated with the exposure of neoantigenic epitopes that are specific for (a) particular fragment(s). In order to study these epitopes and thus the conformational changes occurring in C3, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing such epitopes were produced in Balb/c mice after immunization with denatured human C3. Two of the three antibodies (7D84.1 and 7D264.6) presented in this study recognized predominantly surface-bound iC3b, and one mAb (7D323.1) recognized both surface-bound and fluid-phase iC3b. Although none of the mAbs recognized any other fluid-phase C3 fragment, all three antibodies detected micro-titre-plate-fixed C3b and iC3b, but not C3c or C3d. In addition to the reaction with human C3, mAb 7D323.1 also bound to micro-titre-plate-fixed rabbit C3. The epitopes recognized by the three mAbs were further localized by using synthetic peptides that were designed on the basis of the differential binding of the mAbs to the C3 fragments. All three antibodies reacted with C3-(924-965)-peptide, which represents the region of C3 between the kallikrein-cleavage site (923-924) and the elastase-cleavage site (965-966). On the basis of the binding of the mAbs to five different overlapping peptides spanning the region between residues 924 and 965 of the human C3 sequence, and the sequence similarity between human C3 and rabbit C3 within this area, the epitopes recognized by these antibodies are mapped. The contribution of the individual amino acid residues in the formation of the epitopes is discussed.