ABSTRACT: Caldesmon, a major actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, has been implicated in regulation of the contractile state of smooth muscle. The isolated protein can be phosphorylated by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and phosphorylation blocks inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase by caldesmon [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have examined the phosphorylation of caldesmon in more detail. Several lines of evidence indicate that caldesmon itself is a kinase and the reaction is an intermolecular autophosphorylation: (1) caldesmon (141 kDa) and a 93 kDa proteolytic fragment of caldesmon can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography: both retain caldesmon kinase activity, which is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent; (2) chymotryptic digestion of caldesmon generates a Ca2+/calmodulin-independent form of caldesmon kinase; (3) caldesmon purified to electrophoretic homogeneity retains caldesmon kinase activity, and elution of enzymic activity from a fast-performance-liquid-chromatography ion-exchange column correlates with caldesmon of Mr 141,000; (4) caldesmon is photoaffinity-labelled with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP; labelling is inhibited by ATP, GTP and CTP, indicating a lack of nucleotide specificity; (5) caldesmon binds tightly to Affi-Gel Blue resin, which recognizes proteins having a dinucleotide fold. Autophosphorylation of caldesmon occurs predominantly on serine residues (83.3%), with some threonine (16.7%) and no tyrosine phosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is site-specific: 98% of the phosphate incorporated is recovered in a 26 kDa chymotryptic peptide. Complete tryptic/chymotryptic digestion of this phosphopeptide followed by h.p.l.c. indicates three major phosphorylation sites. Caldesmon exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity: apart from autophosphorylation, brain synapsin I is the only good substrate among many potential substrates examined. These observations indicate that caldesmon may regulate its own function (inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Furthermore, caldesmon may regulate other cellular processes, e.g. neurotransmitter release, through the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of other proteins such as synapsin I.
Project description:Caldesmon, an actin- and calmodulin-binding protein of smooth muscle, is a protein serine/threonine kinase capable of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent autophosphorylation [Scott-Woo & Walsh (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 463-472]. Phosphorylation nullifies the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of smooth-muscle myosin [Ngai & Walsh (1987) Biochem. J. 244, 417-425]. We have characterized the kinase activity of caldesmon of chicken gizzard smooth muscle. Autophosphorylation requires Ca2+/calmodulin, but is unaffected by other second messengers (Ca2+/phospholipid/diacylglycerol, cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP), and is inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists chlorpromazine and compound 48/80, with 50% inhibition at 39.8 microM and 12.0 ng/ml respectively. Half-maximal activation of autophosphorylation occurs at 60-80 nM-Ca2+ and 0.14 microM-calmodulin, and maximal activity at 0.14-0.18 microM-Ca2+ and 1 microM-calmodulin; activation is gradually lost at higher Ca2+ and calmodulin concentrations. Autophosphorylation is pH-dependent, with maximal activity over the range pH 7-9, and requires free Mg2+ in addition to the MgATP2- substrate. The Km for ATP is 15.6 +/- 4.1 microM (mean +/- S.D., n = 4), and kinase activity is inhibited by increasing ionic strength [half-maximal inhibition at I = 0.094 +/- 0.009 M (mean +/- S.D., n = 4)]. Autophosphorylation does not affect the rate of hydrolysis of caldesmon (free or bound to calmodulin) by alpha-chymotrypsin. However, a slight difference in peptides generated from phospho- and dephospho-forms of caldesmon is observed. The binding of phospho- or dephospho-caldesmon to F-actin protects the protein against chymotryptic digestion, but does not alter the pattern of peptide generation. Characterization of proteolytic fragments of caldesmon generated by alpha-chymotrypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease enables localization of the phosphorylation sites and the kinase active site within the caldesmon molecule.
Project description:Recently published data [Vorotnikov & Gusev (1990) FEBS Lett. 277, 134-136] indicate that smooth muscle caldesmon interacts with a mixture of soybean phospholipids (azolectin). Continuing this investigation, we found that duck gizzard caldesmon interacts more tightly with acidic (phosphatidylserine) than with neutral (phosphatidylcholine) phospholipids. A high concentration of Ca2+ (50 microM) decreased the interaction of caldesmon with phosphatidylserine. Among chymotryptic peptides of caldesmon, only those having molecular masses of 45, 40, 23, 22 and 20 kDa were able to specifically interact with phospholipids. These peptides, derived from the C-terminal part of caldesmon, contained the sites phosphorylated by Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, and phosphorylation catalysed by this enzyme decreased the affinity of these peptides for phospholipids. In the presence of Ca2+, calmodulin competed with phospholipids for the interaction with the caldesmon peptides. The C-terminal part of caldesmon contains three peptides with a primary structure similar to that of the calmodulin- and phospholipid-binding site of neuromodulin. These sites may be involved in the interaction of caldesmon with calmodulin and phospholipids.
Project description:Caldesmon is a major calmodulin- and actin-binding protein of smooth muscle which interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner or with actin in a Ca2+-independent manner. Isolated caldesmon is capable of inhibiting the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase of smooth-muscle myosin, suggesting a possible physiological role for caldesmon in regulating the contractile state of smooth-muscle. Caldesmon can be phosphorylated in vitro by a co-purifying Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and dephosphorylated by a protein phosphatase, both of which are present in smooth muscle. We investigated further the phosphorylation of caldesmon and the effects which phosphorylation has on the functional properties of the protein. The kinetics of caldesmon phosphorylation were similar whether the caldesmon substrate was free or bound to actin, actin/tropomyosin or thin filaments. Caldesmon containing endogenous kinase activity was rapidly phosphorylated (to approx. 1 mol of Pi/mol of caldesmon in 5 min) when reconstituted with actin, myosin, tropomyosin, calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase in the presence of Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Under conditions in which unphosphorylated caldesmon showed substantial inhibition of the actin-activated myosin Mg2+-ATPase, no inhibition was observed with phosphorylated caldesmon. This was the case whether caldesmon was phosphorylated before addition to the actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase system, or phosphorylation was allowed to take place during the ATPase reaction. Binding studies revealed maximal binding of 1 mol of unphosphorylated caldesmon/9.5 mol of actin and 1 mol of phosphorylated caldesmon/11.7 mol of actin. All the bound phosphorylated caldesmon could be released by Ca2+/calmodulin, with half-maximal release at 0.11 microM-Ca2+, whereas only 62% of the bound unphosphorylated caldesmon could be removed, with half-maximal release at 0.16 microM-Ca2+. However, under conditions in which inhibition of actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity by non-phosphorylated but not by phosphorylated caldesmon was observed, both forms of caldesmon would remain bound to the thin filament. These observations suggest a possible mechanism whereby caldesmon phosphorylation may prevent its inhibitory action on the actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase.
Project description:The relationship of the kinase which co-purifies with caldesmon to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) was investigated by studying the phosphorylation of bovine brain synapsin I, as well-characterized substrate of CaM-kinase II. Synapsin I is a very good substrate (Km = 90 nM) of the co-purifying kinase, which phosphorylates two sites in synapsin I, both of which are distinct from the single site phosphorylated by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation of synapsin I is Ca2(+)- and calmodulin-dependent: half-maximal activation occurs at 0.13 microM-Ca2+ and maximal activity at 0.4 microM-Ca2+. Phosphorylation of the co-purifying kinase slightly enhances the rate, but does not alter the stoichiometry, of subsequent synapsin I phosphorylation; it does, however, circumvent the requirement for Ca2+ and calmodulin. The properties of this kinase therefore closely resemble those of CaM-kinase II, and we conclude that it is probably a smooth-muscle isoenzyme of CaM-kinase II.
Project description:A simple and rapid procedure for the purification of the native form of chicken gizzard myosin light-chain kinase (Mr 136000) is described which eliminates problems of proteolysis previously encountered. During this procedure, a calmodulin-binding protein of Mr 141000, which previously co-purified with the myosin light-chain kinase, is removed and shown to be a distinct protein on the basis of lack of kinase activity, different chymotryptic peptide maps, lack of cross-reactivity with a monoclonal antibody to turkey gizzard myosin light-chain kinase, and lack of phosphorylation by the purified catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. This Mr-141000 calmodulin-binding protein is identified as caldesmon on the basis of Ca2+-dependent interaction with calmodulin, subunit Mr, Ca2+-independent interaction with skeletal-muscle F-actin, Ca2+-dependent competition between calmodulin and F-actin for caldesmon, and tissue content.
Project description:Smooth muscle caldesmon was phosphorylated by casein kinase II, and the effects of phosphorylation on the interaction of caldesmon and its chymotryptic peptides with myosin and tropomyosin were investigated. The N-terminal chymotryptic peptide of caldesmon of molecular mass 27 kDa interacted with myosin. Phosphorylation of Ser-73 catalysed by casein kinase II resulted in a 2-fold decrease in the affinity of the native caldesmon (or its 27 kDa N-terminal peptide) for smooth muscle myosin. At low ionic strength, caldesmon and its N-terminal peptides of molecular masses 25 and 27 kDa were retarded on a column of immobilized tropomyosin. Phosphorylation of Ser-73 led to a 2-4-fold decrease in the affinity of caldesmon (or its N-terminal peptides) for tropomyosin. Thus phosphorylation of Ser-73 catalysed by casein kinase II affects the interaction of caldesmon with both smooth muscle myosin and tropomyosin.
Project description:The domain structure of duck gizzard caldesmon was investigated. A single thiol group is located in the vicinity of the C-terminus of the protein. A simple method for the purification of a short (21 kDa) C-terminal peptide formed after chemical cleavage of caldesmon at cysteine residues was evolved. The C-terminal peptide of caldesmon interacts with calmodulin with an affinity one order of magnitude higher than that of native caldesmon. The Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) transfers about 2 mol of phosphate per mol of caldesmon. All sites phosphorylated by protein kinase C are located in the short (21 kDa) C-terminal peptide of caldesmon. Phosphorylation does not affect the interaction of caldesmon with calmodulin.
Project description:Using two depolarizing agents, veratrine and high concentrations of extracellular KCl, we studied depolarization-stimulated phosphorylations in 32P-labelled dispersed brain tissue in order to identify phosphoprotein substrates for Ca2+ - and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity at the cellular level, for comparison with findings in cell-free preparations. In intact brain cells, the only prominent depolarization-stimulated phosphorylation was a 77 kDa protein separated on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This phosphorylation was dependent on external Ca2+, since chelation of Ca2+ in media with 6 mM-EGTA or the presence of verapamil (a Ca2+ -channel blocker) in the incubation media inhibited depolarization-stimulated phosphorylation of the 77 kDa protein. Phosphorylation of the 77 kDa protein also appeared to be dependent on calmodulin, because depolarization-stimulated phosphorylation was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) when 100 microM-trifluoperazine was present in the incubation media. Polymyxin B, an inhibitor of Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent phosphorylation, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, the phorbol ester enhancing Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent phosphorylation, had no effect on the phosphorylation of the 77 kDa protein. The 77 kDa phosphoprotein was identified as a protein previously named synapsin I [Ueda, Maeno & Greengard (1973) J. Biol. Chem 248, 8295-8305] on the basis of similar migration of native and proteolytic fragments of the 77 kDa protein with those of authentic synapsin I on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Whereas several studies with cell-free preparations showed that 57 kDa and 54 kDa endogenous phosphoproteins were the most prominent species phosphorylated in a Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent manner, these results indicate that synapsin is the most prominent Ca2+-and calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation in intact cells. The phosphorylations of 54 kDa and 57 kDa proteins may not be as important in vivo, but instead occur as a result of the disruption of cellular integrity inherent in preparation of cell-free subfractions of brain tissue.
Project description:The Ca2+-dependent regulation of the activation of myosin MgATPase by vascular-smooth-muscle thin filaments involves caldesmon. This effect may be due to the direct interaction of caldesmon with a Ca2+-binding protein such as calmodulin or phosphorylation of caldesmon by a Ca2+-dependent kinase. I have found that Ca2+ switches on aorta thin filaments in less than 10 s, whereas the caldesmon in the thin filaments is phosphorylated only slowly (half-time greater than 10 min) and the maximum phosphorylation is very low (1 molecule per 7 molecules of caldesmon). I conclude that the phosphorylation of caldesmon hypothesis is untenable.
Project description:We measured the concentration of calmodulin required to reverse inhibition by caldesmon of actin-activated myosin MgATPase activity, in a model smooth-muscle thin-filament system, reconstituted in vitro from purified vascular smooth-muscle actin, tropomyosin and caldesmon. At 37 degrees C in buffer containing 120 mM-KCl, 4 microM-Ca2+-calmodulin produced a half-maximal reversal of caldesmon inhibition, but more than 300 microM-Ca2+-calmodulin was necessary at 25 degrees C in buffer containing 60 mM-KCl. The binding affinity (K) of caldesmon for Ca2+-calmodulin was measured by a fluorescence-polarization method: K = 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 at 25 degrees C (60 mM-KCl); K = 1.4 x 10(6) M-1 at 37 degrees C in 70 mM-KCl-containing buffer; K = 0.35 x 10(6) M-1 at 37 degrees C in 120 mM-KCl- containing buffer (pH 7.0). At 37 degrees C/120 mM-KCl, but not at 25 degrees C/60 mM-KCl, Ca2+-calmodulin bound to caldesmon bound to actin-tropomyosin (K = 2.9 x 10(6) M-1). Ca2+ regulation in this system does not depend on a simple competition between Ca2+-calmodulin and actin for binding to caldesmon. Under conditions (37 degrees C/120 mM-KCl) where physiologically realistic concentrations of calmodulin can Ca2+-regulate synthetic thin filaments, Ca2+-calmodulin reverses caldesmon inhibition of actomyosin ATPase by forming a non-inhibited complex of Ca2+-calmodulin-caldesmon-(actin-tropomyosin).