Investigation by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the molybdenum centre of respiratory nitrate reductase from Paracoccus denitrificans.
ABSTRACT: The molybdenum centre of respiratory nitrate reductase from Paracoccus denitrificans has been investigated by e.p.r. spectroscopy of Mo(V). In common with the centres of the analogous enzymes from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it undergoes a pH- and anion-dependent transition between two different e.p.r. signal-giving species. Comparison of the relevant e.p.r. parameters extracted with the help of computer simulations reveals ligation of the metal in the active centres of the three enzymes to be identical.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 wild type grown to mid-exponential phase in minimal media with either 13 uM (Cu-H) or 0.5 uM (Cu-L) Cu regimes. The goal was to define the effects of Cu-limitation on denitrification genes Two growth conditions, three biological replicates of each condition. Each sample hybridised in a two-channel hybridization against Paracoccus denitrificans genomic DNA as the comparator/reference, which also acted as a control for spot quality. Cu-concentration 13 uM (Cu-H) versus 0.5 uM Cu (Cu-L) in anaerobic growth conditions.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 wild type grown to mid-exponential phase in minimal media with either 13 uM (Cu-H) or 0.5 uM (Cu-L) Cu regimes. The goal was to define the effects of Cu-limitation on denitrification genes Overall design: Two growth conditions, three biological replicates of each condition. Each sample hybridised in a two-channel hybridization against Paracoccus denitrificans genomic DNA as the comparator/reference, which also acted as a control for spot quality. Cu-concentration 13 uM (Cu-H) versus 0.5 uM Cu (Cu-L) in anaerobic growth conditions.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 wild type incubated in continuous culture (continuous culture (CSTR)) in minimal media with aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The goal was to define the core respiratory genes. Overall design: Two growth conditions, three biological replicates of each condition. Each sample hybridised in a two-channel hybridization against Paracoccus denitrificans genomic DNA as the comparator/reference, which also acted as a control for spot quality.
Project description:The cytochrome c peroxidase of Paracoccus denitrificans is similar to the well-studied enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Like the Pseudomonas enzyme, the Paracoccus peroxidase contains two haem c groups, one high potential and one low potential. The high-potential haem acts as a source of the second electron for H2O2 reduction, and the low-potential haem acts as a peroxidatic centre. Reduction with ascorbate of the high-potential haem of the Paracoccus enzyme results in a switch of the low-potential haem to a high-spin state, as shown by visible and n.m.r. spectroscopy. This high-spin haem of the mixed-valence enzyme is accessible to ligands and binds CN- with a KD of 5 microM. The Paracoccus enzyme is significantly different from that from Pseudomonas in the time course of high-spin formation after reduction of the high-potential haem, and in the requirement for bivalent cations. Reduction with 1 mM ascorbate at pH 6 is complete within 2 min, and this is followed by a slow appearance of the high-spin state with a half-time of 10 min. Thus the process of reduction and spin state change can be easily separated in time and the intermediate form obtained. This separation is also evident in e.p.r. spectra, although the slow change involves an alteration in the low-spin ligation at this temperature rather than a change in spin state. The separation is even more striking at pH 7.5, where no high-spin form is obtained until 1 mM Ca2+ is added to the mixed-valence enzyme. The spin-state switch of the low-potential haem shifts the midpoint redox potential of the high-potential haem by 50 mV, a further indication of haem-haem interaction.
Project description:Nitrate and nitrite transport across biological membranes is often facilitated by protein transporters that are members of the major facilitator superfamily. Paracoccus denitrificans contains an unusual arrangement whereby two of these transporters, NarK1 and NarK2, are fused into a single protein, NarK, which delivers nitrate to the respiratory nitrate reductase and transfers the product, nitrite, to the periplasm. Our complementation studies, using a mutant lacking the nitrate/proton symporter NasA from the assimilatory nitrate reductase pathway, support that NarK1 functions as a nitrate/proton symporter while NarK2 is a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. Through the same experimental system, we find that Escherichia coli NarK and NarU can complement deletions in both narK and nasA in P. denitrificans, suggesting that, while these proteins are most likely nitrate/nitrite antiporters, they can also act in the net uptake of nitrate. Finally, we argue that primary sequence analysis and structural modelling do not readily explain why NasA, NarK1 and NarK2, as well as other transporters from this protein family, have such different functions, ranging from net nitrate uptake to nitrate/nitrite exchange.
Project description:Denitrification is a respiratory process that produces nitrous oxide as an intermediate, which may escape to the atmosphere before its reduction to dinitrogen through the nitrous oxide reductase NosZ. In this work, the denitrification process carried out by Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 has been explored through a quantitative proteomic analysis. Under anaerobic conditions, with nitrate as sole nitrogen source, the synthesis of all the enzymes involved in denitrification, the respiratory nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide reductases, was increased. However, the periplasmic and assimilatory nitrate reductases decreased. Synthesis of transporters for alcohols, D-methionine, sulfate and copper, most of the enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and proteins involved in other metabolic processes like lysine catabolism, fatty acids degradation and acetyl-CoA synthesis, was increased during denitrification in P. denitrificans PD1222. As consequence, an enhanced production of the central metabolite acetyl-CoA was observed. After establishing the key features of the denitrification proteome, its changes by the influence of a competitive electron acceptor, oxygen, or competitive nitrogen source, ammonium, were evaluated.
Project description:Paracoccus denitrificans is a well studied model organism with respect to its aerobic and anaerobic respiratory enzymes. However, until now, the growth medium for this organism has not been optimized for anaerobic growth. In particular, the requirements of P. denitrificans for trace elements (TEs) are not well known. In the present study we aimed to improve growth rates of P. denitrificans Pd1222 on a defined medium under anoxic conditions. We designed media containing different combinations of TEs at various concentrations, and tested their performance against previously reported media. Our results suggest that growth rate and yield depend on the availability and concentration of TEs in the medium. A chelated TE solution was more suitable than an acidified TE solution. Highest growth rates were achieved with medium comprising the TEs iron, manganese, molybdenum, copper and zinc ranging from 0.1 to 9 μM. On this medium, P. denitrificans Pd1222 grew with a generation time of 4.4 h under anoxic conditions and 2.8 h under oxic conditions. Diauxic growth was clearly shown with respect to nitrate and nitrite reduction under anoxic conditions.
Project description:EPR spectroscopy has been successfully used to detect signals due to molybdenum (V) and ferric iron in intact cells of aerobically grown Paracoccus denitrificans. The signals are ascribed to the catalytic molybdenum centre and to the haem iron of the periplasmic nitrate reductase. These signals are absent from a mutant strain deficient in this enzyme. The Mo(V) signal is due to the High-g Split species which has been well characterized in the purified enzyme. This confirms that the High-g Split is the physiologically relevant signal of a number observed in the previous work on the purified enzyme.
Project description:We have developed a stable isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible-expression plasmid, pIND4, which allows graduated levels of protein expression in the alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Paracoccus denitrificans. pIND4 confers kanamycin resistance and combines the stable replicon of pMG160 with the lacI(q) gene from pYanni3 and the lac promoter, P(A1/04/03), from pJBA24.
Project description:In oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthases interconvert two forms of free energy: they are driven by the proton-motive force across an energy-transducing membrane to synthesize ATP and displace the ADP/ATP ratio from equilibrium. For thermodynamically efficient energy conversion they must be reversible catalysts. However, in many species ATP synthases are unidirectional catalysts (their rates of ATP hydrolysis are negligible), and in others mechanisms have evolved to regulate or minimize hydrolysis. Unidirectional catalysis by Paracoccus denitrificans ATP synthase has been attributed to its unique ? subunit, which is structurally analogous to the mammalian inhibitor protein IF1 Here, we used homologous recombination to delete the ? subunit from the P. denitrificans genome, and compared ATP synthesis and hydrolysis by the wild-type and knockout enzymes in inverted membrane vesicles and the F1-ATPase subcomplex. ATP synthesis was not affected by loss of the ? subunit, and the rate of ATP hydrolysis increased by less than twofold, remaining negligible in comparison with the rates of the Escherichia coli and mammalian enzymes. Therefore, deleting the P. denitrificans ? subunit is not sufficient to activate ATP hydrolysis. We close by considering our conclusions in the light of reversible catalysis and regulation in ATP synthase enzymes.