A comparison of the specificity of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by human fetal lung maintained in either organ or organotypic culture.
ABSTRACT: Human fetal lung (14-18 weeks gestation) was maintained in either organ or organotypic culture. By 4 days in organ culture or 14 days in organotypic culture, epithelial cells within both culture systems exhibited well-developed apical microvilli and possessed numerous intracellular lamellar bodies characteristic of surfactant phospholipid stores. However, analysis of the pattern of synthesis of individual molecular species of phosphatidylcholine by [14C]choline incorporation and reversed-phase h.p.l.c. showed that this apparent maturation was not paralleled by an increased synthesis of the dipalmitoyl species in either culture system. By contrast, the fractional synthesis of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, expressed as a percentage of total [14C]choline incorporation, decreased with time in both organ and organotypic culture. Moreover, these fractions were not significantly different from those measured in parallel monolayer cultures of mixed human fetal lung cells that displayed mainly fibroblast morphology. These results suggest that the synthesis pattern of phosphatidylcholine species by lung cells in culture is determined principally by their incubation conditions and not by their state of apparent maturation.
Project description:Administration of dexamethasone to pregnant rats at 19 days gestation increased phosphatidylcholine synthesis (45%) from radioactive choline in type II cells. This enhanced synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accompanied by an increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline. Similar results were obtained by incubating organotypic cultures of 19-day-fetal rat lung with cortisol. The increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline correlated with an enhanced choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity (31% after dexamethasone treatment; 47% after cortisol exposure) in the cell homogenates. A similar increase (26% after dexamethasone treatment; 39% after cortisol exposure) was found in the microsomal-associated enzyme. No differences in cytosolic enzyme activity were observed. The specific activity of the microsomal enzyme was 3-4 times that of the cytosolic enzyme. Most of the enzyme activity was located in the microsomal fraction (58-65%). The treatments had no effect on the total amount of enzyme recovered from the cell homogenates. These results, taken collectively, are interpreted to indicate that the active form of cytidylyltransferase in type II cells is the membrane-bound enzyme and that cytidylyltransferase activation in type II cells from fetal rat lung after maternal glucocorticoid administration occurs by binding of inactive cytosolic enzyme to endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:A method is described for the preparation of rat pulmonary surfactant, radiolabelled specifically in the phosphatidylcholine species, which may be used for degradative studies of the lipoprotein complex. Intravenously administered [methyl-14C]choline chloride is maximally incorporated into alveolar surface surfactant 8 h after injection, and more than 97% of this radiolabel is present in the phosphatidylcholine fraction of the surfactant and, of this, 75% is associated with the dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine species. Electron microscopy indicates that the isolated surfactant has a similar physical form to that found at the alveolar surface. The mineral alpha-quartz can be used to increase the yield of surfactant lavaged from the lung surface, but the complex isolated from rats treated in this manner has a low specific radioactivity (less than 1000 d.p.m./mg) compared with that prepared from control animals (22860 d.p.m./mg).
Project description:Sphingomyelin synthesis was studied in slices of rat heart by using [Me-14C]choline, [1,2-14C]ethanolamine, S-adenosyl-L-[14C]methionine and [32P]Pi as as precursors. In the presence of both [Me-14C]choline and [32P]Pi the ratio of the specific radioactivities of 14C and 32P in phosphatidylcholine was greater than in sphingomyelin at all the times studied. This suggested that synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin de novo did not involve the utilization of a common pool of cytidine diphosphate choline. In addition, studies with [1,2-14C]ethanolamine and S-adenosyl-L-[14C]methionine indicated that a quantitatively significant pool of choline, derived from these precursors, was selectively utilized for sphingomyelin formation. This pool was not represented by phosphatidylcholine formed by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine or by other pathways.
Project description:Glucocorticoid administration to women in preterm labor improves neonatal mortality and morbidity. Fetal exposure to glucocorticoid levels higher than those appropriate to the current gestational stage has multiple organ system effects. Some, eg, fetal hypertension, are maximal at lower than the clinical dose. We hypothesized that the clinical dose has supramaximal lung maturational effects.We evaluated the full, half, and quarter clinical betamethasone dose (12 mg/70 kg or 170 microg/kg intramuscularly twice 24 hours apart) on fetal sheep lung pressure volume curves (PVC) after 48 hours' exposure at 0.75 gestation. We measured key messenger RNAs and protein products that affect lung function and total lung dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline.Full and half doses had similar PVC and total lung dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline effects. Messenger RNA for surfactant proteins A, B, and D and elastin increased in a dose-dependent fashion.Half the clinical betamethasone dose produces maximal PVC improvement in fetal sheep at 0.75 gestation.
Project description:Choline accumulation and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis were investigated in the choline-requiring anaerobic protozoon Entodinium caudatum by incubating whole cells or subcellular fractions with [14C] choline, phosphoryl [14C] choline and CDP-[14C] choline. 2. All membrane fractions contained choline kinase (EC 184.108.40.206) and CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 220.127.116.11), although the specific activities were less in the cell-envelope fraction. Choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 18.104.22.168) was limited to the supernatant, and this enzyme was rate-limiting for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in the whole cell. 3. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine from free choline by membranes was only possible in the presence of supernatant. Such reconstituted systems required ATP (2.5 mM), CTP (1 mM) and Mg2+ (5 mM) for maximum synthesis of the phospholipid. CTP and Mg2+ were absolute requirements. 4. Hemicholinium-3 prevented choline uptake by the cells and was strongly inhibitory towards choline kinase; the other enzymes involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis were minimally affected. 5. Ca2+ ions (0.5 mM) substantially inhibited CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase in the presence of 15 mM-Mg2+, but choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase and choline kinase were less affected. 6. No free choline could be detected intact cells even after short (10-180s) incubations or at temperatures down to 10 degrees C. The [14C] choline entering was mainly present as phosphorylcholine and to a lesser extent as phosphatidylcholine. 7. It is suggested that choline kinase effectively traps any choline within the cell, thus ensuring a supply of the base for future growth. At low choline concentrations the activity of choline kinase is rate-limiting for choline uptake, and the enzyme might possibly play an active role in the transport phenomenon. Thus the choline uptake by intact cells and choline kinase have similar Km values and show similar responses to temperature and hemicholinium-3.
Project description:Olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures were incubated with [2-14C]ethanolamine and [Me-14C]choline in order to study phospholipid synthesis. Radioactivity from [Me-14C]choline was shown to be incorporated into the phosphatidylcholine via the CDP-base pathway. [2-14C]Ethanolamine was primarily incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine, but significant radio-activity was also detected in phosphatidylcholine, indicating the operation of a methylation route. Incubation with [2-14C]ethanolamine indicated that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated radiolabel over a similar time course. This led us to investigate the possibility that phosphatidylcholine was being synthesized by a methylation pathway distinct from the direct methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. There was extensive incorporation of [2-14C]ethanolamine into different components of the aqueous phase of the incubations, within which phospho-base derivatives of ethanolamine were prominent. These intermediates were identified and provided evidence for the operation of an alternative methylation pathway via phosphodimethylethanolamine for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in olives.
Project description:When type II pneumonocytes from adult rats were maintained in a medium that lacked choline, the incorporation of [14C]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine was not greatly diminished during the period that the cells displayed characteristics of type II pneumonocytes. Cells that were maintained in choline-free medium that contained choline oxidase and catalase, however, became depleted of choline and subsequent synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by these cells was responsive to choline in the extracellular medium. Incorporation of [14C]glycerol into phosphatidylcholine by choline-depleted cells was stimulated maximally (approx. 6-fold) by extracellular choline at a concentration (0.05 mM) that also supported the greatest incorporation into phosphatidylglycerol. The incorporation of [14C]glycerol into other glycerophospholipids by choline-depleted cells was not increased by extracellular choline. When cells were incubated in the presence of [3H]cytidine, the choline-dependent stimulation of the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol was accompanied by an increased recovery of [3H]CMP. This increased recovery of [3H]CMP reflected an increase in the intracellular amount of CMP from 48 +/- 9 to 76 +/- 16 pmol/10(6) cells. Choline-depleted cells that were exposed to [3H]choline contained [3H]CDP-choline as the principal water-soluble choline derivative. As the extracellular concentration of choline was increase, however, the amount of 3H in phosphocholine greatly exceeded that in all other water-soluble derivatives. Choline-depletion of cells resulted in an increase in the specific activity of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase in cell homogenates (from 0.40 +/- 0.15 to 1.31 +/- 0.20 nmol X min-1 X mg of protein-1). These data are indicative that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine is integrated with that of phosphatidylglycerol and are consistent with the proposed involvement of CMP in this integration. The choline-depleted type II pneumonocyte provides a new model for investigating the regulation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activity.
Project description:Hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) from the immature fetal guinea pig at day 55 of gestation comprised mainly unsaturated molecular species containing C18:2(n-6) and C22:6(n-3) at the sn-2 position, reflecting placental permeability to essential fatty acids. At both day 55 and term (day 68), [Me-14C]choline was incorporated in utero over 3 h largely into sn-1-C16:0 PC species, with incorporation into sn-1-C18:0 PC species increasing by 18 h of incubation. Comparison of specific radioactivities after 3 h and 18 h suggests PC acyl remodelling by phospholipase A1. No incorporation into C20:4(n-6)-containing PC species could be detected of either [Me-14C]choline in vivo or CDP-[Me-14C]choline in isolated microsomes. The major phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species were 16:0/22:6 and 18:0/22:6. Although [14C]ethanolamine was initially incorporated mainly into sn-1-C16:0 species, specific-radioactivity analysis suggested differential turnover rather than acyl remodelling. [1,2-14C]Ethanolamine and [Me-14C]methionine incorporation into PC molecular species indicated that both newly synthesized and total PE pools were available for N-methylation. Since the PC pool synthesized from PE included C20:4- and C22:6-containing species, N-methylation may provide a mechanism for supplying essential long-chain fatty acids to developing tissues that can be regulated independently from bulk PC synthesis.
Project description:Endogenous content of and incorporation of labelled glycerol into alkenylacyl-, alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerol, -glycerol-3-phosphocholine and -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine of pulmonary type II cells were measured. On prolonged incubation of type II cells with labelled glycerol, the proportion of label incorporated into the diacyl subclass of these glycerolipids increased and the proportion of label incorporated into the ether lipids declined. Endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) of type II cells contained 38.4% of the dipalmitoyl species, but endogenous phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) only 2.5%. In contrast, similar proportions of labelled glycerol were incorporated into dipalmitoyl-PtdCho and -PtdEtn after short-time incubation but, with prolonged incubation time the proportion of labelled dipalmitoyl-PtdCho increased from 11.3 to 18.8%, whereas that of dipalmitoyl-PtdEtn did not change significantly. Type II cell membranes were found to exhibit cofactor-independent and CoA-mediated transacylations of [1-14C]palmitoyl-lyso-PtdCho and -lyso-PtdEtn. The distribution of label among the palmitic acid-containing species of PtdCho and PtdEtn formed by both transacylation activities was determined. Cofactor-independent and CoA-mediated transacylation showed a strong selectivity for palmitate and arachidonate and a strong discrimination against oleate. The amount (nmol) of dipalmitoyl-PtdEtn formed by both transacylation activities after short-time incubation (2 min) decreased with prolonged incubation time (60 min). In contrast, the nmol of dipalmitoyl-PtdCho formed by cofactor-independent transacylation remains nearly the same after short-time and longer incubation. The nmol of dipalmitoyl-PtdCho formed by CoA-mediated transacylation increased strongly in the same time interval. Beside synthesis de novo via the CDP-choline pathway and reacylation of lyso-PtdCho with palmitoyl-CoA, the CoA-mediated transacylation of lyso-PtdCho may be an effective pathway for the formation of dipalmitoyl-PtdCho in pulmonary type II cells.
Project description:Late pregnancy in the rat (gestational ages 16-21 days) was accompanied by a specific increase in hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecular species containing C16:0 at the sn-1 position and polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (PUFA), in particular C22:6(n-3), at the sn-2 position. Incorporation of either CDP:[Me-14C]choline or CDP:[1,2-14C]-ethanolamine into hepatic microsomal sn-1 C16:0 PC or PE molecular species in vitro was greater at term than in non-pregnant animals, suggesting modifications to the composition of specific diacylglycerol (DAG) pools destined for synthesis of either PC or PE. Also, incorporation of [Me-14C]choline or [Me-14C]methionine into hepatic PC in vivo over 6 h in term pregnant rats was consistent with decreased phospholipase A1-dependent acyl remodelling of sn-1 C16:0 to sn-1 C18:0 molecular species. There was, however, no evidence to support any change to the specificity of acyl remodelling. The rate of PC synthesis by the de novo pathway in vivo was increased in term liver compared with non-pregnant animals, accompanied by increased choline-phosphotransferase activity in vitro in d21 liver microsomes. The rate of PC synthesis by PE N-methylation did not appear to change during pregnancy. Changes in composition of plasma PC species at term reflected those of newly synthesized hepatic PC. Our data suggest supply of PUFA to the developing fetal rat is the result of specific adaptations to maternal hepatic phospholipid biosynthesis rather than passive transfer from the maternal diet.