A two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of the proteins and glycoproteins of liver plasma membrane domains and endosomes. Implications for endocytosis and transcytosis.
ABSTRACT: 1. Polypeptides of liver plasma membrane fractions enriched in three surface domains of hepatocytes, blood-sinusoidal, lateral and bile canalicular, were analysed by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and non-equilibrium pH gel electrophoresis (NEPHGE) across a wide pH range, followed by SDS/PAGE. The overall Coomassie Blue-stained polypeptide patterns in the fractions were different. lateral plasma membrane fractions contained a characteristically higher number of polypeptides focusing at the basic pH range, whereas few basic polypeptides were present in sinusoidal plasma membrane fractions. The glycoproteins in these plasma membrane fractions stained by a lectin overlay technique with radio-iodinated concanavalin A, wheat-germ agglutinin and a slug lectin, were also different. 2. The polypeptides and glycoproteins of 'early' and 'late' endosome fractions were also compared by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Their composition was shown by Coomassie Blue staining, lectin overlay staining and in membranes metabolically labelled with [35S]methionine to be generally similar. The glycoproteins of sinusoidal plasma membranes and early and late endosomes were generally similar, but major differences in polypeptides of molecular mass 20-50 kDa, pI 7.5-8.5, in plasma membranes and endosomes were demonstrated, with a specific population of basic (pI 8-9) low-molecular-mass polypeptides being present at highest levels in 'late' endosomal fractions (shown by Coomassie Blue staining). 3. Analysis of the distribution of three specific membrane glycoproteins identified by using immunoblotting techniques showed that the asialoglycoprotein and the divalent-cation-sensitive mannose 6-phosphate receptors were present in sinusoidal plasma membrane and in early and late endocytic fractions: they were not detected in canalicular plasma membrane fractions. In contrast, 5'-nucleotidase was detected in all fractions examined. The role of the endocytic compartment in regulating trafficking pathways between the plasma membrane domains of the hepatocyte is discussed.
Project description:1. Rats were injected intracaudally with [3H]fucose and its rate of incorporation into the fucoproteins of serum, Golgi and plasma-membrane subfractions was followed for up tp 2h. 2. Incorporation into the Golgi dictyosome and secretory-vesicular fractions reached a maximum at 15 min or less, but most of the radioactivity was associated with classes of secretory glycoproteins. Incorporation into sinusoidal plasma-membrane fractions reached a maximum at 30 min, coinciding with the maximum release of fucoproteins into the serum. Contiguous and canalicular plasma-membrane fractions were labelled slightly later and at a lower rate and specific radioactivity. 3. Fluorography of fucoproteins separated by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis helped to distinguish between the major secretory and membrane-bound glycoproteins. The results show that a major biogenetic sequence is probably from Golgi dictyosomes to Golgi secretory elements to a sinusoidal plasma membrane. 4. The kinetics of incorporation make it unlikely that there is rapid and direct insertion of glycoproteins into the bile-canalicular plasma membrane. A route involving direct transfer of glycoproteins via a membrane-mediated intracellular path from the blood sinusoidal to the bile-canalicular plasma membranes is proposed.
Project description:Plasma-membrane glycoproteins from the three different functional domains of the rat hepatocyte were radioactively labelled by oxidation with NaIO4, followed by reduction with NaB3H4. Analysis of the radioactively labelled glycoproteins by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of at least 12 major sialoglycoproteins in each different region of the hepatocyte surface. The Mr-110 000 component was homogeneously distributed over the plasma membrane, whereas the Mr-90 000 polypeptide was only located at the sinusoidal face. These radiolabelled glycoproteins were solubilized in 1% Triton X-100, and the soluble fraction was subjected to affinity chromatography on Sepharose-conjugated wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA). The labelled glycoproteins were poorly bound to WGA. Membrane glycoproteins were also labelled by the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 method. The results show that the polypeptides with apparent Mr 170 000 from the sinusoidal, 230 000 from the canalicular and 170 000 from the lateral membranes were specifically labelled. When the membranes were treated with neuraminidase and galactose oxidase/NaB3H4, the electrophoretic patterns showed changes in the apparent Mr values of the glycoproteins, owing to loss of sialic acid, and a clear increase in labelling in the sinusoidal and canalicular membranes compared with the lateral membranes. When these labelled membranes were solubilized in 1% Triton X-100 and subjected to affinity chromatography on Sepharose-conjugated Ricinus communis agglutinin and/or Lens culinaris agglutinin, the results showed that the former columns efficiently bound the radiolabelled glycoproteins, whereas the latter columns bound poorly. The results show that there is a differential distribution of glycoproteins along the hepatocyte's surface.
Project description:1. Liver plasma membranes originating from the sinusoidal, lateral and canalicular surface domains of hepatocytes were covalently labelled with sulpho-N-hydroxysuccinamide-biotin. After solubilization in Triton X-114, treatment with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), two-phase partitioning and 125I-streptavidin labelling of the proteins resolved by PAGE, six major polypeptides (molecular masses 110, 85, 70, 55, 38 and 35 kDa) were shown to be anchored in bile canalicular membrane vesicles by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (G-PI) 'tail'. 2. Permeabilized 'early' and 'late' endocytic vesicles isolated from liver were also examined. Two polypeptides (110 and 35 kDa) were shown to be anchored by a G-PI tail in 'late' endocytic vesicles. 3. Analysis of marker enzymes in bile-canalicular vesicles treated with PI-PLC showed that 5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatase, but not leucine aminopeptidase and ecto-Ca2(+)-ATPase activities were released from the membrane. A low release and recovery of alkaline phosphodiesterase activity was noted. The cleavage from the membrane of 5'-nucleotidase as a 70 kDa polypeptide was confirmed by Western blotting using an antibody to this enzyme. 4. Antibodies raised to proteins released from bile-canalicular vesicles by PI-PLC treatment, and purified by partitioning in aqueous and Triton X-114 phases, localized to the bile canaliculi in thin liver sections. Antibodies to proteins not hydrolysed by this treatment stained by immunofluorescence the sinusoidal and canalicular surface regions of hepatocytes. 5. Antibodies generated to proteins cleaved by PI-PLC treatment of canalicular vesicles were shown to identify, by Western blotting, a major 110 kDa polypeptide in these vesicles. Two polypeptides (55 and 38 kDa) were detected in MDCK and HepG-2 cultured cells. 6. Since two of the six G-PI-anchored proteins targeted to the bile-canalicular plasma membrane were also detected in 'late' endocytic vesicles, the results suggest that a junction where exocytic and endocytic traffic routes meet occurs in a 'late' endocytic compartment.
Project description:1. A liver canalicular plasma-membrane fraction enriched 115-155-fold in five marker enzymes relative to the tissue homogenate was obtained by sonication of liver plasma membranes followed by fractionation in iso-osmotic Nycodenz gradients. 2. Two lateral-plasma membrane fractions were also collected by this procedure; the lighter-density fraction was still associated with canalicular membranes, as assessed by enzymic and polypeptide analysis. 3. The polypeptide composition of the domain-defined plasma-membrane fractions was evaluated. It was demonstrated by immunoblotting that the 41 kDa alpha-subunit of the inhibitory G-protein, associated in high relative amounts with canalicular plasma-membrane fractions, was partially lost in the last stage of purification; however, this subunit was retained by lateral plasma membranes. 4. Antibodies to the proteins of bile-canalicular vesicles were shown to localize to the hepatocyte surface in thin liver sections examined by immunofluorescent and immuno-gold electron microscopy. Two subsets of antigens were identified, one present on both sinusoidal and canalicular plasma-membrane domains and another, by using antisera pre-absorbed with sinusoidal plasma membranes, that was confined to the bile-canalicular domain.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that most of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate/inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 5-phosphatase activity of rat hepatocytes is associated with the plasma membrane [Shears, Parry, Tang, Irvine, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 246, 139-147]. We now show that the specific activity of this enzyme is highest in the bile-canalicular domain of the plasma membrane, at the opposite pole of the hepatocyte from the presumed site of receptor-mediated formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. In intact hepatocytes and in sealed membrane vesicles originating from the bile-canalicular domain of the plasma membrane, the 5-phosphatase activity was mostly latent and therefore located at the cytoplasmic surface. A substantial amount of 5-phosphatase was also found in rat liver endosomal fractions, particularly a 'late' endosomal subfraction, indicating that this enzyme may be transported between the sinusoidal plasma membrane and other cellular membranes.
Project description:1. The lipid fluidity of three major rat liver plasma-membrane subfractions, as well as Golgi apparatus and endocytic fractions, was assessed with a fatty acid spin probe by using e.s.r. techniques. 2. The sinusoidal (blood-facing) plasma-membrane subfraction was the most fluid of the three plasma-membrane regions. Fractions originating from the bile-canalicular and contiguous (lateral) regions were most rigid. Endocytic fractions isolated (endosomes and diacytosomes) were of a similar fluidity to fractions originating from the sinusoidal plasma-membrane region. By far the most fluid fractions examined were derived from the Golgi-apparatus complex. 3. The three plasma-membrane subfractions each showed a different response to the bilayer-fluidizing effect of benzyl alcohol. 4. Arrhenius-type plots of the order parameter S and outer hyperfine splitting, 2T( parallel), identified lipid-phase separations in the plasma-membrane subfractions.
Project description:1. The distribution of the alpha- and beta-subunits of nucleotide-binding G-proteins among rat liver sinusoidal, lateral and canalicular plasma membranes, endosomes, Golgi membranes and lysosomes was investigated. 2. Pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation identified a 41 kDa inhibitory alpha-subunit in all liver plasma-membrane functional domains as well as in endosomes. An antibody to a synthetic peptide corresponding to a C-terminal sequence of the inhibitory alpha-subunit also identified the 41 kDa polypeptide in all plasma-membrane domains, in 'early' and 'late' endosomes and in Golgi membranes; this polypeptide was not detected in lysosomes. The antibody-binding studies showed that bile-canalicular plasma membranes had the highest content of the inhibitory alpha-subunit. 3. Immunofluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of the inhibitory alpha-subunit in all regions of the hepatocyte's cell surface. 4. An antibody recognizing the beta-subunit showed that a 36 kDa polypeptide was present in all plasma membranes and in 'early' and 'late' endosomes; it was not detected in lysosomes. The relative distribution among the fractions of this polypeptide was similar to the distribution of the inhibitory alpha-subunit. 5. The presence of high levels of the G-protein inhibitory alpha-subunit in bile-canalicular plasma membranes was confirmed by demonstration of its co-fractionation with marker enzymes in Nycodenz gradients and by free-flow electrophoresis. The significance of this location is discussed.
Project description:Immunoglobin A in bile and other external secretions is mostly bound to a glycoprotein known as secretory component. This glycoprotein is not synthesized by the same cells as immunoglobulin A and is not found in blood. We now report the mechanism by which secretory component reaches the bile and describe its function in immunoglobulin A transport across the hepatocyte. Fractionation of rat liver homogenates by zonal centrifugation was followed by measurement of the amounts of secretory component in the various fractions by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Secretory component was found in two fractions. One of these was identified as containing Golgi vesicles from its isopycnic density and appearance in the electron microscope; the other contained principally fragments of the plasma membrane of the sinusoidal face of the hepatocyte, as shown by its particle size and content of marker enzymes. Only the latter fraction bound (125)I-labelled immunoglobulin A added in vitro. At 5min after intravenous injection of [(14)C]fucose, the secretory component in the Golgi fraction was labelled, but not that in the plasma membrane. The secretory component in the sinusoidal plasma membrane did, however, become labelled before the first labelled secretory component appeared in bile, about 30min after injection. We suggest that fucose is added to the newly synthesized secretory component in the Golgi apparatus. The secretory component then passes, with the other newly secreted glycoproteins, to the sinusoidal plasma membrane. There it remains bound but exposed to the blood and able to bind any polymeric immunoglobulin A present in serum. The secretory component then moves across the hepatocyte to the bile-canalicular face in association with the endocytic-shuttle vesicles which carry immunoglobulin A. Hence there is a lag before newly synthesized secretory component appears in bile.
Project description:Hepatocytes polarize by forming functionally distinct sinusoidal (basolateral) and canalicular (apical) plasma membrane domains. Two distinct routes are used for delivery of membrane proteins to the canaliculus. Proteins having glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors or single transmembrane domains are targeted to the sinusoidal plasma membrane from where they transcytose to the canalicular domain. In contrast, apical ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporters, which are required for energy-dependent biliary secretion of bile acids (ABCB11), phospholipids (ABCB4), and nonbile acid organic anions (ABCC2), lack initial residence in the basolateral plasma membrane and traffic directly from Golgi membranes to the canalicular membrane. While investigating mechanisms of apical targeting in WIF-B9 cells, a polarized hepatic epithelial cell line, we observed that rab11a is required for canalicular formation. Knockdown of rab11a or overexpression of the rab11a-GDP locked form prevented canalicular formation as did overexpression of the myosin Vb motorless tail domain. In WIF-B9 cells, which lack bile canaliculi, apical ABC transporters colocalized with transcytotic membrane proteins in rab11a-containing endosomes and, unlike the transcytotic markers, did not distribute to the plasma membrane. We propose that polarization of hepatocytes (i.e., canalicular biogenesis) requires recruitment of rab11a and myosin Vb to intracellular membranes that contain apical ABC transporters and transcytotic markers, permitting their targeting to the plasma membrane. In this model, polarization is initiated upon delivery of rab11a-myosin Vb-containing membranes to the surface, which causes plasma membrane at the site of delivery to differentiate into apical domain (bile canaliculus).
Project description:1. Non-desmosomal plasma membranes enriched in plasma-membrane marker enzymes and in metabolically labelled glycoproteins were isolated on a large scale from up to 500g of pig ear skin slices. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and periodic acid/Schiff staining revealed the presence of four major glycosylated components in the apparent molecular-weight range 150000-80000. 2. A large proportion of the marker enzymes, the d-[(3)H]glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins and the periodic acid/Schiff-stained glycoproteins were solubilized by 1% (w/v) sodium deoxycholate. However, several non-glycosylated proteins, in particular those with mol.wts. 81000, 41000 and 38000 (possibly cytoskeletal components), were relatively resistant to solubilization. 3. The deoxycholate-solubilized membranes were fractionated by lectin affinity chromatography using both concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and lentil lectin-Sepharose 4B. From 75 to 85% of the applied glycoprotein was recovered from the columns. From 30 to 40% of the recovered glycoprotein was specifically bound by the lectins and was eluted with 2% (w/v) alpha-methyl d-mannoside. The enrichment of labelled glycoproteins in the material bound by the lectins (2.5-fold) was similar with both lectins, although the yield was somewhat greater when lentil lectin was used. The glycoprotein-enriched fraction was also enriched in all the plasma-membrane marker enzymes, indicating their probable glycoprotein nature. 4. The glycoprotein-enriched fraction contained the four major periodic acid/Schiff-stained bands that were detected in the original plasma membrane. They had apparent mol.wts. 147000, 130500, 108000 and 91400. The higher-molecular-weight components contained relatively more d-[(3)H]glucosamine, indicating differences in the sugar composition or in the metabolic turnover of the individual glycoproteins in culture. The material bound by the lectins also contained a number of lower-molecular-weight Coomassie Brilliant Blue-stained components. These were weakly stained by periodic acid/Schiff reagent and were lightly labelled with d-[(3)H]glucosamine, indicating that they contained less carbohydrate than the four major glycoprotein bands. 5. Chloroform/methanol-extracted plasma membranes and isolated glycoproteins had a similar carbohydrate composition, containing sialic acid, hexosamine, fucose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose. Glucose was not enriched in the isolated glycoproteins, suggesting that it may be a contaminant. Xylose, however, was enriched in the isolated glycoproteins. It remains to be established whether this sugar, which is not usually found in plasma-membrane glycoproteins, is a genuine constituent of plasma-membrane glycoproteins in the epidermis.