GTP analogues cause preferential translocation of an 18 kDa cytosolic G-protein to the membrane fraction in the ZR-75-1 human breast-cancer cell line.
ABSTRACT: Several G-proteins (GTP-binding proteins) were identified by SDS/PAGE in the cytosol (105,000 g supernatant) and membrane fractions of the oestrogen-dependent human mammary-tumour cell line ZR-75-1. These proteins, with molecular masses in the range 18-29 kDa, specifically bind [alpha-32P]GTP, which can be displaced by unlabelled GTP, GDP and their non-hydrolysable analogues guanosine 5'-[delta-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]), but not by GMP, ATP, ADP, AMP and other unrelated nucleotides. The apparent dissociation constant for GTP was approx. 2 x 10(-8)M. Homogenization of ZR-75-1 cells in high-salt buffer (1 M-KCl), and successive washing of the membrane fraction, suggested that, among the major G-proteins found, the 18 kDa protein is predominantly soluble, whereas the 27-29 kDa complex is primarily bound to the membrane fraction under the experimental conditions employed. Possible translocation of these G-proteins between membrane and cytosol was analysed. No redistribution of the 27-29 kDa complex was observed, whereas GTP[S] in the presence of Mg2+ caused apparent translocation of the 18 kDa protein to the membrane fraction. This effect was specific for GTP and stable GTP analogues, whereas GDP, GMP, ATP, ADP, AMP and other unrelated nucleotides were ineffective. GTP[S] and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]-triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) were equally potent (apparent Kd approximately 5 x 10(-6)M), whereas GTP was rather weak. The nucleotide effect is temperature-, time- and concentration-dependent. The translocation process was reversible, slow, and reached its maximum between 30 and 60 min at 37 degrees C. The apparent translocation of this small G-protein from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, and the specific effect of GTP analogues, suggest that this process may have functional significance in mammary-tumour cells.
Project description:Low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins of the ras family were analysed by [32P]GTP binding after PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose membranes. By this technique, several GTP-binding proteins in the 20-30 kDa range were detected in both cytosolic and microsomal fractions of RINm5F cells. One of these, displaying an apparent molecular mass of about 20 kDa and a pI of 6.7, was mainly cytosolic and was shown to be the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) by using specific antibodies. When permeabilized RINm5F cells were incubated with the stable GTP analogues guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) the amount of ARF increased in a fraction containing both Golgi and plasma-membrane markers, but not in the fraction containing secretory granules, mitochondria and lysosomes. GTP, GDP and its beta-thio analogue did not enhance ARF binding to membranes, smg25/rab3 and rho, as well as all the other small GTP-binding proteins detected by the [32P]GTP binding, did not redistribute under these conditions. As GTP[S] stimulates insulin secretion in these cells, we also examined the relationship between ARF translocation and insulin secretion. Both phenomena were elicited by GTP[S] with an EC50 (median effective concentration) of about 10 microM. p[NH]ppG was equipotent with GTP[S] in inducing insulin secretion (EC50 about 10 microM), but higher concentrations (about 500 microns) were required to achieve the same maximal ARF redistribution. These results suggest that: (1) ARF is subject to cycling between a membrane-associated and a free/loosely attached form, determined by the species of bound guanine nucleotide; (2) ARF alone does not seem to regulate exocytosis in insulin-secreting cells.
Project description:Activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase of neutrophils requires the presence of cell membranes, cytosolic components and arachidonate and is markedly enhanced by non-hydrolysable analogues of guanine nucleotides, i.e. guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5'[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG). Gel filtration and ultrafiltration of the cytosol decreased the basal activity of NADPH oxidase. Activity could be restored by GTP, suggesting participation of the nucleotide in basal activation. Preincubation of neutrophil cytosol with periodate-oxidized p[NH]ppG (ox-p[NH]ppG) followed by gel filtration resulted in a time-dependent enhancement of basal oxidase activity. The presence of GDP or GTP, but not ATP, during the incubation with ox-p[NH]ppG abolished this enhancement. These data are consistent with a stable association of ox-p[NH]ppG with an oxidase-linked cytosolic protein. SDS/PAGE of neutrophil cytosol preincubated with [3H]ox-p[NH]ppG revealed radioactivity in bands migrating as 100, 70, 47, 34 and 22 kDa proteins. Evidence for covalent labelling of the cytosolic protein p47-phox with [3H]ox-p[NH]ppG is presented. Heterogeneity of cytosolic GTP-binding sites and possible participation of protein p47-phox in functional interaction with GTP analogues during cell-free activation are suggested.
Project description:As assessed both by cholera-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation and by immunoblotting with an anti-peptide antiserum raised against the C-terminal decapeptide of forms of Gs alpha (the alpha subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein), rat glioma C6 BU1 cells express two forms of Gs alpha: a major 44 kDa form and a much less prevalent 42 kDa form. We examined the effects of guanine nucleotides on the interaction of the 44 kDa form with the plasma membrane. Incubation of membranes of C6 BU1 cells with poorly hydrolysed analogues of GTP, but not with analogues of either ATP or GDP, caused the release of this Gs alpha from the membrane fraction. Release of Gs alpha was observed within 5 min, and continued throughout the incubation period. After treatment with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate for 60 min, some 75% of this polypeptide had been released from its site of membrane attachment. These experiments demonstrate that Gs alpha need not remain associated invariantly with the plasma membrane.
Project description:The major pertussis-toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein of rat glioma C6 BU1 cells corresponded immunologically to Gi2. Antibodies which recognize the alpha subunit of this protein indicated that it has an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa and a pI of 5.7. Incubation of membranes of these cells with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, or other analogues of GTP, caused release of this polypeptide from the membrane in a time-dependent manner. Analogues of GDP or of ATP did not mimic this effect. The GTP analogues similarly caused release of the alpha subunit of Gi2 from membranes of C6 cells in which this G-protein had been inactivated by pretreatment with pertussis toxin. The beta subunit was not released from the membrane under any of these conditions, indicating that the release process was a specific response to the dissociation of the G-protein after binding of the GTP analogue. Similar nucleotide profiles for release of the alpha subunits of forms of Gi were noted for membranes of both the neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 and of human platelets. These data provide evidence that: (1) pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins, in native membranes, do indeed dissociate into alpha and beta gamma subunits upon activation; (2) the alpha subunit of 'Gi-like' proteins need not always remain in intimate association with the plasma membrane; and (3) the alpha subunit of Gi2 can still dissociate from the beta/gamma subunits after pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation.
Project description:As a first step in determining the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion stimulated by GTP in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), we have looked for GTP-binding proteins. Rough microsomes from rat liver were treated for the release of ribosomes, and the membrane proteins were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The polypeptides were then blotted on to nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP [Bhullar & Haslam (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620]. A doublet of polypeptides (23 and 24 kDa) was detected in the presence of 2 microM-MgCl2. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP was blocked by 1-5 mM-EDTA, 10-10,000 nM-GTP or 10 microM-GDP. Either guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate at 100 nM completely inhibited binding, but ATP, CTP or UTP at 10 mciroM did not. Pretreatment of microsomes by mild trypsin treatment (0.5-10 micrograms of trypsin/ml, concentrations known not to affect microsomal permeability) led to inhibition of [alpha-32P]GTP binding, suggesting a cytosolic membrane orientation for the GTP-binding proteins. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis revealed the 23 and 24 kDa [alpha-32P]GTP-binding proteins to have similar acid isoelectric points. [alpha-32P]GTP binding occurred to similar proteins of rough microsomes from rat liver, rat prostate and dog pancreas, as well as to a 23 kDa protein of rough microsomes from frog liver, but occurred to distinctly different proteins in a rat liver plasma-membrane-enriched fraction. Thus [alpha-32P]GTP binding has been demonstrated to two low-molecular-mass (approx. 21 kDa) proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of several varied cell types.
Project description:The effect of GTP analogues on catecholamine secretion and [3H]arachidonic acid release from digitonin-permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells was examined. Several GTP analogues stimulated Ca2(+)-independent exocytosis, with the order of efficacy being XTP greater than ITP greater than guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) greater than guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]). The stimulatory effect of the GTP analogues appeared to be due to activation of a conventional GTP-binding protein, as it was inhibited by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]). In contrast, Ca2(+)-dependent exocytosis was only partially inhibited by high doses of GDP[S]. GTP did not stimulate Ca2(+)-independent exocytosis, but instead was found to inhibit secretion caused by micromolar Ca2+. Arachidonic acid (100 microM) also stimulated Ca2(+)-independent catecholamine secretion. Determination of the effect of GTP analogues on release of free [3H]arachidonic acid into the medium showed that it was stimulated by GTP[S] but inhibited by GTP, p[NH]ppG, ITP and XTP. The inhibition of [3H]arachidonic acid release by XTP was not prevented by GDP[S]. These results demonstrate that activation of a GTP-binding protein by certain GTP analogues can induce Ca2(+)-independent secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells and that the effect of GTP analogues on Ca2(+)-independent secretion can be dissociated from generation of arachidonic acid.
Project description:It is well established that both GTP-binding proteins and phosphoproteins are involved in the control of exocytosis in the exocrine pancreas. Exocytotic membrane fusion is stimulated by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, and the phosphorylation states of several proteins, including at least one on the zymogen granule membrane, are known to change during exocytosis. We show here that a nucleoside diphosphate kinase is associated with the cytoplasmic face of pancreatic zymogen granules. This enzyme behaves as a phosphoprotein of apparent molecular mass 21 kDa on SDS/polyacrylamide gels, and is able to produce GTP by using ATP to phosphorylate endogenous GDP. GTP production by nucleoside diphosphate kinase is stimulated by the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, both through a direct action on the enzyme and through its ability to increase the availability of endogenous GDP. Two effects of the GTP produced by nucleoside diphosphate kinase are demonstrated: phosphorylation of a 37 kDa zymogen granule protein on histidine residues, and stimulation of the fusion of zymogen granules with pancreatic plasma membranes in vitro. These results suggest that granule-associated nucleoside diphosphate kinase is able to maintain local GTP concentrations, and raise the possibility that it might be involved in the control of exocytosis in the pancreatic acinar cell.
Project description:Membrane proteins from rabbit and human platelets were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and the resolved polypeptides blotted on nitrocellulose. A family of GTP-binding proteins, termed Gn proteins, was detected by incubation of these blots with [alpha-32P]GTP in the presence of Mg2+. A major Gn protein with a molecular mass of 27 kDa (Gn27) and lesser amounts of 23, 24 and 25 kDa Gn proteins were observed in platelet membranes; much smaller amounts were in the platelet soluble fraction. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP by platelet Gn proteins was blocked by GDP, GTP or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, but not by GMP or adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. Rabbit and human red-cell membranes contained only Gn27. When rat tissues were analysed for Gn proteins, the largest amounts were found in brain, which contained two membrane-bound forms (Gn27 and Gn26) and a soluble form (Gn26).
Project description:We aimed to elucidate the putative role of GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of insulin biosynthesis. For this purpose, freshly isolated rat islets were incubated in the presence of liposomes containing GDP, guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]), GTP, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-methylene]triphosphate (p[CH2]ppG), guanosine 5'[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) and ATP, and the effects of the liposomal delivery of these substances on rates of biosynthesis of insulin and total protein were determined. Insulin biosynthesis during a 1 h incubation at 1.67 mM-glucose was stimulated by ATP- and GTP[S]-containing liposomes as compared with control liposomes. At 16.7 mM-glucose, only the GTP[S]-containing liposomes stimulated insulin biosynthesis. No inhibition of islet protein and insulin synthesis was observed with GDP-, GDP[S]-, p[CH2]ppG- and p[NH]ppG-containing liposomes. By determining the subcellular distribution of insulin mRNA, it was found that the mRNA content associated with microsomes was increased and that associated with the cytosolic mono-/poly-somes decreased when the islets were incubated with GTP[S]-containing liposomes, resulting in an approximate doubling of the ratio of microsomal to polysomal-associated insulin mRNA. ATP-containing liposomes produced no effects on the association of insulin mRNA with microsomes. By using photoaffinity labelling and immunoprecipitation techniques, specific binding of GTP[35S] to the alpha-subunit of the signal-recognition particle (SRP) receptor in islet homogenates containing physiological concentrations of GTP and GDP was demonstrated. These findings suggest that the GTP-binding subunit(s) of the SRP receptor, and possibly also of other GTP-binding proteins involved in this process, may regulate insulin biosynthesis by stimulating the translocation of insulin mRNA to the endoplasmic reticulum and by increasing preproinsulin-peptide translocation into the lumen of the reticulum.
Project description:Activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in phagocytic leucocytes requires protein components present in both the plasma membrane and the cytosol, but the catalytic and regulatory factors are not fully defined. We have characterized the effect of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) on the subcellular requirements for reconstitution of PLD activity, using a cell-free system from U937 human promonocytic leucocytes. Incubation of permeabilized cells with 100 microM GTP[S] resulted in a membrane-localized PLD activity which was independent of added cytosol. The PLD activity of membranes from GTP[S]-treated cells was 7-fold greater than the basal activity of control membranes, and could be further augmented by the addition of ATP. This was the first demonstration of a stable agonist-regulated PLD activity in membranes from phagocytic leucocytes which was quantitatively comparable with that seen in a fully reconstituted system. Cytosol from GTP[S]-treated cells had a decreased capacity to support PLD activation, consistent with GTP[S]-induced depletion of a factor essential for reconstitution of PLD activity. Incubation of isolated membrane and cytosol with GTP[S] also resulted in a cytosol-independent PLD activity in the re-isolated membranes. The effect of GTP[S] could be mimicked by guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, but not by aluminium fluoride, consistent with the involvement of a low-molecular-mass GTP-binding protein(s). Incubation of isolated subcellular fractions with GTP[S], followed by removal of unbound nucleotide, suggested that at least one of the GTP-binding proteins involved in the membrane localization of PLD activity was itself present in the membrane fraction. These data were consistent with a model in which activation of GTP-binding protein(s) resulted in the stable assembly of an active PLD signalling complex at the membrane surface.