Effect of guanine nucleotides on polyphosphoinositide synthesis in rat liver plasma membranes.
ABSTRACT: The effect of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) on PtdIns and PtdIns(4)P kinase activities was measured in rat liver plasma membranes. The addition of [32P]ATP resulted in the rapid incorporation of 32P into PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P2, with maximal levels reached within 30 s. GTP[S] (25-500 microM) increased the rate and magnitude of [32P]PtdIns(4)P and [32P]PtdIns(4,5)P2 formation by 50 and 120% respectively. Similar stimulatory effects were induced by guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, GTP, GDP and guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. The stimulation of PtdIns phosphorylation by GTP[S] occurred in the presence of 2 mM-EGTA, a condition which fully inhibited phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. GTP[S] did not stimulate phosphomonoesterase activity, and its action was not due to the binding of magnesium. However, the overall ATP-hydrolysing activity of the membrane preparation was inhibited by GTP[S] and the other guanine nucleotides. There was a direct correlation between the extent of this inhibition and the stimulation of polyphosphoinositide formation. The results indicate that stimulation of polyphosphoinositide formation by guanine nucleotides in rat liver plasma membranes can be accounted for by an inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. These data are inconsistent with a specific GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated stimulation of PtdIns or PtdIns(4)P kinase.
Project description:The effect of the GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) on the polyphosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC) of rat liver was examined by using exogenous [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. GTP[S] stimulated the membrane-bound PLC up to 20-fold, with a half-maximal effect at approx. 100 nM. Stimulation was also observed with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate, but not with adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, and was inhibited by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. Membrane-bound PLC was entirely Ca2+-dependent, and GTP[S] produced both a decrease in the Ca2+ requirement and an increase in activity at saturating [Ca2+]. The stimulatory action of GTP[S] required millimolar Mg2+. [8-arginine]Vasopressin (100 nM) stimulated the PLC activity approx. 2-fold in the presence of 10 nM-GTP[S], but had no effect in the absence of GTP[S] or at 1 microM-GTP[S]. The hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 by membrane-bound PLC was increased when the substrate was mixed with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine or various combinations of these with phosphatidylserine. With PtdIns(4,5)P2, alone or mixed with phosphatidylcholine, GTP[S] evoked little or no stimulation of the PLC activity. However, maximal stimulation by GTP[S] was observed in the presence of a 2-fold molar excess of phosphatidylserine or various combinations of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. Hydrolysis of [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by membrane-bound PLC was also increased by GTP[S]. However, [3H]phosphatidylinositol was a poor substrate, and its hydrolysis was barely affected by GTP[S]. Cytosolic PtdIns(4,5)P2-PLC exhibited a Ca2+-dependence similar to that of the membrane-bound activity, but was unaffected by GTP[S]. It is concluded that rat liver plasma membranes possess a Ca2+-dependent polyphosphoinositide PLC that is activated by hormones and GTP analogues, depending on the Mg2+ concentration and phospholipid environment. It is proposed that GTP analogues and hormones, acting through a guanine nucleotide-binding protein, activate the enzyme mainly by lowering its Ca2+ requirement.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] of turkey erythrocytes were labelled by using either [32P]Pi or [3H]inositol. Although there was little basal release of inositol phosphates from membranes purified from labelled cells, in the presence of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) the rate of accumulation of inositol bis-, tris- and tetrakis-phosphate (InsP2, InsP3 and InsP4) was increased 20-50-fold. The enhanced rate of accumulation of 3H-labelled inositol phosphates was linear for up to 20 min; owing to decreases in 32P specific radioactivity of phosphoinositides during incubation of membranes with unlabelled ATP, the accumulation of 32P-labelled inositol phosphates was linear for only 5 min. In the absence of ATP and a nucleotide-regenerating system, no InsP4 was formed, and the overall inositol phosphate response to GTP[S] was decreased. Analyses of phosphoinositides during incubation with ATP indicated that interconversions of PtdIns to PtdIns4P and PtdIns4P to PtdIns(4,5)P2 occurred to maintain PtdIns(4,5)P2 concentrations; GTP[S]-induced inositol phosphate formation was accompanied by a corresponding decrease in 32P- and 3H-labelled PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. In the absence of ATP, only GTP[S]-induced decreases in PtdIns(4,5)P2 occurred. Since inositol monophosphate was not formed under any condition, PtdIns is not a substrate for the phospholipase C. The production of InsP2 was decreased markedly, but not blocked, under conditions where Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphomonoesterase activity in the preparation was inhibited. Thus the predominant substrate of the GTP[S]-activated phospholipase C of turkey erythrocyte membranes is PtdIns(4,5)P2. Ins(1,4,5)P3 was the major product of this reaction; only a small amount of Ins(1:2-cyclic, 4,5)P3 was released. The effects of ATP on inositol phosphate formation apparently involve the contributions of two phenomena. First, the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2MeSATP) greatly increased inositol phosphate formation and decreased [3H]PtdIns4P and [3H]PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the presence of a low (0.1 microM) concentration of GTP[S]. ATP over the concentration range 0-100 microM produced effects in the presence of 0.1 microM-GTP[S] essentially identical with those observed with 2MeSATP, suggesting that the effects of low concentrations of ATP are also explained by a stimulation of P2-receptors. Higher concentrations of ATP also increase inositol phosphate formation, apparently by supporting the synthesis of substrate phospholipids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:We have studied the effects of fluoride, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and carbachol on phospholipase C and polyphosphoinositide synthesis. The experimental system consisted of membranes from rat brain cortex, with exogenous [3H]phosphatidylinositol ([3H]PtdIns) as substrate. In such systems, we have not found evidence to support carbachol and/or GTP[S] stimulation of PtdIns phosphorylation. Fluoride inhibited synthesis of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 from PtdIns. Consequently, under conditions where breakdown of polyphosphoinositides by phospholipase C was dependent on PtdIns kinase activity, fluoride inhibited activation by GTP[S] plus carbachol of phospholipase C. When conditions allowed direct breakdown of PtdIns and precluded PtdIns kinase activity, the stimulatory effects of fluoride and GTP[S] plus carbachol on phospholipase C activity were additive.
Project description:One of the earliest actions of thrombin in fibroblasts is stimulation of a phospholipase C (PLC) that hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol. In membranes prepared from WI-38 human lung fibroblasts, thrombin activated an inositol-lipid-specific PLC that hydrolysed [32P]PIP2 and [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PIP) to [32P]IP3 and [32P]inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) respectively. Degradation of [32P]phosphatidylinositol was not detected. PLC activation by thrombin was dependent on GTP, and was completely inhibited by a 15-fold excess of the non-hydrolysable GDP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]). Neither ATP nor cytosol was required. Guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) also stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, and this activation was inhibited by GDP[S]. Stimulation of PLC by either thrombin or p[NH]ppG was dependent on Ca2+. Activation by thrombin required Ca2+ concentrations between 1 and 100 nM, whereas stimulation of PLC activity by GTP required concentrations of Ca2+ above 100 nM. Thus the mitogen thrombin increased the sensitivity of PLC to concentrations of free Ca2+ similar to those found in quiescent fibroblasts. Under identical conditions, another mitogen, platelet-derived growth factor, did not stimulate polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis. It is concluded that an early post-receptor effect of thrombin is the activation of a Ca2+- and GTP-dependent membrane-associated PLC that specifically cleaves PIP2 and PIP. This result suggests that the cell-surface receptor for thrombin is coupled to a polyphosphoinositide-specific PLC by a GTP-binding protein that regulates PLC activity by increasing its sensitivity to Ca2+.
Project description:Both micromolar Ca2+ and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) stimulated the formation of inositol phosphates (InsPs) in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells prelabelled with [3H]inositol. The production of InsPs was potentiated by ATP. Guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) caused a GTP-reversible shift to higher concentrations in the Ca(2+)-concentration-response curve for the release of InsPs without changing the maximal response. GTP[S] caused a shift to lower concentrations of Ca2+ and also increased the maximal response. The effects of GTP[S] and Ca2+ were synergistic. Although as much as 80% of the InsPs were derived from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdInsP) or 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2), the amount of InsPs produced could be several times the total amount of PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 in the cells and was largely accounted for by a decrease in PtdIns. The levels of labelled PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 increased on stimulation with Ca2+, but decreased on stimulation with GTP[S] or the combination of Ca2+ and GTP[S]. Preincubation with Ca2+ and ATP amplified the subsequent GTP[S]-induced production of InsPs. ATP and its gamma-thio and beta gamma-imido analogues stimulated the formation of InsPs in intact cells. However, only ATP potentiated the responses to Ca2+ and GTP[S] in permeable cells. Our main conclusions are: (1) a GTP-binding protein participates in the Ca(2+)-induced production of InsPs by phospholipase C, and (2) ATP markedly potentiates the stimulated formation of InsPs, an effect with arises from its role in polyphosphoinositide synthesis and does not involve purinergic receptor activation in permeabilized cells. The data also suggest that the different effects of Ca2+ and GTP[S] on polyphosphoinositide synthesis probably contribute to the synergistic action of Ca2+ and GTP[S] on the generation of InsPs.
Project description:Rat hepatocytes rapidly incorporate [32P]Pi into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]; their monoester phosphate groups approach isotopic equilibrium with the cellular precursor pools within 1 h. Upon stimulation of these prelabelled cells with Ca2+-mobilizing stimuli (V1-vasopressin, angiotensin, alpha 1-adrenergic, ATP) there is a rapid fall in the labelling of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. Pharmacological studies suggest that each of the four stimuli acts at a different population of receptors. Insulin, glucagon and prolactin do not provoke disappearance of labelled PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. The labelling of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 in cells stimulated with vasopressin or angiotensin initially declines at a rate of 0.5-1.0% per s, reaches a minimum after 1-2 min and then returns towards the initial value. The dose-response curves for the vasopressin- and angiotensin-stimulated responses lie close to the respective receptor occupation curves, rather than at the lower hormone concentrations needed to evoke activation of glycogen phosphorylase. Disappearance of labelled PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 is not observed when cells are incubated with the ionophore A23187. The hormone-stimulated polyphosphoinositide disappearance is reduced, but not abolished, in Ca2+-depleted cells. These hormonal effects are not modified by 8-bromo cyclic GMP, cycloheximide or delta-hexachlorocyclohexane. The absolute rate of polyphosphoinositide breakdown in stimulated cells is similar to the rate previously reported for the disappearance of phosphatidylinositol [Kirk, Michell & Hems (1981) Biochem. J. 194, 155-165]. It seems likely that these changes in polyphosphoinositide labelling are caused by hormonal activation of the breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2 (and may be also PtdIns4P) by the action of a polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase. We therefore suggest that the initial response to hormones is breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2 (and PtdIns4P?), and that the simultaneous disappearance of phosphatidylinositol might be a result of its consumption for the continuing synthesis of polyphosphoinositides.
Project description:Stimulated hydrolysis of the inositol phospholipids phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] was investigated by studying the phosphoinositides produced in a suspended preparation of plasma membranes by transference of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP. At basal Ca2+ concentration (calculated free Ca2+, 150 nM) phospholipid hydrolysis was stimulated either by the muscarinic agonists carbamoylcholine and bethanecol or by the addition of the non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate [p(NH)ppG]. GTP was without effect on basal hyrolysis. Both GTP and p(NH)ppG enhanced the rapid (within 10 s) hydrolysis of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 induced by carbamoylcholine in a dose-dependent manner. A rightward shift in the competition curve of carbamoylcholine for bound L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate was seen on addition of GTP or p(NH)ppG (100 microM) under phosphorylating conditions. Pretreatment of intact islet cells with Bordetella pertussis toxin, islet-activating protein (IAP) or treatment of membranes with IAP under conditions which elicited ADP-ribosylation of a protein of Mr 41,000 was without effect on muscarinic binding, phosphoinositide phosphorylation or subsequent hydrolysis by carbamoylcholine. The findings indicate the involvement of a GTP-binding protein in the coupling of the muscarinic receptor to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the islet cell and suggest that this is distinct from the GTP-binding regulatory component of adenylate cyclase which is covalently modified by IAP.
Project description:[3H]Inositol and [32P]Pi labelling of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza L. revealed the presence of PtdIns(3,4)P2, in addition to PtdIns3P, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 previously identified [Brearley and Hanke (1992) Biochem. J. 283, 255-260]. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was not detected. Throughout a 40 min [32P]Pi-labelling period the specific radioactivity of the gamma-phosphate of ATP and of the ATP pool as a whole increased. Chemical and enzymic dissection of phosphoinositides obtained from plants labelled for 35 min with [32P]Pi showed that over 99.7% of the label in PtdIns3P and PtdIns4P was accounted for by the monoester phosphates. The 3- and 4-monoester phosphates of PtdIns(3,4)P2 accounted for 23.1% and 76.6% respectively of the label, whereas the 4- and 5-monoester phosphates of PtdIns(4,5)P2 accounted for 21.1% and 78.6% respectively. These results are consistent with the synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 via PtdIns4P. The labelling of the individual phosphates of PtdIns(3,4)P2 is, however, inconsistent with synthesis from PtdIns(4,5)P2 via PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, but instead suggests that PtdIns(3,4)P2 is synthesized by 4-phosphorylation of PtdIns3P. These results afford the first evidence that in plants in vivo, synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 follows the pathway described in animal cells and also that plants possess PtdIns3P 4-kinase activity similar to that reported from animal cells.
Project description:(1) The removal of the nuclear envelope from isolated rat-liver nuclei by washing with Triton X-100 (TX-100) was assessed by electron microscopy. All the envelope was removed by 0.04% (w/v) TX-100. (2) After this removal, phosphorylation of inositol lipids and diacylglycerol (DAG) from [gamma-32P]ATP still occurs, despite the near complete absence of detectable (by mass assay) DAG and PtdIns. This suggests that the majority of these two lipids in nuclei are present in the nuclear membrane, but the small amounts remaining after extraction, defined as intranuclear, are available for phosphorylation by lipid kinases (36% for DAG and 24% for PtdIns respectively, when expressed as a percentage of incorporation of intact nuclei). (3) PtdIns(4,5)P2 did not follow the same pattern as PtdIns and DAG; after removal of the nuclear membrane, 40% of the mass of this lipid was left in the nucleus. Moreover, a similar amount of PtdIns(4,5)P2 was also resistant to extraction with even higher concentrations of detergent, suggesting that PtdIns(4,5)P2 has a discrete intranuclear location, probably bound to nuclear proteins. (4) Addition of exogenous substrates, PtdIns, PtdIns(4)P and DAG, to membrane-depleted nuclei resulted in reconstitution of the majority of lipid phosphorylations from [gamma-32P]ATP (70%, 90% and 94% of intact nuclei respectively), suggesting a predominantly intranuclear location for the respective kinases. (5) Nuclei also showed phosphomonoesterase and phosphatidic acid hydrolase activity; dephosphorylation of pre-radiolabelled PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidic acid was observed when [gamma-32P]ATP was removed. However, some of the radioactivity was apparently resistant to these enzymes, suggesting the existence of multiple pools of these lipids. (6) Addition of excess non-radiolabelled ATP to nuclei pre-labelled with [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in an initial increase in the label in PtdIns(4,5)P2, implying a precursor-product relationship between the radiolabelled pools of PtdIns(4)P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This was confirmed by analysis of the incorporation of 32P into the 4'-phosphate group of PtdIns(4)P and the individual 4'- and 5'-phosphate groups of PtdIns(4,5)P2. The data from these experiments also indicated that PtdIns(4,5)P2 can be produced from a pre-existing pool of PtdIns(4)P, as well as de novo from PtdIns. (7) Taken together our data suggest that isolated rat-liver nuclei have an intranuclear inositol lipid metabolism mechanism utilizing enzymes and substrates equivalent to those found in cytosol and plasma membrane, and that there may be some, but not complete, compartmentalization of the components of the nuclear inositol cycle.
Project description:Isolated islets were incubated with [32P]P1 and radiolabelling of polyphosphoinositides were determined. Labelling equilibrium was approached after 45 min, with a half-time of 15 min. D-Glucose decreased the amount of [32P]PO4 in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) within 0.5 min, and loss of radiolabel was still evident at 1 min. [32P]PO4 levels in polyphosphoinositides returned to basal levels within 5 min. Neither D-galactose nor D-glucose after pretreatment of islets with mannoheptulose elicited the polyphosphoinositide effect. The glucose-stimulated breakdown of polyphosphoinositides was inhibited by EGTA; re-addition of Ca2+ partially restored the glucose effect. Ionomycin and tolbutamide promoted the rapid breakdown of PtdIns(4,5)P2, whereas the breakdown of PtdIns4P was less rapid and of a lesser magnitude. The results suggest that the Ca2+-dependent breakdown of polyphosphoinositides in an early metabolic event during the initiation of insulin release.