Relationship between the calcium-mobilizing action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeable AR4-2J cells and the estimated levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in intact AR4-2J cells.
ABSTRACT: Various experimental strategies were employed in an effort to explain the previously reported [Horstman, Takemura & Putney (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15297-15303] paradoxically high levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3] in resting and substance-P-stimulated AR4-2J cells. The concentration-effect curves for substance-P-induced [3H](1,4,5)IP3 formation in [3H]inositol-labelled cells and substance-P-induced increase in intracellular [Ca2+] were essentially superimposable, suggesting that formation of (1,4,5)IP3 is limiting for cellular Ca2+ mobilization. In electrically permeabilized AR4-2J cells, (1,4,5)IP3 and other inositol polyphosphates stimulated Ca2+ release with potencies similar to those reported for other cell types, including the parent pancreatic acinar cell. Compartmentalization of basal (1,4,5)IP3 was suggested by the fact that this material was stable in the presence of antimycin A, although this toxin completely blocked agonist stimulation of phospholipase C. However, subcellular fractionation as well as permeabilization of the cells with Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin failed to provide evidence for binding or sequestration of [3H](1,4,5)IP3 in AR4-2J cells. The density of (1,4,5)IP3 receptors in AR4-2J cells was not sufficiently large to impose non-linearity in the relationship between (1,4,5)IP3 concentration and (1,4,5)IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Thus the apparent high concentrations of (1,4,5)IP3 in resting and stimulated AR4-2J cells are not indicative of atypically low sensitivity or high concentration of (1,4,5)IP3 receptors, nor is there evidence for compartmentalization of (1,4,5)IP3 outside of the cytoplasm in these cells. It is possible that soluble factors in the cytoplasm of AR4-2J cells regulate the free concentration of (1,4,5)IP3 or the sensitivity of receptors to (1,4,5)IP3.
Project description:The identity of 3H-labelled material ascribed to Ins(1,4,5)P3 in resting or bombesin-stimulated myo-[3H]inositol-labelled AR4-2J cells was investigated by determining its ability to serve as substrate for partially purified Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)-P4 5-phosphatase and Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase. This 3H-labelled material was metabolized by these two enzymes at rates which were indistinguishable from those for an internal [32P]Ins(1,4,5)P3 standard, establishing its identity as authentic Ins(1,4,5)P3. In addition, and in contrast with findings in earlier studies utilizing substance P as an agonist, prolonged stimulation with bombesin resulted in an increase in an InsP4 which was degraded by Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase. These findings serve to confirm the previous estimate of Horstman, Takemura & Putney [(1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 15297-15303] for the intracellular concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in resting (2 microM) and agonist-stimulated (25 microM) AR4-2J cells. The implications of these findings for the physiological regulation of intracellular Ca2+ through this intracellular messenger are discussed.
Project description:In rat pancreatic acinar cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing receptor-agonist, caerulein, at both maximal and submaximal concentrations, stimulated a rapid, transient, increase in [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3], followed by a slower, sustained, increase in [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [(1,3,4)IP3]. Neither activation of protein kinase C by phorbol dibutyrate nor prevention of the caerulein-stimulated elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] significantly affected the pattern of formation of the two isomers of IP3. Although carbachol evoked an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], it did not significantly stimulate [3H](1,4,5)IP3 accumulation, but did promote [3H](1,3,4)IP3 accumulation. Moreover, both carbachol and caerulein maintained hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools in a Ca2+-depleted state after [3H](1,4,5)IP3 had returned to basal concentrations. One interpretation of these findings is that total cellular concentrations of [3H](1,4,5)IP3 may not accurately reflect the concentration of this putative mediator in biologically relevant compartments.
Project description:Recent studies have established that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [I(1,4,5)P3] provides the link between receptor-regulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Here, we report the effects of Ca2+ on inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation from phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) catalysed by phospholipase C in intact and electrically permeabilized rat pancreatic acinar cells. In permeabilized cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing agonist caerulein stimulated [3H]IP3 formation when the free [Ca2+] was buffered at 140 nM, the cytosolic free [Ca2+] of unstimulated pancreatic acinar cells. When the free [Ca2+] was reduced to less than 10 nM, caerulein did not stimulate [3H]IP3 formation. Ca2+ in the physiological range stimulated [3H]IP3 formation and reduced the amount of [3H]PIP2 in permeabilized cells. The effects of Ca2+ and the receptor agonist caerulein were additive, but we have not established whether this reflects independent effects on the same or different enzymes. The effect of Ca2+ on [3H]IP3 formation by permeabilized cells was unaffected by inhibitors of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism; nor were the effects of Ca2+ mimicked by addition of arachidonic acid. These results suggest that the effects of Ca2+ on phospholipase C activity are not a secondary consequence of Ca2+ activation of phospholipase A2. Changes in free [Ca2+] (less than 10 nM-1.2 mM) did not affect the metabolism of exogenous [3H]I(1,4,5)P3 by permeabilized cells. In permeabilized cells, breakdown of exogenous [3H]IP3 to [3H]IP2 (inositol bisphosphate), and formation of [3H]IP3 in response to receptor agonists were equally inhibited by 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid. This suggests that the [3H]IP2 formed in response to receptor agonists is entirely derived from [3H]IP3. In intact cells, [3H]IP3 formation was stimulated when ionomycin was used to increase the cytosolic free [Ca2+]. However, a maximal concentration of caerulein elicited ten times as much IP3 formation as did the highest physiologically relevant [Ca2+]. We conclude that the major effect of receptor agonists on IP3 formation does not require an elevation of cytosolic free [Ca2+], although the increase in free [Ca2+] that normally follows IP3 formation may itself have a small stimulatory effect on phospholipase C.
Project description:Polyamines are polycationic molecules essential for cell growth and differentiation. Recent work has focused on cell polyamine-transport systems as a way to regulate intracellular polyamine levels. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of two different active transporters for putrescine and spermidine in a rat tumoral cell line (AR4-2J). The first has a Km of 3.1 microM and a Vmax of 3.7 pmol/15 min per micrograms of DNA for putrescine and the second a Km of 0.42 microM and a Vmax of 4.7 pmol/15 min per micrograms of DNA for spermidine. Competition studies performed between the polyamines confirm the difference between these two carriers; one has an equal affinity for the three main polyamines, and the other has a lower affinity for putrescine. Amino acids do not share this transport system, which is Na(+)-independent. Choline chloride inhibits selectively and in a dose-responsive manner the uptake of putrescine without affecting that of spermidine. These data demonstrate that AR4-2J cells possess two polyamine transporters; one is specific for aminopropyl groups (spermidine and spermine), and the other is choline-sensitive, but cannot discriminate between aminobutyl (putrescine) and aminopropyl groups.
Project description:Calmodulin inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding to, and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by, cerebellar IP3 receptors [Patel, Morris, Adkins, O'Beirne and Taylor (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.A. 94, 11627-11632]. In the present study, full-length rat type-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed at high levels in insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and the effects of calmodulin were examined. In the absence of Ca2+, calmodulin caused a concentration-dependent and reversible inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors by decreasing their apparent affinity for IP3. The effect was not reproduced by high concentrations of troponin C, parvalbumin or S-100. Increasing the medium free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) inhibited [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 receptors, but the further inhibition caused by a submaximal concentration of calmodulin was similar at each [Ca2+]m. In the absence of Ca2+, 125I-calmodulin bound to a single site on each type-1 receptor subunit and to an additional site in the presence of Ca2+. There was no detectable binding of 125I-calmodulin to type-3 receptors and binding of [3H]IP3 was insensitive to calmodulin at all [Ca2+]m. Both peptide and conventional Ca2+-calmodulin antagonists affected neither [3H]IP3 binding directly nor the inhibitory effect of calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+, but each caused a [Ca2+]m-dependent reversal of the inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding caused by calmodulin. Camstatin, a peptide that binds to calmodulin equally well in the presence or absence of Ca2+, reversed the inhibitory effects of calmodulin on [3H]IP3 binding at all [Ca2+]m. We conclude that calmodulin specifically inhibits [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors: the first example of a protein regulated by calmodulin in an entirely Ca2+-independent manner. Inhibition of type-1 IP3 receptors by calmodulin may dynamically regulate their sensitivity to IP3 in response to the changes in cytosolic free calmodulin concentration thought to accompany stimulation of neurones.
Project description:Swiss 3T3 cells incubated for 60 h with [3H]inositol incorporated radioactivity into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and the two polyphosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). On stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) there were significant increases in the levels of inositol 1-phosphate (IP1), inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (IP2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). The effect of PDGF and IP3 on Ca2+ mobilization was studied in both intact cells and in 'leaky' cells that had been permeabilized with saponin. In intact cells, PDGF stimulated the efflux of 45Ca2+, whereas IP3 had no effect. Conversely, IP3 stimulated 45Ca2+ efflux from 'leaky' cells, which were insensitive to PDGF. 'Leaky' cells, which accumulated 45Ca2+ to a steady state within 20 min, were found to release approx. 40% of the label within 1 min after addition of 10 microM-IP3. This stimulation of 45Ca2+ release by IP3 was reversible and was also dose-dependent, with a half-maximal effect at approx. 0.3 microM. It seems likely that an important action of PDGF on Swiss 3T3 cells is to stimulate the hydrolysis of PIP2 to form IP3 and diacylglycerol, both of which may function as second messengers. Our results indicate that IP3 mobilizes intracellular Ca2+, and we propose that diacylglycerol may act through C-kinase to activate the Na+/H+ antiport. By generating two second messengers, PDGF can simultaneously elevate the intracellular level of Ca2+ and alkalinize the cytoplasm by lowering the level of H+.
Project description:The metabolism of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) was studied in permeabilized rat aortic smooth-muscle cells. Addition of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 to the leaky cells led to formation of several labelled metabolites. Amounts of [3H]inositol bisphosphate and [3H]inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4) reached a maximum within 2 min of incubation, whereas production of [3H]inositol monophosphate and [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3) was delayed. Formation of InsP4 and Ins(1,3,4)P3 was Ca2+-sensitive in the physiological intracellular range (0.06-5 microM), showing a maximum at 1 microM-Ca2+. A correlation between the formation of InsP4 and that of Ins(1,3,4)P3 was observed, suggesting that the former is the precursor of the latter. These results suggest that, in vascular smooth-muscle cells, Ins(1,4,5)P3 is metabolized via two distinct pathways: (1) a dephosphorylation pathway, leading to formation of inositol bis- and mono-phosphate; and (2) a Ca2+-sensitive phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway, involving formation of InsP4 and leading to formation of Ins(1,3,4)P3.
Project description:Inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] is one of the key intracellular second messengers in cells and mobilizes Ca2+ stores in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). Ins(1,4,5)P3 has a short half-life within the cell, and is rapidly metabolized through one of two pathways, one of which involves further phosphorylation of the inositol ring: Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase (IP3-3K) phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3, resulting in the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4]. There are three known isoforms of IP3-3K, designated IP3-3KA, IP3-3KB and IP3-3KC. These have differing N-termini, but highly conserved C-termini harbouring the catalytic domain. The three IP3-3K isoforms have different subcellular locations and the B-kinase is uniquely present in both cytosolic and membrane-bound pools. As it is the N-terminus of the B-kinase that differs most from the A- and C-kinases, we have hypothesized that this portion of the protein may be responsible for membrane localization. Although there are no known membrane-targeting protein motifs within the sequence of IP3-3KB, it is found to be tightly associated with the ER membrane. Here, we show that specific regions of the N-terminus of IP3-3KB are necessary and sufficient for efficient membrane localization of the protein. We also report that, in the presence of Ca2+, the kinase domain of IP3-3KB is cleaved from the membrane-anchoring region by calpain.
Project description:The effects of sphingosine derivatives on Ca2+ fluxes were investigated in thyroid FRTL-5 cells labelled with Fura 2. Addition of sphingosylphosphocholine (SPC) or sphingosine (SP) increased intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose tested (30 microM), the response was biphasic: a rapid transient increase in [Ca2+]i, followed by a new, elevated, level of [Ca2+]i. Both phases of the SPC-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i were dependent on extracellular Ca2+, whereas only the SP-evoked elevated level of [Ca2+]i was dependent on the influx of Ca2+. Both compounds released sequestered Ca2+ from thapsigargin- and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ pools. In addition, the increase in [Ca2+]i in response to SPC, but not to SP, was attenuated in cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate or with the putative Ca(2+)-channel blocker SKF 96365, and in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin for 24 h. SPC did not activate the production of IP3. Furthermore, both SPC and SP released sequestered Ca2+ from permeabilized cells. We observed that SPC, but not SP, stimulated release of [3H]arachidonate from cells prelabelled with [3H]arachidonate for 24 h. Both SPC and SP stimulated the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA in cells grown in the absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The results suggest that sphingosine derivatives are putative regulators of Ca2+ fluxes in FRTL-5 cells, and that SP and SPC may act on [Ca2+]i via different mechanisms. Furthermore, both SP and SPC may be of importance in modulating thyroid-cell proliferation.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosohate (IP3) and its receptors play a pivotal role in calcium signal transduction in mammals. Some fractions of tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum membranes have high affinity binding activity for IP3, and IP3 can induce Ca2+ release in several plants. However, no homologues of mammalian IP3 receptors have been found in plants. In this study, we isolated the microsomal fractions from rice cells in suspension culture and further obtained putative IP3-binding proteins by heparin-agarose affinity purification. The IP3 binding activities of these protein fractions were determined by [3H]IP3 binding assay. SDS-PAGE and MS analysis were then performed to characterise these proteins. We have identified 297 proteins from the eluates of heparin-agarose column chromatography, which will provide insight into the IP3 signalling pathways in plants.