Similarity between physicochemical properties of recombinant rat prorenin and native inactive renin.
ABSTRACT: Rat prorenin was synthesized by Chinese-hamster ovary cells transfected with an expression vector containing rat preprorenin cDNA sequences, then purified by concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography and h.p.l.c. on G3000SW. The molecular mass of purified prorenin was 46,000 Da, as determined by h.p.l.c. on G3000SW. Immunoblot analysis indicated that recombinant prorenin cross-reacted with anti-(mature renin) antibody and two kinds of antibodies recognizing the N-terminus and C-terminus of the prosegment of rat prorenin. Recombinant prorenin was bound to a Cibacron Blue-Sepharose column and eluted with 1.4 M-NaCl, but was not retained by an octapeptide renin inhibitor (H-77)-Sepharose column. Trypsin activation of prorenin increased the renin activity 110-fold, caused binding to an H-77-Sepharose column and nullified the reactivity to the above two kinds of anti-prosegment antibodies, findings indicating that the activation of prorenin with trypsin is due to the cleavage of the prosegment. Rat plasma inactive renin, partially purified by h.p.l.c. on G3000SW, had much the same physicochemical characteristics as the recombinant prorenin. These results provide evidence that rat plasma inactive renin is prorenin. Recombinant prorenin is a useful material for examining the physiological role of circulating prorenin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) cascade is a major target for the clinical management of hypertension. Although inhibitors of various components of this cascade have been developed successfully, development of renin inhibitors has proven to be problematic. The development of these inhibitors has been hindered by poor bioavailability and complex synthesis. However, despite the challenges of designing renin inhibitors, the enzyme remains a promising target for the development of novel treatments for hypertension. X-ray crystallographic data could greatly assist the design and development of these inhibitors. Here we describe the purification and characterization of recombinant human renin for x-ray crystallization studies. RESULTS: A cDNA encoding the full length of native human preprorenin (406 amino acid residues) was introduced into the HEK-293 cell line. A clonal cell line expressing prorenin was generated and grown under serum free conditions in a hollow fiber bioreactor. Prorenin was constitutively secreted and purified directly from the conditioned medium. Concanavalin A chromatography effectively enriched and purified prorenin to 90% homogeneity in a single step. Prorenin was converted to active renin by trypsin digestion to remove the propeptide. Active renin was further purified using a cation exchange column followed by a gel filtration column. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed both binding and catalytic properties were essentially identical to previously reported activities for purified renin. Crystals were grown using this material in our X-ray structure studies, and high resolution diffraction was obtained. CONCLUSION: This present work describes a simple and efficient method for the generation and purification of active human renin. The protein is highly pure and is suitable for supporting structural biology efforts.
Project description:We found that when a site-specific binding protein interacts with the "handle" region of the prorenin prosegment, the prorenin molecule undergoes a conformational change to its enzymatically active state. This nonproteolytic activation is completely blocked by a decoy peptide with the handle region structure, which competitively binds to such a binding protein. Given increased plasma prorenin in diabetes, we examined the hypothesis that the nonproteolytic activation of prorenin plays a significant role in diabetic organ damage. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous administration of handle region peptide. Metabolic and renal histological changes and the renin-Ang system components in the plasma and kidneys were determined at 8, 16, and 24 weeks following streptozotocin treatment. Kidneys of diabetic rats contained increased Ang I and II without any changes in renin, Ang-converting enzyme, or angiotensinogen synthesis. Treatment with the handle region peptide decreased the renal content of Ang I and II, however, and completely inhibited the development of diabetic nephropathy without affecting hyperglycemia. We propose that the nonproteolytic activation of prorenin may be a significant mechanism of diabetic nephropathy. The mechanism and substances causing nonproteolytic activation of prorenin may serve as important therapeutic targets for the prevention of diabetic organ damage.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) 3-kinase, which phosphorylates InsP3 to form inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, was purified to apparent homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and sequential chromatographic steps on DEAE-sepharose, calmodulin-Affi-Gel and DEAE-5PW h.p.l.c. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 24.4 nmol of inositol tetrakisphosphate formed/min per mg of protein, which represented a purification of approx. 195-fold with a 0.29% recovery, compared with the cytosol fraction of the muscle. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed a single protein-staining band of Mr 93,000. Moreover, the major protein peak, of Mr 84,000, was detected by TSK gel G3000SW gel-permeation chromatography of the purified sample. As this value was approximately consistent with the Mr determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis, the InsP3 3-kinase might be a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme had a Km for InsP3 of 0.4 microM, with an optimum pH range of 5.8-7.7. The enzyme was maximally activated by calmodulin, with a stoichiometry of 1:1.
Project description:During renin-angiotensin system activation, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandins attenuate the pressor and antinatriuretic effects of angiotensin II (AngII) in the renal medulla. The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is abundantly expressed in the collecting ducts (CD) and its expression is augmented by AngII. PRR overexpression upregulates COX-2 via mitogen-activated kinases/extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 in renal tissues; however, it is not clear whether this effect occurs independently or in concert with AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. We hypothesized that PRR activation stimulates COX-2 expression independently of AT(1)R in primary cultures of rat renal inner medullary cells. The use of different cell-specific immunomarkers (aquaporin-2 for principal cells, anion exchanger type 1 for intercalated type-A cells, and tenascin C for interstitial cells) and costaining for AT(1)R, COX-2, and PRR revealed that PRR and COX-2 were colocalized in intercalated and interstitial cells whereas principal cells did not express PRR or COX-2. In normal rat kidney sections, PRR and COX-2 were colocalized in intercalated and interstitial cells. In rat renal inner medullary cultured cells, treatment with AngII (100 nmol/L) increased COX-2 expression via AT(1)R. In addition, AngII and rat recombinant prorenin (100 nmol/L) treatments increased extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation, independently. Importantly, rat recombinant prorenin upregulated COX-2 expression in the presence of AT(1)R blockade. Inhibition of mitogen-activated kinases/extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 suppressed COX-2 upregulation mediated by either AngII or rat recombinant prorenin. Furthermore, PRR knockdown using PRR-short hairpin RNA blunted the rat recombinant prorenin-mediated upregulation of COX-2. These results indicate that COX-2 expression is upregulated by activation of either PRR or AT(1)R via mitogen-activated kinases/extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 in rat renal inner medullary cells.
Project description:While elevated plasma prorenin levels are commonly found in diabetic patients and correlate with diabetic nephropathy, the pathological role of prorenin, if any, remains unclear. Prorenin binding to the (pro)renin receptor [(p)RR] unmasks prorenin catalytic activity. We asked whether elevated prorenin could be activated at the site of renal mesangial cells (MCs) through receptor binding without being proteolytically converted to renin. Recombinant inactive rat prorenin and a mutant prorenin that is noncleavable, i.e., cannot be activated proteolytically, are produced in 293 cells. After MCs were incubated with 10(-7) M native or mutant prorenin for 6 h, cultured supernatant acquired the ability to generate angiotensin I (ANG I) from angiotensinogen, indicating both prorenins were activated. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the (p)RR blocked their activation. Furthermore, either native or mutant rat prorenin at 10(-7) M alone similarly and significantly induced transforming growth factor-?(1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and fibronectin mRNA expression, and these effects were blocked by (p)RR siRNA, but not by the ANG II receptor antagonist, saralasin. When angiotensinogen was also added to cultured MCs with inactive native or mutant prorenin, PAI-1 and fibronectin were further increased significantly compared with prorenin or mutant prorenin alone. This effect was blocked partially by treatment with (p)RR siRNA or saralasin. We conclude that prorenin binds the (p)RR on renal MCs and is activated nonproteolytically. This activation leads to increased expression of PAI-1 and transforming growth factor-?(1) via ANG II-independent and ANG II-dependent mechanisms. These data provide a mechanism by which elevated prorenin levels in diabetes may play a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID or Sanfilippo D syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulphatase (Glc6S). In addition to human patients, a Nubian goat with this disorder has been described and the caprine Glc6S (cGlc6S) cDNA cloned. In this study, the full-length cGlc6S cDNA was inserted into the expression vector, pEFNeo, which placed the cGlc6S cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human polypeptide chain elongation factor promoter. The pEFNeo expression vector also contains the human growth hormone polyadenylation signal and the genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and G418. The cGlc6S expression construct was electroporated into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and stably transfected clones were isolated. One clone, CHOrcGlc6S.17, which secreted the highest Glc6S activity into the culture medium, was selected and cultured in cell factories. The secreted recombinant cGlc6S (rcGlc6S) precursor was purified to homogeneity from conditioned medium by a two-column procedure which consisted of a Cu2+-chelating Sepharose column followed by TSK G3000SW gel filtration. The native molecular mass of rcFlc6S was estimated to be 102 kDa and the subunit size was 94 kDa. The kinetic properties of cGlc6S were similar to those of human Glc6S isolated from liver. rcGlc6S was endocytosed by fibroblasts from patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated pathway resulting in correction of the storage phenotype of these cells.
Project description:A protein recognizing apolipoproteins AI, AII and AIV was purified from cultured mouse adipose cells of the Ob17MT18 clonal line. Apolipoprotein A binding sites were solubilized in the presence of proteinase inhibitors using the non-denaturating detergent CHAPS. Chromatography of the soluble extract on DEAE-Trisacryl was followed by immunoaffinity chromatography of the complex apolipoprotein AI-binding proteins on anti-(apolipoprotein AI) coupled to Sepharose 4B and then by h.p.l.c. on an RP-Select B column. A 1400-fold purification over the starting crude homogenate was achieved. The purified material contained two proteins that were both able to bind apolipoproteins AI, AII and AIV, but not low-density lipoprotein. Glycopeptidase F treatment showed the existence of a single protein bearing either N-linked high-mannose or complex oligosaccharide chains. The purified material showed an apparent molecular mass of 80 +/- 9 kDa by h.p.l.c. on a TSKG 3000 SW column. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies directed against the purified material revealed two protein bands of 80 and 92 kDa after SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and immunoblotting. These bands were undetectable in growing Ob17PY cells previously shown not to bind the various apolipoproteins A and not to undergo cholesterol efflux, whereas they were conspicuous in growth-arrested Ob17PY cells which have recovered these properties.
Project description:A new affinity column for renin was prepared by coupling the isosteric peptide inhibitor of renin, H.77 (D-His-Pro-Phe-His-LeuR-Leu-Val-Tyr, where R is a reduced isosteric bond, -CH2-NH-), to activated 6-aminohexanoic acid-Sepharose 4B. Chromatography of a crude extract of human kidney cortex on this material resulted in a 5500-fold purification of renin in 76% yield. The purified enzyme (specific activity 871 units/mg) was free of non-specific acid-proteinase activity and was stable at pH 6.8 and -20 degrees C over a period of several weeks.
Project description:Although elevated plasma prorenin levels are commonly found in diabetic patients and correlate with microvascular complications, the pathological role of these increases, if any, remains unclear. Prorenin/renin binding to the prorenin/renin receptor [(p)RR] enhances the efficiency of angiotensinogen cleavage by renin and unmasks prorenin catalytic activity. We asked whether plasma prorenin could be activated in local vascular tissue through receptor binding. Immunohistochemical staining showing localization of the (p)RR in the aorta to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). After cultured rat VSMCs were incubated with 10(-7) M inactive prorenin, cultured supernatant acquired the ability to generate ANG I from angiotensinogen, indicating that prorenin had been activated. Activated prorenin facilitated angiotensin generation in cultured VSMCs when exogenous angiotensinogen was added. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the (p)RR blocked this activation and subsequent angiotensin generation. Prorenin alone induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein for the profibrotic molecule plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, effects that were blocked by siRNA, but not by the ANG II receptor antagonist saralasin. When inactive prorenin and angiotensinogen were incubated with cells, PAI-1 mRNA increased a striking 54-fold, 8-fold higher than the increase seen with prorenin alone. PAI-1 protein increased 2.75-fold. These effects were blocked by treatment with siRNA + saralasin. We conclude that prorenin at high concentration binds the (p)RR on VSMCs and is activated. This activation leads to increased expression of PAI-1 via ANG II-independent and -dependent mechanisms. These data provide a mechanism by which elevated prorenin levels in diabetes may contribute to the progression of fibrotic disease.
Project description:A novel ganglioside which binds cholera-toxin B-subunit was purified from bovine brain by an h.p.l.c. system using an Aquasil column subsequent to Q-Sepharose column chromatography. T.l.c./immunostaining showed that the isolated ganglioside had about 60% of the binding reactivity of the authentic ganglioside GM1 for cholera-toxin B-subunit. On h.p.l.c., this ganglioside migrated between ganglioside GD1a and GD1b, and was found to give positive reactions with ninhydrin and fluorescamine reagents which specifically react with amino groups. The presence of a free amino group was further confirmed by chemical re-N-acetylation. The N-acetylated product had an identical RF value on h.p.l.c. and similar reactivity with cholera-toxin B-subunit as the authentic GM1. H.p.t.l.c., t.l.c./immunostaining, negative-ion fast-atom-bombardment (f.a.b.)-m.s., and 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy of the novel ganglioside unequivocally demonstrated that it has the basal structure of GM1 with de-N-acetylated neuraminic acid instead of N-acetylneuraminic acid. In the present study we report for the first time that a ganglioside derivative containing de-N-acetylated neuraminic acid, de-N-acetylated GM1, exists in natural brain tissues.