Carbohydrate-recognition domains as tools for rapid purification of recombinant eukaryotic proteins.
ABSTRACT: Methods have been developed for expression and purification of eukaryotic proteins by creating fusions with the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of the galactose-specific rat hepatic lectin. In order to generate the fusion proteins, vectors have been constructed so that cDNAs for passenger proteins can be inserted in any reading frame following a segment of DNA encoding the CRD. The feasibility of using this approach as an aid to protein purification has been demonstrated using human placental alkaline phosphatase. Following expression in either of two different eukaryotic expression systems, the CRD-phosphatase fusion protein can be isolated by one step of affinity chromatography on galactose-Sepharose under mild, non-denaturing conditions. Incorporation of a proteinase-sensitive linker allows cleavage of the CRD from the passenger protein. Immobilised proteinase could be rapidly separated from the cleavage products and the released, active phosphatase was purified away from the CRD by re-chromatography on galactose-Sepharose. These methods provide a means of isolating correctly folded recombinant eukaryotic proteins when cDNAs are available, but the properties of the encoded proteins are unknown.
Project description:This paper describes a simple purification procedure for protease nexin, a serine proteinase inhibitor secreted by cultured human fibroblasts that regulates proteinase activity at and near the cell surface. The first step in the procedure takes advantage of the high-affinity binding of protease nexin to dextran sulphate-Sepharose. This step eliminates the need for prior concentration of the serum-free fibroblast-conditioned medium, since protease nexin binds to the resin in the presence of physiological saline. The use of dextran sulphate also provides an affinity resin with considerably less variability than the heparin-based resins previously used. Final purification to homogeneity involves a combination of DEAE-Sepharose in-line with dextran sulphate-Sepharose to simultaneously purify and concentrate the protein. Purified protease nexin is shown by Ouchterlony analysis and peptide mapping to be immunologically and structurally distinct from antithrombin III and heparin cofactor II, two plasma proteinase inhibitors with similar properties.
Project description:Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-Sepharose is often used for purification of protein A- and tandem affinity purification (TAP)-tagged proteins from eukaryotic cells, but because it is based on an agarose matrix, it is not always optimal for all proteins. Synthetic matrices such as IgG-Dynabeads have improved properties over IgG-Sepharose but are generally expensive. Here we describe the preparation and properties of an IgG matrix based on Fractogel EMD beads. As a synthetic-based matrix, IgG-Fractogel has clear advantages over IgG-Sepharose. IgG-Fractogel can also be used in applications that usually use IgG-Dynabeads but at a significantly reduced cost.
Project description:Cathepsin D was purified by two-step affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-- and pepstatin--Sepharose. The main purification was achieved by washing the enzyme bound to the pepstatin--Sepharose column with buffered 6 M-urea. This step separated cathepsin D from all low- and high-molecular-weight impurities. Although the 1700-fold purified acid proteinase was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, it still showed microheterogeneity.
Project description:A procedure is described for the purification of a previously undetected cysteine proteinase, which we have called papaya proteinase IV, from spray-dried latex of the papaya (Carica papaya) plant. The purification involves affinity chromatography on Gly-Phe-aminoacetonitrile linked to CH-Sepharose 4B, with elution by 2-hydroxyethyl disulphide at pH 4.5. The product thus obtained is a mixture of almost fully active papain and papay proteinase IV, which are then separated by cation-exchange chromatography. A preliminary characterization of papaya proteinase IV showed it to be very similar to chymopapain in both molecular size and charge. However, the new enzyme is immunologically distinct from the previously characterized cysteine proteinases of papaya latex. It also differs in its lack of activity against the synthetic substrates of the other papaya proteinases, in its narrow specificity against protein substrates and its lack of inhibition by chicken cystatin. Papaya proteinase IV is abundant, contributing almost 30% of the protein in spray-dried papaya latex, and contamination of chymopapain preparations with this enzyme may account for some of the previously reported heterogeneity of chymopapain.
Project description:To degrade storage proteins germinating seeds synthesize proteinases de novo that can be inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents [Baumgartner & Chrispeels (1977) Eur. J. Biochem. 77, 223-233]. We have elaborated a procedure for isolation of such a proteinase from the cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. The purification procedure involved fractionation of the cotyledon homogenate with acetone and with (NH4)2SO4 and successive chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, activated thiol-Sepharose Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme has an Mr of 23,400, proved to be highly specific for the asparagine side chain and blocking of its thiol group resulted in loss of the catalytic activity. The chemical properties of the thiol group of the bean enzyme were investigated by acylation with t-butyloxycarbonyl-L-asparagine p-nitro-phenyl ester and by alkylations with iodoacetamide and iodoacetate. Deviations from normal pH-rate profile were observed, which indicated that the thiol group is not a simple functional group, but constitutes a part of an interactive system at the active site. The pKa value for acylation and the magnitude of the rate constant for alkylation with iodoacetate revealed that the bean proteinase possesses some properties not shared by papain and the other cysteine proteinases studied to date.
Project description:Convulxin (CVX) is a potent platelet-aggregating glycoprotein from the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, joined by disulphide bridges in a hexameric structure. A cDNA library from venom gland was constructed in the vector pT3T7. The cloned cDNAs encoding the two chains of CVX were sequenced. Both are preceded by an identical 23-amino acid peptide signal sequence and encode sequences of 135 amino acids for the alpha chain and 125 amino acids for the beta chain. These polypeptides include a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) in which some of the specific amino acids required for binding Ca2+ and galactose or mannose are absent. The presence of such a domain means that CVX can be included in the family of C-type lectins along with other snake venom proteins, although it is not a true lectin. Assuming that the localization of intracatenary disulphide bridges of each CVX chain is similar to that of the CRD and that an intercatenary bridge between the alpha and beta chains is similar to that of the C-type lectin botrocetin, we postulate the existence of an additional intercatenary bridge, which explains the tridimeric structure (alphabeta)3 of CVX.
Project description:Ca(2+)-activated neutral proteinase was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle by a method involving DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, affinity chromatography on organomercurial-Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-150. The SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis data show that the purified enzyme contains only one polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 73000. The purification procedure used allowed us to eliminate a contaminant containing two components of mol.wt. about 30000 each. Whole casein or alpha(1)-casein were hydrolysed with a maximum rate at 30 degrees C, pH7.5, and with 5mm-CaCl(2), but myofibrils were found to be a very susceptible substrate for this proteinase. This activity is associated with the destruction of the Z-discs, which is caused by the solubilization of the Z-line proteins. The activity of the proteinase in vitro is not limited to the removal of Z-line. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis on larger plates showed the ability of the proteinase to degrade myofibrils more extensively than previously supposed. This proteolysis resulted in the production of a 30000-dalton component as well as in various other higher- and lower-molecular-weight peptide fragments. Troponin T, troponin I, alpha-tropomyosin, some high-molecular-weight proteins (M protein, heavy chain of myosin) and three unidentified proteins are degraded. Thus the number of proteinase-sensitive regions in the myofibrils is greater than as previously reported by Dayton, Goll, Zeece, Robson & Reville [(1976) Biochemistry15, 2150-2158]. The Ca(2+)-activated neutral proteinase is not a chymotrypsin- or trypsin-like enzyme, but it reacted with all the classic thiol-proteinase inhibitors for cathepsin B, papain, bromelain and ficin. Thus the proteinase was proved to have an essential thiol group. Antipain and leupeptin are also inhibitors of the Ca(2+)-activated neutral proteinase.
Project description:Sheep plasma proteinase inhibitor, analogous to human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1 PI), was isolated to homogeneity. Purification was achieved by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography, Mono Q ion-exchange chromatography and PAGE. Sheep alpha 1 PI had an Mr of 56,000, inhibited human leucocyte elastase, pig pancreatic elastase and bovine trypsin on a 1:1 molar basis and had a plasma concentration of 1.6 +/- 0.21 g/l (mean +/- S.D.). Amino acid/carbohydrate composition (15% glycosylated) was similar to that of human alpha 1 PI (16% glycosylated); N-terminal analysis to 31 residues revealed 48-52% identity between the human and sheep proteins. Sheep alpha 1 PI was susceptible to oxidative inactivation by chloramine-T. Re-activation with the use of methionine sulphoxide peptide reductase and dithiothreitol indicated the presence of a methionine residue at the active site. These results establish that sheep alpha 1 PI has functional and structural characteristics close to those of human alpha 1 PI.
Project description:Methods for recombinant production of eukaryotic membrane proteins, yielding sufficient quantity and quality of protein for structural biology, remain a challenge. We describe here, expression and purification optimisation of the human SERCA2a cardiac isoform of Ca(2+) translocating ATPase, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the heterologous expression system of choice. Two different expression vectors were utilised, allowing expression of C-terminal fusion proteins with a biotinylation domain or a GFP- His8 tag. Solubilised membrane fractions containing the protein of interest were purified onto Streptavidin-Sepharose, Ni-NTA or Talon resin, depending on the fusion tag present. Biotinylated protein was detected using specific antibody directed against SERCA2 and, advantageously, GFP-His8 fusion protein was easily traced during the purification steps using in-gel fluorescence. Importantly, talon resin affinity purification proved more specific than Ni-NTA resin for the GFP-His8 tagged protein, providing better separation of oligomers present, during size exclusion chromatography. The optimised method for expression and purification of human cardiac SERCA2a reported herein, yields purified protein (> 90%) that displays a calcium-dependent thapsigargin-sensitive activity and is suitable for further biophysical, structural and physiological studies. This work provides support for the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a suitable expression system for recombinant production of multi-domain eukaryotic membrane proteins.
Project description:A homogeneous serine proteinase secreted by the extreme halophilic bacterium Halobacterium mediterranei 1538 was isolated by affinity chromatography on bacitracin-Sepharose with a yield of 48% (260-fold purification). The enzyme reveals an optimum for pyroglutamyl-Ala-Ala-Leu p-nitroanilide hydrolysis at pH 8.0-8.5 (Km 0.14 mM; k(cat). 36.9 s-1). Its activity increases linearly with NaCl concentration over the range 2-5 M. The substrate specificity of the enzyme is comparable with that of secretory subtilisins, the extent of protein degradation approaching that attained with proteinase K. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 41 kDa and a pI of 7.5. The N-terminal sequence of H. mediterranei serine proteinase reveals a 50% identity with that of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris serine proteinases, indicating that the enzyme belongs to the subtilisin family. Hence the serine proteinase secreted by the halophilic bacterium should be considered as a functional analogue, and a structural homologue, of eubacterial serine proteinases (subtilisins).