Synthesis of intracellular histamine in platelets is associated with activation of protein kinase C, but not with mobilization of Ca2+.
ABSTRACT: In previous reports, we have provided evidence indicating that newly formed histamine is an intracellular messenger in human platelets. The involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) in the synthesis of histamine was investigated. Human platelets were stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), collagen and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, with or without the PKC inhibitor staurosporine. Aggregation, histamine synthesis and phosphorylation of pleckstrin (47 kDa; P47) and myosin light chain (20 kDa; P20) proteins were monitored. Staurosporine inhibited PMA- and collagen-induced aggregation, histamine synthesis and phosphorylation of 47 kDa and 20 kDa proteins in a dose-dependent manner. For PMA, median inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) for staurosporine inhibition of aggregation, histamine synthesis and phosphorylation were similar, suggesting that histamine synthesis induced by this agonist may be a consequence of PKC activation. Conversely, collagen-stimulated histamine synthesis was inhibited by staurosporine at concentrations significantly higher than those required to inhibit aggregation (P less than 0.005) or pleckstrin phosphorylation (P less than 0.01), indicating the possible involvement of non-PKC mechanism(s) in the synthesis of histamine induced by this agonist. A23187 failed to induce the synthesis of intracellular histamine in platelets, whereas staurosporine blocked A23187-induced aggregation and phosphorylation of the 20 kDa protein at significantly higher concentrations than those needed to inhibit PKC. When platelets were stimulated with a combination of A23187 and PMA, the increase in platelet histamine was less than that with PMA alone. The results provide evidence that the synthesis of intracellular histamine in platelets occurs as a consequence of PKC activation and may be down-regulated under conditions where there is a substantial rise in [Ca2+]i.
Project description:The ability of several putative inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) to block dioctanoylglycerol (DC8)-induced phosphorylation of a 47 kDa protein (a recognized substrate for PKC) in human platelets was investigated. Staurosporine (1 microM) caused complete inhibition of phosphorylation, whereas the other reagents were either inactive (polymyxin B) or gave only partial inhibition (C-1, H-7, tamoxifen). Staurosporine (1 microM) fully inhibited the phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein in platelets challenged with thrombin, but also inhibited the phosphorylation of a 20 kDa protein which is a substrate for myosin light-chain kinase. The inhibition of both kinases by staurosporine was associated with the inhibition of thrombin-induced secretion of ATP and 5-hydroxytryptamine and a slowing of the aggregation response; staurosporine, however, had no effect on the formation of phosphatidic acid and inositol phosphates induced by thrombin. Staurosporine also reversed the inhibitory action of phorbol esters on thrombin-induced formation of phosphatidic acid. These data are consistent with a role for these two kinases in secretion and aggregation (although there must be additional control signals, since aggregation was only slowed, not inhibited), but suggest that neither kinase is involved in the regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism. This latter conclusion contradicts previous observations that the activation of PKC by phorbol esters or membrane-permeable diacylglycerols alters the apparent activity of both phospholipase C and inositol trisphosphatase. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed.
Project description:Suspensions of aspirin-treated, 32P-prelabelled, washed platelets containing ADP scavengers in the buffer were activated with either phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PdBu) or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. High concentrations of PdBu (greater than or equal to 50 nM) induced platelet aggregation and the protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of proteins with molecular masses of 20 (myosin light chain), 38 and 47 kDa. No increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was observed. Preincubation of platelets with prostacyclin (PGI2) stimulated the phosphorylation of a 50 kDa protein [EC50 (concn. giving half-maximal effect) 0.6 ng of PGI2/ml] and completely abolished platelet aggregation [ID50 (concn. giving 50% inhibition) 0.5 ng of PGI2/ml] induced by PdBu, but had no effect on phosphorylation of the 20, 38 and 47 kDa proteins elicited by PdBu. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced shape change, aggregation, mobilization of Ca2+, rapid phosphorylation of the 20 and 47 kDa proteins and the formation of phosphatidic acid. Preincubation of platelets with PGI2 (500 ng/ml) inhibited platelet aggregation, but not shape change, Ca2+ mobilization or the phosphorylation of the 20 and 47 kDa proteins induced by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. The results indicate that PGI2, through activation of cyclic AMP-dependent kinases, inhibits platelet aggregation at steps distal to protein phosphorylation evoked by protein kinase C and Ca2+-dependent protein kinases.
Project description:Studies were made of inhibition by wortmannin, a fungal metabolite, of human platelet responses to various stimuli. Wortmannin at concentrations as low as 1-100 nM inhibited several receptor-agonist-induced 5-hydroxytryptamine release from platelets, without affecting agonist-induced increases in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an active tumour promoter, caused 5-hydroxytryptamine release when combined with a low concentration of ionomycin, and platelet aggregation by itself; these effects of the phorbol ester were also inhibited by wortmannin as well as by staurosporine, a potent, although non-specific, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, in a similar molar concentration range. The platelet responses to the receptor agonists or PMA were accompanied by increased incorporation of [32P]Pi into pleckstrin, a protein selectively expressed in platelets and other blood cells arising from haematopoietic stem cells, as a result of PKC activation in the intact cells. The pleckstrin phosphorylation was inhibited by wortmannin in ways mostly similar to those in which it inhibited the 5-hydroxytryptamine-release responses. Nevertheless, wortmannin failed to inhibit PKC activity measurable in a cell-free assay system which is highly susceptible to staurosporine. Nor did it inhibit the translocation of cytosolic PKC to membranes induced by addition of PMA to platelet cells. Thus wortmannin, which is not a direct inhibitor of PKC, could interfere with the kinase-dependent phosphorylation of pleckstrin, which may play an important role in the cellular responses to receptor stimulation.
Project description:Stimulation of platelets with thrombin leads to rapid degradation of inositol phospholipids, generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and subsequent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Previous studies indicated that prior activation of PKC with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) desensitizes platelets to thrombin stimulation, as indicated by a decreased production of inositol phosphates and decreased Ca2+ mobilization. This suggests that PKC activation generates negative-feedback signals, which limit the phosphoinositide response. To test this hypothesis further, we examined the effects of PKC activators and inhibitors on thrombin-stimulated DAG mass formation in platelets. Pretreatment with PMA abolishes thrombin-stimulated DAG formation (50% inhibition at 60 nM). Pretreatment of platelets with the PKC inhibitors K252a or staurosporine potentiates DAG production in response to thrombin (3-4-fold) when using concentrations required to inhibit platelet PKC (1-10 microM). K252a does not inhibit phosphorylation of endogenous DAG or phosphorylation of a cell-permeant DAG in unstimulated platelets, indicating that DAG over-production is not due to inhibition of DAG kinase. Sphingosine, a PKC inhibitor with a different mechanism of action, also potentiates DAG formation in response to thrombin. Several lines of evidence indicate that DAG formation under the conditions employed occurs predominantly by phosphoinositide (and not phosphatidylcholine) hydrolysis: (1) PMA alone does not elicit DAG formation, but inhibits agonist-stimulated DAG formation; (2) thrombin-stimulated DAG formation is inhibited by neomycin (1-10 mM) but not by the phosphatidate phosphohydrolase inhibitor propranolol; and (3) no metabolism of radiolabelled phosphatidylcholine was observed upon stimulation by thrombin or PMA. These data provide strong support for a role of PKC in limiting the extent of platelet phosphoinositide hydrolysis.
Project description:We have used the non-specific inhibitor of protein kinases, staurosporine, to investigate the role of protein phosphorylation during aggregation, the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+)i and intracellular pH (pHi) in thrombin-stimulated platelets. The concentration of staurosporine chosen for these studies, 1 microM, was previously reported to inhibit protein phosphorylation completely but to have no effect on the activation of phospholipase C in thrombin-stimulated human platelets [Watson, McNally, Shipman & Godfrey (1988) Biochem. J. 249, 345-350]. Aggregation induced by phorbol dibutyrate is slow (several minutes) and is inhibited completely by staurosporine. In contrast, aggregation induced by thrombin, platelet-activating factor or ionophore A23187 is rapid (occurs within 60 s), and is slowed, but not inhibited, in the presence of staurosporine. On the other hand, staurosporine causes a small potentiation of the peak [Ca2+]i signal induced by thrombin and a marked increase in the half-life of decay of this signal, but has no effect on pHi. Under conditions designed to prevent an increase in [Ca2+]i (presence of Ni2+ to prevent Ca2+ entry, and depletion of the intracellular Ca2+ stores), aggregation induced by thrombin resembles that by phorbol dibutyrate and is now inhibited completely by staurosporine. Taken together, these results provide evidence for two signalling pathways for aggregation, a relatively rapid phosphorylation-independent route mediated by Ca2+ and a slower, phosphorylation-dependent, pathway mediated by protein kinase C. Since staurosporine slows aggregation induced by thrombin, it appears that under normal conditions these pathways interact synergistically.
Project description:Most agonists stimulate platelets by inducing Ca2+ mobilization, Ca2+ influx and protein kinase C (PKC) activation leading to Na+/H+ exchange, exposure of fibrinogen-binding sites and aggregation. In contrast, previous studies showed that adrenaline induces exposure of fibrinogen-binding sites and aggregation without appreciable changes in cystolic Ca2+ content or PKC activity. In the present study we investigated platelet responses mediated via alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors, using 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), which is known to bind to this type of receptor. Addition of DIDS (2-20 microM) induced (i) a rise in cytosolic pH of 0.23 +/- 0.05 pH unit (n = 5) as detected by BCECF fluorescence, due to activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger, (ii) a 3.5-4-fold increase in the phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein, a major substrate of PKC, (iii) exposure of 81,072 +/- 7293 (n = 3) binding sites for 125I-fibrinogen per platelet, and (iv) irreversible aggregation. These responses occurred without changes in cytosolic [Ca2+], secretion of dense-granule contents and enhanced phosphoinositide metabolism, and were not affected by inhibition of thromboxane A2 generation (30 microM indomethacin). The alpha 2A-adrenergic-receptor antagonists oxymetazoline (500 microM) and yohimbine (1 mM) completely abolished DIDS-induced responses. Inhibition of PKC (1 microM staurosporine) prevented phosphorylation of the 47 kDa protein, the increase in Na+/H+ exchange and exposure of fibrinogen-binding sites. Thus our present data suggest that activation of PKC is an early event in DIDS-induced platelet activation via the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor, which precedes any of the other known signal-transducing sequences.
Project description:Blood platelets contain phospholipase D (PLD) that is rapidly activated following platelet stimulation. It is currently unclear, however, where PLD fits into the signalling cascade that leads to aggregation and secretion. Therefore we investigated the mechanism of activation of PLD in human platelets, using the formation of the PLD-specific product phosphatidylethanol as a measure of PLD activity. PLD was activated by a number of platelet agonists that also cause the activation of protein kinase C, including thrombin, collagen, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and the thromboxane A2-mimetic U46619. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a direct activator of protein kinase C, also increased PLD activity. A selective inhibitor of protein kinase C, Ro-31-8220, totally blocked the stimulation of PLD by thrombin or PMA under conditions in which it also inhibited phosphorylation of pleckstrin, the major protein kinase C substrate in platelets. Ro-31-8220 additionally inhibited A23187-stimulated PLD activity, indicating that Ca2+ activation of PLD also occurs via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. In the presence of the fibrinogen antagonist peptide RGDS, which inhibits fibrinogen binding to integrin alpha IIb beta 3 and allows little or no aggregation to occur, thrombin- and PMA-stimulated PLD activity was still observed, indicating that PLD activation is not simply a consequence of platelet aggregation. Furthermore, these agonists were able to stimulate PLD in platelets from a Glanzmann's thrombasthenia type I patient lacking the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 complex, which indicates that activation of PLD is also independent of the recruitment of integrin alpha IIb beta 3. Taken together, our results show that PLD is activated by a pathway involving protein kinase C, and suggest that PLD might be involved in signal transduction events occurring upstream of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 activation and fibrinogen binding, which are prerequisites for full platelet aggregation.
Project description:The temporal and dose-response relationships of platelet-activating-factor (PAF)-induced changes in the concentrations of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), Ins(1,4,5)P3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) were examined. In addition, phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) substrate (40-47 kDa protein) was determined. In high-dose PAF-activated platelets, all three signal molecules increased rapidly and transiently, with the peak Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration preceding maximal elevation of [Ca2+]i by 5 s. In low-dose PAF-activated platelets there were large increases in [Ca2+]i and dense-granule release, without any increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and DAG or 40-47 kDa protein phosphorylation. Staurosporine, a non-specific PKC inhibitor, produced enhanced elevations in the concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3, DAG and thromboxane B2, and the duration of the Ca2+ signal in platelets stimulated with a high dose, but not a low dose, of PAF. These results suggest there are both phospholipase C-dependent and -independent changes in Ca2+ homoeostasis. Endogenously activated PKC regulates the formation of signal molecules.
Project description:Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) (also known as RAFTK, CAKbeta or CADTK) has been identified as a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family of protein-tyrosine kinases and it has been suggested that the mode of Pyk2 activation is distinct from that of FAK. In the present study we investigated the mode of Pyk2 activation in human platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, Pyk2, as well as FAK, was markedly tyrosine-phosphorylated, in a manner mostly dependent on alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-mediated aggregation. The residual Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation observed in the absence of platelet aggregation was completely abolished by pretreatment with BAPTA/AM [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid acetoxymethyl ester]. The Pyk2 phosphorylation was inhibited by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors at concentrations that inhibited platelet aggregation. In contrast, direct activation of PKC with the active phorbol ester PMA induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK but only when platelets were fully aggregated with the exogenous addition of fibrinogen (the ligand for alphaIIbbeta3 integrin). Furthermore, PMA-induced Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation was also observed when platelets adhered to immobilized fibrinogen. The activation of the von Willebrand factor (vWF)--glycoprotein Ib pathway with botrocetin together with vWF failed to induce Pyk2 (and FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation. Most Pyk2 and FAK was present in the cytosol and membrane skeleton fractions in unstimulated platelets. When platelets were stimulated with thrombin, both Pyk2 and FAK were translocated to the cytoskeleton in an aggregation-dependent manner. In immunoprecipitation studies, Pyk2, as well as FAK, seemed to associate with Shc through Grb2. With the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing Shc-SH2, Grb2-SH2, and Grb2 N-terminal and C-terminal SH3 domains, it was implied that the proline-rich region of Pyk2 (and FAK) binds to the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 and that the phosphotyrosine residue of Shc binds to the SH2 domain of Grb2. Although Pyk2 and FAK have been reported to be differentially regulated in many cell types, our results suggest that, in human platelets, the mode of Pyk2 activation is mostly similar to that of FAK, in terms of alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-dependent and PKC-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Pyk2, as well as FAK, might have one or more important roles in post-aggregation tyrosine phosphorylation events, in association with the cytoskeleton and through interaction with adapter proteins including Grb2 and Shc.
Project description:Translocation of Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PKC) activity from cytosolic to membrane fractions was assessed in washed human platelet suspensions. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced a rapid loss of PKC activity from the cytosolic compartment in stirred platelets, which was not accompanied by measurable increases in membrane-associated activity, but was paralleled by a decrease in total cellular enzyme activity (cytosol plus membrane). When platelet aggregation was prevented by not stirring, (i) cytosolic activity was decreased by PMA, (ii) significant and maintained (1-15 min with PMA) increases in membrane-bound PKC were detected, and (iii) the decline in total enzyme activity was markedly slower. In stirred platelets, total and specific inhibition of PMA-induced aggregation by a fibrinogen-derived peptide (RGDS, i.e. Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) promoted maximal increases in membrane-associated PKC in the presence of PMA and completely prevented the loss in cellular activity. Thrombin and collagen both induced a decrease in cytosolic PKC and a loss of total activity, but a significant rise in membrane activity was seen only with collagen; ADP had no detectable effect on enzyme distribution. These results demonstrate an agonist-induced redistribution of PKC and indicate that platelet aggregation may play an important role in the proteolysis, and hence persistence, of membrane-associated PKC. This observation has implications for the potency and duration of PKC-mediated responses induced by agonists and exogenous PKC activators.