Effects of hypothyroidism and high-fat feeding on mRNA concentrations for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor and on acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities in rat liver.
ABSTRACT: 1. Induction of hypothyroidism in rats by feeding propylthiouracil (PTU) significantly increased serum cholesterol concentrations, and the effect was more pronounced for cholesterol in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) rather than high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The concentrations of serum triacylglycerol were decreased in hypothyroidism. These effects on serum lipids were also seen when the normal rats were pair-fed with the PTU-treated group. 2. Feeding a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol further increased cholesterol concentrations in LDL and also elevated that in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) of hypothyroid rats. In euthyroid rats such a diet resulted in a relatively small increase in VLDL cholesterol, whereas LDL cholesterol was decreased. 3. Steady-state concentrations of mRNA for the hepatic LDL receptor were significantly decreased in the livers of hypothyroid rats, but were not significantly changed by high-fat feeding in euthyroid or hypothyroid rats. 4. The expression of the LDL receptor in hepatocytes cultured from hypothyroid rats was decreased relative to the euthyroid controls. 5. Whereas the esterification of cholesterol with oleate in hepatocytes cultured from hypothyroid rats was decreased, the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in the livers of these animals was not changed. 6. High-fat feeding increased the hepatic ACAT activity in normal and hypothyroid rats. 7. Incubation of rat hepatocytes with 10 nM-tri-iodothyronine for 4 h increased the relative concentration of the mRNA for the LDL receptor by 25%. 8. It is therefore concluded that thyroid hormones stimulate the synthesis and expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. Elevated cholesterol concentrations in LDL in hypothyroidism probably result from a primary defect in the expression of the hepatic receptor, rather than indirectly via changes in ACAT activity.
Project description:Transient neonatal 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) induced hypothyroidism affects Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers in the developing testis, resulting in increased adult testis size. The hypothyroid condition was thought to be responsible, an assumption questioned by studies showing that uninterrupted fetal/postnatal hypothyroidism did not affect adult testis size. Here, we investigated effects of transient hypothyroidism on Leydig and Sertoli cell development, employing a perinatal iodide-deficient diet in combination with sodium perchlorate. This hypothyroidism inducing diet was continued until days 1, 7, 14, or 28 postpartum (pp) respectively, when the rats were switched to a euthyroid diet and followed up to adulthood. Continuous euthyroid and hypothyroid, and neonatal PTU-treated rats switched to the euthyroid diet at 28 days pp, were included for comparison. No effects on formation of the adult-type Leydig cell population or on Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation were observed when the diet switched at/or before day 14 pp. However, when the diet was discontinued at day 28 pp, Leydig cell development was delayed similarly to what was observed in chronic hypothyroid rats. Surprisingly, Sertoli cell proliferation was 6- to 8-fold increased 2 days after the diet switch and remained elevated the next days. In adulthood, Sertoli cell number per seminiferous tubule cross-section and consequently testis weight was increased in this group. These observations implicate that increased adult testis size in transiently hypothyroid rats is not caused by the hypothyroid condition per se, but originates from augmented Sertoli cell proliferation as a consequence of rapid normalization of thyroid hormone concentrations.
Project description:The cardiovascular effects of mild and overt thyroid disease include a vast array of pathological changes. As well, thyroid replacement therapy has been suggested for preserving cardiac function. However, the influence of thyroid hormones on cardiac remodeling has not been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular levels. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid replacement therapy on cardiac alterations. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: a control (n = 10) group and a group treated with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) (n = 20) to induce hypothyroidism. Ten of the 20 rats in the PTU group were then treated with L-thyroxine to quickly re-establish euthyroidism. The serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL6) and pro-fibrotic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1), were significantly increased in hypothyroid rats; elevations in cardiac stress markers, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were also noted. The expressions of cardiac remodeling genes were induced in hypothyroid rats in parallel with the development of fibrosis, and a decline in cardiac function with chamber dilation was measured by echocardiography. Rapidly reversing the hypothyroidism and restoring the euthyroid state improved cardiac function with a decrease in the levels of cardiac remodeling markers. However, this change further increased the levels of inflammatory and fibrotic markers in the plasma and heart and led to myocardial cellular infiltration. In conclusion, we showed that hypothyroidism is related to cardiac function decline, fibrosis and inflammation; most importantly, the rapid correction of hypothyroidism led to cardiac injuries. Our results might offer new insights for the management of hypothyroidism-induced heart disease.
Project description:Altered thyroid function during early stages of development is known to affect adversely testicular growth, physiology, and antioxidant defence status at adulthood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the modulation of antioxidant defence status in neonatal persistent hypothyroid rats before their sexual maturation and also to identify the specific testicular cell populations vulnerable to degeneration during neonatal hypothyroidism in immature rats. Hypothyroidism was induced in neonates by feeding the lactating mother with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) through the drinking water. From the day of parturition till weaning (25 day postpartum), the pups received PTU through mother's milk (or) drinking water and then directly from drinking water containing PTU for the remaining period of experimentation. On the 31st day postpartum, the animals were sacrificed for the study. An altered antioxidant defence system marked by elevated SOD, CAT, and GR activities, with decreased GPx and GST activities were observed along with increased protein carbonylation, disturbed redox status in hypothyroid immature rat testis. This compromised testicular antioxidant status might have contributed to poor growth and development by affecting the spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats before puberty as indicated by reduced germ cell number, complete absence of round spermatids, decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, and decreased testosterone level.
Project description:Methimazole-treated hypothyroid rats were injected intravenously with triacylglycerol/cholesteryl oleate/cholesterol/phospholipid emulsions designed to model the composition of chylomicrons. Compared with controls, hypothyroidism decreased the clearance rates of emulsion cholesteryl oleate. Clearance of emulsion triolein was affected much less and could be accounted for by residual triolein in remnants, suggesting that triacylglycerol lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase was unaffected by hypothyroidism but that clearance of remnants from plasma was decreased. Assays in vitro showed increased activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in hypothyroid rats. Emulsions were incubated with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase to prepare remnants in vitro. The clearance from plasma of pre-formed remnants was slower after injection into hypothyroid rats than in control rats. Uptake of remnant cholesteryl oleate by the liver was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid rats. Treatment of hypothyroid rats for 7 days with 3,3',5'-tri-iodo-L-thyronine (T3) reversed the inhibition of hepatic remnant uptake and normalized plasma cholesterol. A thyroid hormone analogue with decreased hypermetabolic side-effects, L-94901, attenuated plasma cholesterol and improved but did not normalize remnant clearance. Emulsions incubated with plasma from hypothyroid rats had a decreased ratio of apolipoprotein E/apolipoprotein C compared with control rats or hypothyroid rats treated with T3. The change in the apolipoprotein E/apolipoprotein C ratio probably accounts for the defect in remnant clearance in hypothyroidism.
Project description:Evidence indicates that cardiac hypothyroidism may contribute to heart failure progression. It is also known that heart failure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although it is established that hyperthyroidism increases AF incidence, the effect of hypothyroidism on AF is unclear. This study investigated the effects of different thyroid hormone levels, ranging from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism on AF inducibility in thyroidectomized rats.Thyroidectomized rats with serum-confirmed hypothyroidism 1 month after surgery were randomized into hypothyroid (N=9), euthyroid (N=9), and hyperthyroid (N=9) groups. Rats received placebo, 3.3-mg l-thyroxine (T4), or 20-mg T4 pellets (60-day release form) for 2 months, respectively. At the end of treatment, hypothyroid, euthyroid, and hyperthyroid status was confirmed. Hypothyroid animals showed cardiac atrophy and reduced cardiac systolic and diastolic functions, whereas hyperthyroid rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac function. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism produced opposite electrophysiological changes in heart rates and atrial effective refractory period, but both significantly increased AF susceptibility. AF incidence was 78% in hypothyroid, 67% in hyperthyroid, and the duration of induced AF was also longer, compared with 11% in the euthyroid group (all P<0.05). Hypothyroidism increased atrial interstitial fibrosis, but connexin 43 was not affected.Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism lead to increased AF vulnerability in a rat thyroidectomy model. Our results stress that normal thyroid hormone levels are required to maintain normal cardiac electrophysiology and to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and AF.
Project description:Thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of transcriptional homeostasis in the heart. While hypothyroidism is known to result in adverse cardiac effects, the molecular mechanisms that modulate TH signaling are not completely understood. Mediator is a multiprotein complex that coordinates signal-dependent transcription factors with the basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene expression. Mediator complex protein, Med13, represses numerous thyroid receptor (TR) response genes in the heart. Further, cardiac-specific overexpression of Med13 in mice that were treated with propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the active TH, triiodothyronine (T3), resulted in resistance to PTU-dependent decreases in cardiac contractility. Therefore, these studies aimed to determine if Med13 is necessary for the cardiac response to hypothyroidism. Here we demonstrate that Med13 expression is induced in the hearts of mice with hypothyroidism. To elucidate the role of Med13 in regulating gene transcription in response to TH signaling in cardiac tissue, we utilized an unbiased RNA sequencing approach to define the TH-dependent alterations in gene expression in wild-type mice or those with a cardiac-specific deletion in Med13 (Med13cKO). Mice were fed a diet of PTU to induce a hypothyroid state or normal chow for either 4 or 16?weeks, and an additional group of mice on a PTU diet were treated acutely with T3 to re-establish a euthyroid state. Echocardiography revealed that wild-type mice had a decreased heart rate in response to PTU with a trend toward a reduced cardiac ejection fraction. Notably, cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med13 exacerbated cardiac dysfunction. Collectively, these studies reveal cardiac transcriptional pathways regulated in response to hypothyroidism and re-establishment of a euthyroid state and define molecular pathways that are regulated by Med13 in response to TH signaling.
Project description:The mechanism of regulation of plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism in the rat was studied under a number of experimental conditions. LDL clearance and uptake in the liver was measured after intravenous pulse injection of [14C]sucrose-labelled LDL alone or in combination with reductively methylated [3H]sucrose-labelled LDL. Hyperthyroid rats showed a significant increase in fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and the proportion of LDL degraded in the liver, whereas the synthetic rate of LDL increased by 50%. Receptor-mediated clearance increased 2-fold. Hypothyroid rats showed a significant increase in LDL concentration. The FCR and proportion of LDL degraded in the liver were decreased significantly. Receptor-mediated clearance was also reduced. Cholesterol feeding increased chylomicron, very-low-density-and intermediate-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but there was no change in the LDL concentration, FCR or the synthetic rate of LDL. Cholestyramine feeding did not induce changes in the kinetic parameters. These results indicate that, in the rat, the hepatic LDL-receptor pathway is under hormonal control, whereas cholesterol and cholestyramine feeding have no demonstrated effect on LDL metabolism.
Project description:1. Rats were made hypothyroid by feeding them with propylthiouracil together with a low-iodine diet for 4 weeks. 2. [U-14C]Glucose conversion into fatty acids was substantially enhanced in brown adipocytes isolated from hypothyroid rats. Incorporation of 3H2O into fatty acids in vivo was enhanced in hypothyroidism in interscapular brown fat, but not in epididymal white fat or in liver. Hypothyroidism increased the activities of fatty acid synthase and ATP citrate lyase in brown, but not in white, adipocytes. 3. Glycolytic flux in brown adipocytes, quantified by [3-3H]glucose detritiation, was increased by hypothyroidism. This change was accompanied by increased maximum activity of phosphofructokinase. In white adipocytes a large increase in phosphofructokinase maximum activity was observed in hypothyroidism, but this change was accompanied by only small increases in the rate of glucose detritiation by incubated cells. It is suggested that in the brown adipocyte the overall conversion of glucose into fatty acids is enhanced in thyroid deficiency, but that this change is muted in the white adipocyte, possibly because of limitation of glucose transport. 4. Fatty acid synthesis in brown adipocytes from hypothyroid animals was considerably less sensitive to inhibition by exogenous fatty acids than is the process in cells from euthyroid animals. Consequently, the effect of hypothyroidism to enhance lipogenesis is amplified in the presence of physiological concentrations of fatty acid.
Project description:1. A trace amount of glucose labelled with 14C uniformly and with 3H at position 2, 3 or 6 was injected intravenously into starved rats to measure the turnover rate of blood glucose. 2. Reliable estimates were made based on the semilogarithmic plot of specific radioactivity of the glucose contained in whole blood samples taken from the tail vein. 3. Glucose turned over more rapidly in hyperthyroid and more slowly in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. The percentage contribution of glucose recycling (determined from the difference in replacement rates between [U-14C]glucose and [6-3H]glucose) to the glucose utilization increased on induction of hyperthyroidism. 4. Futile cycles between glucose and glucose 6-phosphate (determined from the difference between replacement rates of [2-3H]glucose and [6-3H]glucose) were activated and inactivated by induction of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid states respectively. 5. The hepatic content of glycogen was much lower in hyper- and hypo-thyroid than in euthyroid rats. The enhanced glucose production in hyperthyroid rats resulted from not only activationof hepatic gluconeogenesis but also diversion of the final product of gluconeogenesis from liver glycogen to blood glucose. In hypothyroidism, the inhibition of gluconeogensis led to suppression of both glucose production and glycogenesis in the liver.
Project description:The responsiveness of lipolysis to the stimulatory agonists noradrenaline, corticotropin and glucagon and to the inhibitory agonists N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, prostaglandin E1 and nicotinic acid was investigated with rat white adipocytes incubated with a high concentration of adenosine deaminase (1 unit/ml). The cells were obtained from fed or 48 h-starved euthyroid animals or from fed or starved animals rendered hypothyroid by 4 weeks of treatment with low-iodine diet and propylthiouracil. Hypothyroidism increased sensitivity to and efficacy of all three inhibitory agonists in their opposition of noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis. Starvation decreased sensitivity to all three inhibitory agonists when opposing basal lipolysis. Hypothyroidism decreased sensitivity to noradrenaline, glucagon and corticotropin by 37-, 4- and 4-fold respectively and decreased the maximum response to these agonists by approx. 50%, 50% and 75% respectively. Starvation reversed decreases in maximum response to these agonists in hypothyroidism. Starvation in the euthyroid state increased sensitivity to glucagon and noradrenaline, but did not alter sensitivity to corticotropin. Cells from hypothyroid rats were relatively insensitive to Bordetella pertussis toxin, which substantially increased basal lipolysis in the euthyroid state.