Human salivary cystatin S. Cloning, sequence analysis, hybridization in situ and immunocytochemistry.
ABSTRACT: A human submandibular-gland (SMG) cDNA library was constructed in a lambda was constructed in a lambda gt11 Sfi-Not orientation-specific expression vector and then screened with antibody generated against human salivary cystatins. The clone C4-4 encoded an N-terminally truncated cystatin S, whereas the others encoded cystatin SN. The library was then rescreened with the C4-4, and the inserts of several positive clones were directly amplified from the eluted plaques by linear PCR and the PCR products analysed by Southern blotting and direct DNA sequencing. Two clones (C3 and C12) encoded a full-length secreted cystatin S and its leader peptide and included 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. These clones showed a high degree of sequence similarity to cDNA clones encoding human salivary cystatin SN and genomic clones encoding cystatin SN and SA. Hybridization in situ of normal human SMG and parotid-gland (PG) tissue sections localized the cystatin-gene transcripts to the cytoplasm of serous acinar cells of both glands, with a much higher concentration of cystatin mRNA in the SMG. Immunocytochemistry localized the salivary cystatin gene products also to the serous cells, and the levels of cystatin protein correlated with the amount of cystatin mRNA, with a much stronger signal in the SMG than in the PG.
Project description:In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization.
Project description:To assess whether, in addition to sparing the parotid glands (PGs), xerostomia after chemotherapy plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (chemo-IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer is affected by reducing the dose to the other salivary glands.In a prospective study, 78 patients with Stage III-IV oropharynx/nasopharynx cancer underwent chemo-IMRT, with the aim of sparing the parts of the bilateral PGs, oral cavity (OC) containing the minor salivary glands, and contralateral submandibular gland (SMG) outside the target (when contralateral level I was not a target). Before therapy and periodically for 24 months, validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) scores and observer-graded xerostomia scores were recorded. Also, the stimulated and unstimulated saliva was measured selectively from each of the PGs and SMGs. The mean OC doses served as surrogates of minor salivary gland dysfunction. Regression models assessed the XQ and observer-graded xerostomia predictors.Statistically significant predictors of the XQ score on univariate analysis included the OC, PG, and SMG mean doses and the baseline XQ score, time since RT, and both stimulated and unstimulated PG saliva flow rates. Similar factors were statistically significant predictors of observer-graded xerostomia. The OC, PG, and SMG mean doses were moderately intercorrelated (r = 0.47-0.55). On multivariate analyses, after adjusting for the PG and SMG doses, the OC mean dose (p < .0001), interval from RT (p < .0001), and stimulated PG saliva (p < .0025) were significant predictors of the XQ scores and the OC mean dose and time for observer-graded xerostomia. Although scatter plots showed no thresholds, an OC mean dose of <40 Gy and contralateral SMG mean dose of <50 Gy were each associated with low patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia at almost all post-therapy points.The PG, SMG, and OC mean doses were significant predictors of both patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia after chemo-IMRT, with OC doses remaining significant after adjusting for the PG and SMG doses. These results support efforts to spare all the salivary glands by IMRT, beyond the PGs alone.
Project description:Background:Acute phytic acid intake has been found to decrease iron bioavailability; however, repeated phytic acid consumption leads to iron absorption adaptation. Salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) have been shown to inhibit iron chelation to tannins and may mediate similar iron absorption adaptation with phytic acid intake. Objectives:The objectives of this study were to determine whether salivary proteins bind to phytic acid in vitro, and to explore a proof of concept in a pilot study that examined the impact of 4-wk, daily phytic acid supplementation on individuals' iron status, bioavailability, and salivary PRP concentrations. Methods:High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight were used to characterize in vitro salivary protein-phytic acid interactions. Nonanemic women (n = 7) consumed 350 mg phytic acid supplements 3 times daily for 4 wk, and meal challenges were employed to determine iron bioavailability, iron status, and salivary protein concentrations before and after supplementation periods. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of purified protein fractions and participant saliva identified proteins bound to phytic acid. Results:In vitro salivary protein-phytic acid interaction identified cystatin SN, a non-proline rich salivary protein, as the specific bound protein to phytic acid. Iron bioavailability (P = 0.32), hemoglobin (P = 0.72), and serum ferritin (P = 0.08) concentrations were not reduced from week 0 to week 4 after phytic acid supplementation. Basic PRPs and cystatin SN concentrations were positively correlated with iron bioavailability at week 4. Conclusions:Overall, results suggest that phytic acid binds to the non-PRP cystatin SN and that salivary protein production may improve iron bioavailability with phytic acid consumption.
Project description:The present investigation was carried out to identify salivary components of mucosal pellicles in vivo and explore further the mechanism of interaction between salivary molecules and buccal epithelial cells. By using specific antisera and immunoprotein blotting, high-(MG1) and low-(MG2) molecular-mass salivary mucins, amylase, salivary cystatins and proline-rich proteins were detected within mucosal pellicle in vivo. In addition, the data indicated that the mucins and proline-rich proteins could be cleaved into lower-molecular-mass products, whereas the proline-rich proteins could also be cross-linked into higher-molecular-mass complexes. The role of buccal epithelial cell transglutaminase in these interactions was further studied by utilizing purified iodinated amylase, neutral cystatin SN and acidic proline-rich proteins 1 and 3 (APRP1 and 3). After incubation with buccal epithelial cells in vitro 125I-labelled APRPs appeared to undergo a greater degree of cross-linking than 125I-labelled cystatin SN, as determined by SDS/PAGE/autoradiography. Amylase did not appear to be cross-linked at all. Recovery of 125I-labelled APRPs and 125I-labelled cystatin SN with epithelial cell envelopes after repeated extraction suggested that both molecules were cross-linked to envelope proteins, but that 125I-labelled APRPs were cross-linked to a greater degree than 125I-labelled cystatin SN. Cross-linking in buccal epithelial cell preparations was inhibited by an excess of methylamine hydrochloride, a transglutaminase substrate. In a further assessment of amylase, cystatin and APRPs as transglutaminase substrates, only APRP3 and a partially purified preparation of APRPs acted as an amine acceptor for the cross-linking of [14C]methylamine by purified transglutaminase, as determined by SDS/PAGE/fluorography. This reaction was completely inhibited by excess EDTA. The combined data from this study suggest that during mucosal pellicle formation multiple components of saliva adsorb to buccal epithelial cell surfaces, and that, within this group, selected components are enzymically cross-linked by an epithelial transglutaminase and/or proteolytically cleaved into smaller fragments.
Project description:Salivary glands that produce and secret saliva, which is essential for lubrication, digestion, immunity, and oral homeostasis, consist of diverse cells. The long-term maintenance of diverse salivary gland cells in organoids remains problematic. Here, we established long-term murine salivary gland organoids from 3 major salivary glands, including parotid gland (PG), submandibular gland (SMG), and sublingual gland (SLG). Murine salivary gland organoids expressed gland-specific genes and proteins of acinar, myoepithelial, and duct cells. Organoids were maintained in growth media (named GEM) and further underwent differentiation in differentiation media (named DAM). Our study will provide an experimental platform for the exploration of mechanisms involvled in tissue regeneration, development, or several salivary gland diseases. Overall design: Two biological replicates were analyzed for each of 7 conditions (3 gland tissues, 3 gland organoids cultured in DAM, and SMG organoids cultured in GEM)
Project description:Salivary glands that produce and secret saliva, which is essential for lubrication, digestion, immunity, and oral homeostasis, consist of diverse cells. Maintenance of diverse salivary gland cells in organoids remains problematic. Here, we established human salivary gland organoids, which is composed of multiple cellular subsets, from 3 major salivary glands, including parotid gland (PG), submandibular gland (SMG), and sublingual gland (SLG). Human salivary gland organoids expressed gland-specific genes and proteins of acinar, myoepithelial, and duct cells. Organoids were maintained in growth media (named GEM) and further underwent differentiation in differentiation media (named DAM). Our study will provide an experimental platform for the exploration of mechanisms involvled in tissue regeneration, development, or several salivary gland diseases. Overall design: Single cell RNA sequencing of human salivary gland tissues and organoids. Comparative analysis of single cell RNA-seq for human SMG organoids cultured for 1 month and 3 months.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC) may experience xerostomia after radiation therapy (RT), which leads to compromised quality of life. The purpose of this study is to explore how the spatial pattern of radiation dose (radiomorphology) in the major salivary glands influences xerostomia in patients with HNC.<h4>Methods and materials</h4>A data-driven approach using spatially explicit dosimetric predictors, voxel dose (ie, actual radiation dose in voxels in parotid glands [PG] and submandibular glands [SMG]) was used to predict whether patients would develop xerostomia 3 months after RT. Using planned radiation dose data and other nondose covariates including baseline xerostomia grade of 427 patients with HNC in our database, the machine learning methods were used to investigate the influence of dose patterns across subvolumes in PG and SMG on xerostomia.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 3 supervised learning methods studied, ridge logistic regression yielded the best predictive performance. Ridge logistic regression was also preferred to evaluate the influence pattern of highly correlated dose on xerostomia, which showed a discriminative pattern of influence of doses in the PG and SMG on xerostomia. Moreover, the superior-anterior portion of the contralateral PG and medial portion of the ipsilateral PG were determined to be the most influential regions regarding dose effect on xerostomia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from a 10-fold cross-validation was 0.70 ± 0.04.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Radiomorphology, combined with machine learning methods, is able to suggest patterns of dose in PG and SMG that are the most influential on xerostomia. The influence pattern identified by this data-driven approach and machine learning methods may help improve RT treatment planning and reduce xerostomia after treatment.
Project description:Cystatins are a family of inhibitors of cysteine peptidases that comprises the salivary cystatins (D and S-type cystatins) and cystatin C. These cystatins are encoded by a multigene family (CST3, CST5, CST4, CST1 and CST2) organized in tandem in the human genome. Their presence and functional importance in human saliva has been reported, however the distribution of these proteins in other mammals is still unclear. Here, we performed a proteomic analysis of the saliva of several mammals and studied the evolution of this multigene family. The proteomic analysis detected S-type cystatins (S, SA, and SN) in human saliva and cystatin D in rat saliva. The evolutionary analysis showed that the cystatin C encoding gene is present in species of the most representative mammalian groups, i.e. Artiodactyla, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Primates. On the other hand, D and S-type cystatins are mainly retrieved from Primates, and especially the evolution of S-type cystatins seems to be a dynamic process as seen in Pongo abelii genome where several copies of CST1-like gene (cystatin SN) were found. In Rodents, a group of cystatins previously identified as D and S has also evolved. Despite the high divergence of the amino acid sequence, their position in the phylogenetic tree and their genome organization suggests a common origin with those of the Primates. These results suggest that the D and S type cystatins have emerged before the mammalian radiation and were retained only in Primates and Rodents. Although the mechanisms driving the evolution of cystatins are unknown, it seems to be a dynamic process with several gene duplications evolving according to the birth-and-death model of evolution. The factors that led to the appearance of a group of saliva-specific cystatins in Primates and its rapid evolution remain undetermined, but may be associated with an adaptive advantage.
Project description:A hybrid linear ion-trap Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer was used for top-down characterization of the abundant human salivary cystatins, including S, S1, S2, SA, SN, C, and D, using collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) after chromatographic purification of the native, disulfide intact proteins. Post-translational modifications and protein sequence polymorphisms arising from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assigned from precursor and product ion masses at a tolerance of 10 ppm, allowing confident identification of individual intact mass tags. Cystatins S, S1, S2, SA, and SN were cleaved of a N-terminal 20 amino acid signal peptide and cystatin C a 26-residue peptide, to yield a generally conserved N-terminus. In contrast, cystatin D isoforms with 24 and 28 amino acid residue N-terminal truncations were found such that their N-termini were not conserved. Cystatin S1 was phosphorylated at Ser3, while S2 was phosphorylated at Ser1 and Ser3, in agreement with previous work. Both cystatin D isoforms carried the polymorphism C46R (SNP: rs1799841). The 14,328 Da isoform of cystatin SN previously assigned with polymorphism P31L due to a SNP (rs2070856) was found only in whole saliva. Parotid secretions contained no detectable cystatins while whole saliva largely mirrored the contents of submandibular/sublingual (SMSL) secretions. With fully characterized cystatin intact mass tags it will now be possible to examine the correlation between the abundance of these molecules and human health and disease.