Initial-velocity kinetics of succinoyl-coenzyme A-3-oxo acid coenzyme A-transferase from sheep kidney.
ABSTRACT: The initial-velocity kinetics of sheep kidney CoA-transferase are consistent with a Ping Pong mechanism. A KAcAc-CoA of 2.7 X 10(-5) M, KSucc-CoA of 1.6 X 10(-4) M, KSucc of 5.6 X 10(-3) M and KAcAc of 6.7 X 10(-5) M were determined by using a direct assay system that monitors the concentration of magnesium acetoacetyl-CoA enolate. However, product-inhibition kinetics of sheep kidney CoA-transferase are inconsistent with a Ping Pong mechanism. The possible involvement of separate binding sites for succinate and acetoacetate are discussed.
Project description:The mechanism of long-chain fatty acid activation catalysed by highly purified microsomal palmitoyl-CoA synthetase was investigated. The kinetics of the overall reaction were found to conform to the Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong mechanism. (18)O was transferred from [(18)O]palmitate to AMP and palmitoyl-CoA exclusively. The enzyme intermediate formed appeared to consist of enzyme-bound palmitate; this formation occurred only in the presence of ATP. However, the involvement of palmitoyl-AMP in the reaction catalysed by the purified enzyme has proved difficult to establish.
Project description:By a study of the product-inhibition kinetics of the octanoyl-CoA synthetase from ox liver mitochondria, evidence was obtained consistent with the hypothesis that the enzyme reacts by a Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong type of mechanism in which the order of addition and evolution of substrates and products is CoA, octanoate, octanoyl-CoA, ATP, PP(i) and AMP. There is also evidence that more than one molecule of CoA can add to the enzyme and that it may act as an allosteric activator.
Project description:The anaerobic acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii couples reduction of caffeate with electrons derived from molecular hydrogen to the synthesis of ATP by a chemiosmotic mechanism with sodium ions as coupling ions. Caffeate is activated to caffeyl coenzyme A (caffeyl-CoA) prior to its reduction, and the caffeate reduction operon encodes an ATP-dependent caffeyl-CoA synthetase that is thought to catalyze the initial caffeate activation. The operon also encodes a potential CoA transferase, the product of carA, which was thought to be involved in subsequent ATP-independent caffeate activation. To prove the proposed function of carA, we overproduced its protein in Escherichia coli and then purified it. Purified CarA drives the formation of caffeyl-CoA from caffeate with hydrocaffeyl-CoA as the CoA donor. The dependence of the reaction on caffeate and hydrocaffeyl-CoA followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with apparent K(m) values of 75 ± 5 ?M for caffeate and 8 ± 2 ?M for hydrocaffeyl-CoA. The enzyme activity had broad ranges of pH and temperature optima. In addition to being able to use caffeate, CarA could use p-coumarate and ferulate but not cinnamate, sinapate, or p-hydroxybenzoate as a CoA acceptor. Neither acetyl-CoA nor butyryl-CoA served as the CoA donor for CarA. The enzyme uses a ping-pong mechanism for CoA transfer and is the first classified member of a new subclass of family I CoA transferases that has two catalytic domains on one polypeptide chain. Apparently, CarA catalyzes an energy-saving CoA loop for caffeate activation in the steady state of caffeate respiration.
Project description:CoA-transferase (succinyl-CoA-3-oxo acid CoA-transferase, EC 188.8.131.52) isolated from sheep kidney was purified to homogeneity. The purified enzyme has a specific activity of approx. 200 units/mg. A mol.wt. of 110000 was obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and a lower mol.wt. of 102000 was determined by analytical ultracentrifugation. A sedimentation coefficient of 5.6S was also determined. A subunit mol.wt. of 56000 was obtained by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing of sheep kidney extracts indicated the presence of a single band of CoA-transferase activity with pI9.0. However, isoelectric focusing of purified CoA-transferase showed the presence of two peaks of CoA-transferase activity with pI values of 8.7 and 8.4, suggesting the presence of proteolytic activity during purification. Evidence for sheep kidney CoA-transferase being a dimer of two identical subunits has been obtained from sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the amino acid composition, peptide 'mapping' and N-terminal analysis.
Project description:1. Cytoplasmic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase was highly purified in good yield from rat liver extracts. 2. Mg(2+) inhibits the rate of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolysis but not the rate of synthesis of acetoacetyl-CoA. Measurement of the velocity of thiolysis at varying Mg(2+) but fixed acetoacetyl-CoA concentrations gave evidence that the keto form of acetoacetyl-CoA is the true substrate. 3. Linear reciprocal plots of velocity of acetoacetyl-CoA synthesis against acetyl-CoA concentration in the presence or absence of desulpho-CoA (a competitive inhibitor) indicate that the kinetic mechanism is of the Ping Pong (Cleland, 1963) type involving an acetyl-enzyme covalent intermediate. In the presence of CoA the reciprocal plots are non-linear, becoming second order in acetyl-CoA (the Hill plot shows a slope of 1.7), but here this does not imply co-operative phenomena. 4. In the direction of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolysis CoA is a substrate inhibitor, competing with acetoacetyl-CoA, with a K(i) of 67mum. Linear reciprocal plots of initial velocity against concentration of mixtures of acetoacetyl-CoA plus CoA confirmed the Ping Pong mechanism for acetoacetyl-CoA thiolysis. This method of investigation also enabled the determination of all the kinetic constants without complication by substrate inhibition. When saturated with substrate the rate of acetoacetyl-CoA synthesis is 0.055 times the rate of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolysis. 5. Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase was extremely susceptible to inhibition by an excess of iodoacetamide, but this inhibition was completely abolished after preincubation of the enzyme with a molar excess of acetoacetyl-CoA. This result was in keeping with the existence of an acetyl-enzyme. Acetyl-CoA, in whose presence the overall reaction could proceed, gave poor protection, presumably because of the continuous turnover of acetyl-enzyme in this case. 6. The kinetic mechanism of cytoplasmic thiolase is discussed in terms of its proposed role in steroid biosynthesis.
Project description:A fatty acid synthetase multienzyme complex was purified from Euglena gracilis variety bacillaris. The fatty acid synthetase activity is specifically inhibited by antibodies against Escherichia coli acyl-carrier protein. The Euglena enzyme system requires both NADPH and NADH for maximal activity. An analysis was done of the steady-state kinetics of the reaction catalysed by the fatty acid synthetase multienzyme complex. Initial-velocity studies were done in which the concentrations of the following pairs of substrates were varied: malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, NADPH and acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. In all three cases patterns of the Ping Pong type were obtained. Product-inhibition studies were done with NADP+ and CoA. NADP+ is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, and uncompetitive with respect to malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. CoA is uncompetitive with respect to NADPH and competitive with respect to malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. When the concentrations of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA were varied over a wide range, mutual competitive substrate inhibition was observed. When the fatty acid synthetase was incubated with radiolabelled acetyl-CoA or malonyl-CoA, labelled acyl-enzyme was isolated. The results are consistent with the idea that fatty acid synthesis proceeds by a multisite substituted-enzyme mechanism involving Ping Pong reactions at the following enzyme sites: acetyl transacylase, malonyl transacylase, beta-oxo acyl-enzyme synthetase and fatty acyl transacylase.
Project description:Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (EC 184.108.40.206) was purified to homogeneity from ox liver and obtained essentially free from acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase activity. The purification procedure included substrate elution from cellulose phosphate and chromatofocusing. The relative molecular mas was about 100 000 and S20,w0 was 6.36S. The enzyme appears to be a dimer of identical subunits (Mr 47 900). The Km for acetoacetyl-CoA is extremely low (less than 0.5 microM), and acetoacetyl-CoA (Acac-CoA) gives marked substrate inhibition (KiAcac-CoA = 3.5 microM) that is competitive with respect to acetyl-CoA. Both CoA and DL-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA give mixed product inhibition with respect to acetyl-CoA, which is compatible with a Ping Pong mechanism in which both products can form kinetically significant complexes with two forms of the enzyme. The two forms are most likely to be free enzyme and an acetyl-enzyme intermediate.
Project description:The reaction of cholic acid, CoA and ATP to yield cholyl-CoA was investigated by kinetic analysis of the reaction as catalysed by guinea pig liver microsomes. The enzyme has an absolute requirement for divalent cation for activity so all kinetic analyses were carried out in excess Mn2+. A trisubstrate kinetic analysis was conducted by varying, one at a time ATP cholate and CoA. Both ATP and cholate gave parallel double reciprocal plots versus CoA, which indicates a ping-pong mechanism with either pyrophosphate or AMP leaving prior to the binding of CoA. Addition of pyrophosphate to the assays changed the parallel plots to intersecting ones; addition of AMP did not. This indicates that pyrophosphate is the first product. The end-product, AMP, was a competitive inhibitor versus ATP, as was cholyl-CoA at saturating concentrations of cholate. Both AMP and cholyl-CoA were uncompetitive inhibitors versus CoA. Based on this information, it was concluded that the reaction follows a bi uni uni bi ping-pong mechanism with ATP binding first, and with the release of the final products, AMP and cholyl-CoA, being random. CoA showed substrate inhibition at high but non-saturating concentrations and this inhibition was competitive versus ATP, which is consistent with the predicted ping-pong mechanism. The ability of cholyl-CoA, but not cholate or CoA, to bind with high affinity to the free enzyme was suggestive of a high affinity of the enzyme for the thioester link.
Project description:1. The mechanism of reaction of fatty acyl-CoA synthesis catalysed by fatty acyl-CoA synthetase from ox liver (fraction II; Bar-Tana, Rose & Shapiro, 1968) was investigated by a kinetic study of CoA disappearance dependent on butyrate plus ATP or butyryl-AMP (overall and partial reaction b respectively). 2. Contrary to findings with another enzyme (fraction I), a Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong mechanism (Cleland, 1963a,b,c) corresponding to Berg's (1956) scheme of reaction was eliminated and an ordered Ter Ter mechanism with an A-C-B (standing for ATP, CoA and butyrate respectively) sequence of substrate entry for the overall reaction was established for fraction II. Partial reaction (b) was found to follow the ;Iso-Theorell-Chance' mechanism. 3. Also, in contrast with results obtained with fraction I, no allosteric properties could be demonstrated with fraction II.
Project description:Malonyl-CoA synthetase catalyses the formation of malonyl-CoA directly from malonate and CoA with hydrolysis of ATP into AMP and PP1. The catalytic mechanism of malonyl-CoA synthetase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum was investigated by steady-state kinetics. Initial-velocity studies and the product-inhibition studies with AMP and PPi strongly suggested ordered Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong Ter Ter system as the most probable steady-state kinetic mechanism of malonyl-CoA synthetase. Michaelis constants were 61 microM, 260 microM and 42 microM for ATP, malonate and CoA respectively, and the value for Vmax, was 11.2 microM/min. The t.l.c. analysis of the 32P-labelled products in a reaction mixture containing [gamma-32P]ATP in the absence of CoA showed that PPi was produced after the sequential addition of ATP and malonate. Formation of malonyl-AMP, suggested as an intermediate in the kinetically deduced mechanism, was confirmed by the analysis of 31P-n.m.r. spectra of an AMP product isolated from the 18O-transfer experiment using [18O]malonate. The 31P-n.m.r. signal of the AMP product appeared at 0.024 p.p.m. apart from that of [16O4]AMP, indicating that one atom of 18O transferred from [18O]malonate to AMP through the formation of malonyl-AMP. Formation of malonyl-AMP was also confirmed through the t.l.c. analysis of reaction mixture containing [alpha-32P]ATP. These results strongly support the ordered Bi Uni Uni Bi Pin Pong Ter Ter mechanism deduced from initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies.