The human erythrocyte anion-transport protein. Partial amino acid sequence, conformation and a possible molecular mechanism for anion exchange.
ABSTRACT: The N-terminal 72 residues of an integral membrane fragment, P5, of the human erythrocyte anion-transport protein, which is known to be directly involved in the anion-exchange process, was shown to have the following amino acid sequence: Met-Val-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gly-Pro-Leu-Pro-Asn-Thr-Ala-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu-Val-Leu-Met -Ala-Gly-Thr-Phe-Phe-Phe-Ala-Met-Met-Leu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Lys-Asn-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Phe-Pro-Gly-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Val-Ile-Gly-Asp-Phe-Gly-Val-Pro-Ile-Ser-Ile-Leu-Ile-Met-Val-Leu-Val-Asp-Phe-Phe-Ile-Gln-Asp-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Gln- The structure of this fragment was analysed, with account being taken of the constraints that apply to the folding of integral membrane proteins and the topographical locations of various sites in the sequence. It was concluded that this sequence forms two transmembrane alpha-helices. These are probably part of a cluster of amphipathic transmembrane alpha-helices, which could comprise that part of the protein responsible for transport activity. The presently available evidence relating to the anion-exchange process was considered with the structural features noted in this study and a possible molecular mechanism is proposed. In this model the rearrangement of a network of intramembranous charged pairs mediates the translocation of an anion between anion-binding regions at each surface of the membrane, which are composed of clusters of positively charged amino acids. This model imposes a sequential exchange mechanism on the system. Supplementary material, including Tables and Figures describing the compositions of peptides determined by amino acid analysis and sequence studies, quantitative and qualitative data that provide a residue-by-residue justification for the sequence assignment and a description of modifications to and use of the solid-phase sequencer has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50123 (12 pages) with the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained as indicated in Biochem. J. (1983) 209, 5.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:The known amino acid sequences at the two sites on phosphorylase kinase that are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase were extended. The sequences of 42 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the alpha-subunit and of 14 amino acids around the phosphorylation site on the beta-subunit were shown to be: alpha-subunit Phe-Arg-Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ile-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Glx-Pro-Asx-Gly-Gly-His-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Asp-Leu-Met-Ser-Pro-Ser-Phe-Leu-Ser-Pro-Gly-Thr-Ser-Val-Phe(Ser,Pro,Gly)His-Thr-Ser-Lys; beta-subunit, Ala-Arg-Thr-Lys-Arg-Ser-Gly-Ser(P)-VALIle-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Leu-Lys. The sites on histone H2B which are phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in vitro were identified as serine-36 and serine-32. The amino acid sequence in this region is: Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Arg-Ser32(P)-Arg-Lys-Glu-Ser36(P)-Tyr-Ser-Val-Tyr-Val- [Iwai, K., Ishikawa, K. & Hayashi, H. (1970) Nature (London) 226, 1056-1058]. Serine-36 was phosphorylated at 50% of the rate at which the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase was phosphorylated, and it was phosphorylated 6-7-fold more rapidly than was serine-32. The amino acid sequences when compared with those at the phosphorylation sites of other physiological substrates suggest that the presence of two adjacent basic amino acids on the N-terminal side of the susceptible serine residue may be critical for specific substrate recognition in vivo.
Project description:The reaction of holo-(D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) (EC 126.96.36.199) from rat skeletal muscle with [14C]butanedione in 0.05 M-NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, resulted in modification (*) of two arginine residues per subunit with a concomitant loss of catalytic activity. From a tryptic digest of the modified protein two radiolabelled peptides were isolated, with the following sequences: (1)Val-Ile-Ile-Asn-Ala-Pro-Thr-Ala-Asp-Ala(Glx,Met,Leu,Phe,Met)Gly-Val-Asx-Arg- Glx(His,Tyr)Ser-Lys and (2) Asp-Ala-Gly-Ala-Thr-Ile-Ala-Leu(Asx,Glx,Arg,Phe,Val)Lys. By comparison of the data with the known sequences of homologous enzymes, the localization of the modified residues was established. The first peptide was identified as corresponding to residues 116--139, the second to residues 293--306. Experimental evidence from this and previous studies suggests that arginine-134 is important for the catalytic activity of the rat muscle enzyme, being involved in structural rearrangements accompanying the organization of the active centre on the binding of coenzyme and substrate.
Project description:Stone fish is an under-utilized sea cucumber with many health benefits. Hydrolysates with strong ACE-inhibitory effects were generated from stone fish protein under the optimum conditions of hydrolysis using bromelain and fractionated based on hydrophobicity and isoelectric properties of the constituent peptides. Five novel peptide sequences with molecular weight (mw) < 1000 daltons (Da) were identified using LC-MS/MS. The peptides including Ala-Leu-Gly-Pro-Gln-Phe-Tyr (794.44 Da), Lys-Val-Pro-Pro-Lys-Ala (638.88 Da), Leu-Ala-Pro-Pro-Thr-Met (628.85 Da), Glu-Val-Leu-Ile-Gln (600.77 Da) and Glu-His-Pro-Val-Leu (593.74 Da) were evaluated for ACE-inhibitory activity and showed IC50 values of 0.012 mM, 0.980 mM, 1.310 mM, 1.440 mM and 1.680 mM, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory effects of the peptides were further verified using molecular docking study. The docking results demonstrated that the peptides exhibit their effect mainly via hydrogen and electrostatic bond interactions with ACE. These findings provide evidence about stone fish as a valuable source of raw materials for the manufacture of antihypertensive peptides that can be incorporated to enhance therapeutic relevance and commercial significance of formulated functional foods.
Project description:Insulin was isolated from an extract of the pancreas of a urodele, the three-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum), and its primary structure established as Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-His10-Asn-Thr-Cys- Ser-Leu-Asn-Gln-Leu-Glu-Asn20-Tyr-Cys-Asn for the A-chain and Ile-Thr-Asn-Gln-Tyr-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His10-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala- Leu-Tyr-Leu-Val-Cys-Gly20-Asp-Arg-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Lys for the B-chain. The N-terminus of the A-chain is extended by two amino acids (Ala-Arg) relative to all other known insulins suggesting an anomalous pathway of post-translational processing in the region of the C-peptide/A-chain junction of proinsulin. In common with chicken and Xenopus insulins, which contain a HisA8, amphiuma insulin was more potent (approx. 5-fold) than porcine insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-TyrA14]insulin to the soluble human insulin receptor from transfected 293EBNA cells (an adenovirus-transformed human kidney cell line). This result is consistent with previous data showing that insulin analogues extended at GlyA1 by uncharged groups have reduced binding affinity whereas high affinity is preserved in analogues extended by basic amino acid residues.
Project description:Two new cyclopeptides, mullinamides A [cyclo-(-L-Gly-L-Glu-L-Val-L-Ile-L-Pro-)] and B [cyclo-(-L-Glu-L-Met-L-Pro-)] were isolated from the crude extract of terrestrial Streptomyces sp. RM-27-46 along with the three known cyclopeptides surugamide A [cyclo-(-L-Ile-D-Ile-L-Lys-L-Ile-D-Phe-D-Leu-L-Ile-D-Ala-)], cyclo-(-L-Pro-L-Phe-) and cyclo-(-L-Pro-L-Leu-). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the cumulative analyses of NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. Although mullinamides A and B displayed no appreciable antimicrobial/fungal activity or cytotoxicity, this study highlights the first reported antibacterial activity of surugamide A.
Project description:1. RNAase (ribonuclease) U2, a purine-specific RNAase, was reduced, aminoethylated and hydrolysed with trypsin, chymotrypsin and thermolysin. On the basis of the analyses of the resulting peptides, the complete amino acid sequence of RNAase U2 was determined, 2. When the sequence was compared with the amino acid sequence of RNAase T1 (EC 188.8.131.52), the following regions were found to be similar in the two enzymes; Tyr-Pro-His-Gln-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase U2 and Tyr-Pro-His-Lys-Tyr (38-42) in RNAase T1, Glu-Phe-Pro-Leu-Val (61-65) in RNAase U2 and Glu-Trp-Pro-Ile-Leu (58-62) in RNAase T1, Asp-Arg-Val-Ile-Tyr-Gln (83-88) in RNAase U2 and Asp-Arg-Val-Phe-Asn (76-81) in RNAase T1 and Val-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (98-103) in RNAase U2 and Ile-Thr-His-Thr-Gly-Ala (90-95) in RNAase T1. All of the amino acid residues, histidine-40, glutamate-58, arginine-77 and histidine-92, which were found to play a crucial role in the biological activity of RNAase T1, were included in the regions cited here. 3. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the sequence of the proteins has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50041 (33 PAGES) AT THE British Library (Lending Division)(formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1975), 145, 5.
Project description:The enzyme-substrate complex formed between pyridoxamine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 184.108.40.206) and pyridoxal was reduced with NaBH4. After carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, pyridoxyl-lysine-containing peptides were isolated by a combination of Sephadex and Dowex 50 chromatography. Analysis of these peptides shows the structure around the pyridoxal-binding lysine residues to be Ala-Asp-Ile-Tyr-Val-Thr-Gly-Pro-Asx-Lys(Pxy)-Cys-Leu(Pro2, Gly2, Ala2, Met)(Thr, Leu2)Gly-Val-Ser-Glu-Arg. This structure differs from those found for the corresponding peptides from pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes.
Project description:A diagonal-electrophoresis method for the selective purification of serine phosphate peptides was applied to tryptic, chymotryptic and peptic digests of oxidized ovalbumin. This method is based on the release of the phosphate group bound to serine by treatment with alkaline phosphatase on paper. The identified serine phosphate peptides were purified by paper electrophoresis at pH6.5 and 2.0, dephosphorylation with bacterial alkaline phosphatase, and paper electrophoresis at pH2.0 again, in that order. The presence of two groups of serine phosphate peptides was apparent from the amino acid composition. One group contained no lysine, cysteic acid, proline, leucine or isoleucine (sequence 1) and the other had all those amino acids (sequence 2). Further degradation with subtilisin of those peptides and ;dansyl'-Edman sequence analysis established their partial sequences. The proposed sequences are as follows (with ;SerP' representing serine phosphate): sequence 1, -Ala-Gly-Arg-Glu-Val-Val-Gly-SerP-Ala-Glu-Ala-Gly-Asp-Val-Ala-Ala-Ser-(Val,Glx(2),Ser,Phe)-Arg-; sequence 2, -Asp-Lys-Leu-Pro-Gly-Phe-Gly-Asp-SerP-Ile-Glx-Ala-Glx-CySO(3)H-Gly-(Thr,Ser,Val)-(Asp,His,Val)-. The partial sequence of one of the phosphopeptides, Asp-(Glu,Ile,SerP), reported by Flavin (1954) was used to establish the proposed sequence 2.
Project description:An adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was isolated from extracts of the pars distalis of the pituitary of the dogfish Squalus acanthias by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. It had 15% of the potency of human ACTH in promoting cortico-steroidogenesis in isolated rat adrenal cells. Sequence analysis revealed it to be a nonatria-contapeptide with the following primary structure: Ser-Tyr-Ser-Met-Glu-His-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-Pro-Met-Gly-Arg-Lys-Arg-Arg-Pro-Ile-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Ser-Phe-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Val-Glu-Asn-Met-Gly-Pro-Glu-Leu. The N-terminal tridecapeptide sequence was identical with the proposed structure of dogfish alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). On comparison with human ACTH eleven amino acid differences were seen, nine of which are in the 20-39 region of the molecule which is not essential for the steroidogenic activity of ACTH. A peptide identical with the 18-39 portion of this new ACTH was similarly isolated from the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary where considerable amounts of dogfish alpha-MSH were found. This supported our view that ACTH as well as having a distinct biological role of its own is also the precursor of alpha-MSH.