Observations on the affinity for carnitine, and malonyl-CoA sensitivity, of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in animal and human tissues. Demonstration of the presence of malonyl-CoA in non-hepatic tissues of the rat.
ABSTRACT: The requirement for carnitine and the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (EC 220.127.116.11) were measured in isolated mitochondria from eight tissues of animal or human origin using fixed concentrations of palmitoyl-CoA (50 microM) and albumin (147 microM). The Km for carnitine spanned a 20-fold range, rising from about 35 microM in adult rat and human foetal liver to 700 microM in dog heart. Intermediate values of increasing magnitude were found for rat heart, guinea pig liver and skeletal muscle of rat, dog and man. Conversely, the concentration of malonyl-CoA required for 50% suppression of enzyme activity fell from the region of 2-3 microM in human and rat liver to only 20 nM in tissues displaying the highest Km for carnitine. Thus, the requirement for carnitine and sensitivity to malonyl-CoA appeared to be inversely related. The Km of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I for palmitoyl-CoA was similar in tissues showing large differences in requirement for carnitine. Other experiments established that, in addition to liver, heart and skeletal muscle of fed rats contain significant quantities of malonyl-CoA and that in all three tissues the level falls with starvation. Although its intracellular location in heart and skeletal muscle is not known, the possibility is raised that malonyl-CoA (or a related compound) could, under certain circumstances, interact with carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in non-hepatic tissues and thereby exert control over long chain fatty acid oxidation.
Project description:Malonyl-CoA significantly increased the Km for L-carnitine of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in liver mitochondria from fed rats. This effect was observed when the molar palmitoyl-CoA/albumin concentration ratio was low (0.125-1.0), but not when it was higher (2.0). In the absence of malonyl-CoA, the Km for L-carnitine increased with increasing palmitoyl-CoA/albumin ratios. Malonyl-CoA did not increase the Km for L-carnitine in liver mitochondria from 24h-starved rats or in heart mitochondria from fed animals. The Km for L-carnitine of the latent form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase was 3-4 times that for the overt form of the enzyme. At low ratios of palmitoyl-CoA/albumin (0.5), the concentration of malonyl-CoA causing a 50% inhibition of overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was decreased by 30% when assays with liver mitochondria from fed rats were performed at 100 microM-instead of 400 microM-carnitine. Such a decrease was not observed with liver mitochondria from starved animals. L-Carnitine displaced [14C]malonyl-CoA from liver mitochondrial binding sites. D-Carnitine was without effect. L-Carnitine did not displace [14C]malonyl-CoA from heart mitochondria. It is concluded that, under appropriate conditions, malonyl-CoA may decrease the effectiveness of L-carnitine as a substrate for the enzyme and that L-carnitine may decrease the effectiveness of malonyl-CoA to regulate the enzyme.
Project description:The kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I; EC 18.104.22.168) were examined in mitochondria from rat liver, heart and skeletal muscle as a function of pH over the range 6.8-7.6. In all three tissues raising the pH resulted in a fall in the Km for carnitine, no change in the Km for palmitoyl-CoA or Octanoyl-CoA, and a marked decrease in the inhibitory potency of malonyl-CoA. Studies with skeletal-muscle mitochondria established that increasing pH was accompanied by an increase in the Kd of the malonyl-CoA binding site for this ligand, coupled with a decrease in the Kd for fatty acyl-CoA species to compete for malonyl-CoA binding. Three principal conclusions are drawn. (1) The pH-induced shift in malonyl-CoA sensitivity of CPT I is not a phenomenon restricted to liver mitochondria. (2) At any given pH within the range tested, the ability of malonyl-CoA (and closely related compounds) to inhibit enzyme activity is governed by the efficiency of their binding to the malonyl-CoA site. (3) The competitive interaction between fatty acyl-CoA substrates and malonyl-CoA as regards CPT I activity is exerted at the malonyl-CoA binding site. Finally, the possibility is strengthened that the malonyl-CoA binding site is distinct from the active site of CPT I.
Project description:Carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine octanoyltransferase activities in brain mitochondrial fractions were approx. 3-4-fold lower than activities in liver. Estimated Km values of CPT1 and CPT2 (the overt and latent forms respectively of carnitine palmitoyltransferase) for L-carnitine were 80 microM and 326 microM, respectively, and K0.5 values for palmitoyl-CoA were 18.5 microM and 12 microM respectively. CPT1 activity was strongly inhibited by malonyl-CoA, with I50 values (concn. giving 50% of maximum inhibition) of approx. 1.5 microM. In the absence of other ligands, [2-14C]malonyl-CoA bound to intact brain mitochondria in a manner consistent with the presence of two independent classes of binding sites. Estimated values for KD(1), KD(2), N1 and N2 were 18 nM, 27 microM, 1.3 pmol/mg of protein and 168 pmol/mg of protein respectively. Neither CPT1 activity, nor its sensitivity towards malonyl-CoA, was affected by 72 h starvation. Rates of oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA (in the presence of L-carnitine) or of palmitoylcarnitine by non-synaptic mitochondria were extremely low, indicating that neither CPT1 nor CPT2 was likely to be rate-limiting for beta-oxidation in brain. CPT1 activity relative to mitochondrial protein increased slightly from birth to weaning (20 days) and thereafter decreased by approx. 50%.
Project description:[14C]Malonyl-CoA bound to intact mitochondria isolated from rat liver and heart in a manner consistent with the presence of two independent classes of binding sites in each tissue. The binding characteristics for mitochondria obtained from fed male rats were: for heart, KD(1) = 11-18nM, KD(2) = 30 microM, N1 = 7pmol/mg of protein, N2 = approx. 660pmol/mg of protein; for liver, KD(1) = 0.1 microM, KD(2) = 5.6 microM, N1 = 11pmol/mg of protein, N2 = 165pmol/mg of protein. In the presence of 40 microM-palmitoyl-CoA the characteristics of binding at the high-affinity sites were changed, so that for heart KD(1) = 0.26 microM, with no change in N1 and for liver KD(1) = approx. 2 microM, with N1 increased to approx. 40pmol/mg of protein. Differences between the two tissues in tightness of malonyl-CoA binding at the high-affinity sites explains the considerably greater sensitivity of heart CPT1 (overt form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase) to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter, (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 229-232; McGarry, Mills, Long & Foster (1983) Biochem. J. 214, 21-28]. Starvation (24h) did not change the characteristics of [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to liver mitochondria and did not alter the I50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) for displacement of [14C]malonyl-CoA by palmitoyl-CoA. Therefore the decreased sensitivity of liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA in starvation [Saggerson & Carpenter (1981) FEBS Lett. 129, 225-228; Bremer (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 665, 628-631] is not explained by differences in malonyl-CoA binding. Percentage occupancy of the high-affinity sites in heart mitochondria by malonyl-CoA correlated closely with percentage inhibition of CPT1 measured under similar conditions. This finding supports the proposal that the high-affinity binding sites are the functional sites mediating inhibition of CPT1 by malonyl-CoA. Similar experiments with liver mitochondria also suggested that the occupancy of high-affinity sites by malonyl-CoA regulates CPT1 activity. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), which decreased the sensitivity of heart or liver CPT1 to inhibition by malonyl-CoA [Saggerson & Carpenter (1982) FEBS Lett. 137, 124-128], also decreased [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to the high-affinity sites of heart mitochondria. N1 values for [14C]malonyl-CoA binding to high-affinity sites in liver mitochondria were determined in various physiological states which encompassed a 7-fold range of CPT1 maximal activity (fed, starved, pregnant, hypothyroid, foetal). The N1 value did not change in these states.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Using expressed sequence tag data, we obtained a cDNA for a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I)-like molecule from Drosophila melanogaster. The cDNA encodes a 782-residue protein that shows 49% and 48% sequence identity with the rat liver and skeletal-muscle isoforms of CPT I respectively. The sequence has two predicted membrane-spanning regions, suggesting that it adopts the same topology as its mammalian counterparts. The sequence contains all the residues that have been shown to be characteristic of carnitine acetyltransferases. Expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris confirmed that the cDNA does encode a CPT enzyme. The activity was found to be associated with a mitochondria-enriched fraction. Kinetic analysis revealed a K(m) for carnitine of 406 microM and a K(m) for palmitoyl-CoA of 105 microM. The CPT activity was very sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, with an IC(50) of 0.74 microM when the activity was assayed with 35 microM palmitoyl-CoA and 1% (w/v) albumin at pH 7.0. A histidine residue at position 140 in rat liver CPT I has been indicated to be important for inhibition by malonyl-CoA. The equivalent residue (position 136) in Drosophila CPT I is arginine, implying that any basic residue might be compatible with such sensitivity. Evidence is presented that, unlike in mammals, Drosophila has only a single CPT I gene. Sequences suggesting the existence of a splice variant in the 5' untranslated region were found; this was consistent with the existence of two promoters for the CPT I gene.
Project description:The sensitivity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I; EC 22.214.171.124) to inhibition by malonyl-CoA and related compounds was examined in isolated mitochondria from liver, heart and skeletal muscle of the rat. In all three tissues the same order of inhibitory potency emerged: malonyl-CoA much greater than succinyl-CoA greater than methylmalonyl-CoA much greater than propionyl-CoA greater than acetyl-CoA. For any given agent, suppression of CPT I activity was much greater in skeletal muscle than in liver, with the heart enzyme having intermediate sensitivity. With skeletal-muscle mitochondria a high-affinity binding site for [14C]malonyl-CoA was readily demonstrable (Kd approx. 25 nM). The ability of other CoA esters to compete with [14C]malonyl-CoA for binding to the membrane paralleled their capacity to inhibit CPT I. Palmitoyl-CoA also competitively inhibited [14C]malonyl-CoA binding, in keeping with its known ability to overcome malonyl-CoA suppression of CPT I. For reasons not yet clear, free CoA displayed anomalous behaviour in that its competition for [14C]malonyl-CoA binding was disproportionately greater than its inhibition of CPT I. Three major conclusions are drawn. First, malonyl-CoA is not the only physiological compound capable of suppressing CPT I, since chemically related compounds, known to exist in cells, also share this property, particularly in tissues where the enzyme shows the greatest sensitivity to malonyl-CoA. Second, malonyl-CoA and its analogues appear to interact with the same site on the mitochondrial membrane, as may palmitoyl-CoA. Third, the degree of site occupancy by inhibitors governs the activity of CPT I.
Project description:1. The interaction of malonyl-CoA with the outer carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system of rat liver mitochondria was re-evaluated by using preparations of highly purified outer membranes, in the light of observations that other subcellular structures that normally contaminate crude mitochondrial preparations also contain malonyl-CoA-sensitive CPT activity. 2. In outer-membrane preparations, which were purified about 200-fold with respect to the inner-membrane-matrix fraction, malonyl-CoA binding was largely accounted for by a single high-affinity component (KD = 0.03 microM), in contrast with the dual site (low- and high-affinity) previously found with intact mitochondria. 3. There was no evidence that the decreased sensitivity of CPT to malonyl-CoA inhibition observed in outer membranes obtained from 48 h-starved rats (compared with those from fed animals) was due to a decreased ratio of malonyl-CoA binding to CPT catalytic moieties. Thus CPT specific activity and maximal high-affinity [14C]malonyl-CoA binding (expressed per mg of protein) were increased 2.2- and 2.0-fold respectively in outer membranes from 48 h-starved rats. 4. Palmitoyl-CoA at a concentration that was saturating for CPT activity (5 microM) decreased the affinity of malonyl-CoA binding by an order of magnitude, but did not alter the maximal binding of [14C]malonyl-CoA. 5. Preincubation of membranes with either tetradecylglycidyl-CoA or 2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA plus carnitine resulted in marked (greater than 80%) inhibition of high-affinity binding, concurrently with greater than 95% inhibition of CPT activity. These treatments also unmasked an effect of subsequent treatment with palmitoyl-CoA to increase low-affinity [14C]malonyl-CoA binding. 6. These data are discussed in relation to the possible mechanism of interaction between the malonyl-CoA-binding site and the active site of the enzyme.
Project description:1. Liver carnitine acyltransferase activities with palmitoyl-CoA and octanoyl-CoA as substrates and heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase were measured as overt activities in whole mitochondria or in mitochondria disrupted by sonication or detergent treatment. All measurements were made in sucrose/KCl-based media of 300 mosmol/litre. 2. In liver mitochondria, acyltransferase measured with octanoyl-CoA, like carnitine palmitoyltransferase, was found to have latent and overt activities. 3. Liver acyltransferase activities measured with octanoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA differed in their response to changes in [K+], Triton X-100 treatment and, in particular, in their response to Mg2+. Mg2+ stimulated activity with octanoyl-CoA, but inhibited carnitine palmitoyltransferase. 4. The effects of K+ and Mg2+ on liver overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity were abolished by Triton X-100 treatment. 5. Heart overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity differed from the corresponding activity in liver in that it was more sensitive to changes in [K+] and was stimulated by Mg2+. Heart had less latent carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity than did liver. 6. Overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase in heart mitochondria was extremely sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. Triton X-100 abolished the effect of low concentrations of malonyl-CoA on this activity. 7. The inhibitory effect of malonyl-CoA on heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase could be overcome by increasing the concentration of palmitoyl-CoA.
Project description:The degree of inhibition of CPT I (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, EC 126.96.36.199) in isolated rat liver mitochondria by malonyl-CoA was studied by measuring the activity of the enzyme over a short period (15s) after exposure of the mitochondria to malonyl-CoA for different lengths of time. Inhibition of CPT I by malonyl-CoA was markedly time-dependent, and the increase occurred at the same rate in the presence or absence of palmitoyl-CoA (80 microM), and in the presence of carnitine, such that the time-course of acylcarnitine formation deviated markedly from linearity when CPT I activity was measured in the presence of malonyl-CoA over several minutes. The initial rate of increase in degree of inhibition with time was independent of malonyl-CoA concentration. CPT I in mitochondria from 48 h-starved rats had a lower degree of inhibition by malonyl-CoA at zero time, but was equally capable of being sensitized to malonyl-CoA, as judged by an initial rate of increase of inhibition identical with that of the enzyme in mitochondria from fed rats. Double-reciprocal plots for the degree of inhibition produced by different malonyl-CoA concentrations at zero time for the enzyme in mitochondria from fed or starved animals indicated that the enzyme in the latter mitochondria was predominantly in a state with low affinity for malonyl-CoA (concentration required to give 50% inhibition, I0.5 congruent to 10 microM), whereas that in mitochondria from fed rats displayed two distinct sets of affinities: low (congruent to 10 microM) and high (less than 0.3 microM). Plots for mitochondria after incubation for 0.5 or 1 min with malonyl-CoA indicated that the increased sensitivity observed with time was due to a gradual increase in the high-affinity state in both types of mitochondria. These results suggest that the sensitivity of CPT I in rat liver mitochondria in vitro had two components: (i) an instantaneous sensitivity inherent to the enzyme which depends on the nutritional state of the animal from which the mitochondria are isolated, and (ii) a slow, malonyl-CoA-induced, time-dependent increase in sensitivity. It is suggested that the rate of malonyl-CoA-induced sensitization of the enzyme to malonyl-CoA inhibition is limited by a slow first-order process, which occurs after the primary event of interaction of malonyl-CoA with the mitochondria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat liver mitochondria preincubated with malonyl-CoA was more sensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA than was the enzyme in mitochondria preincubated in the absence of malonyl-CoA. For carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in mitochondria from starved animals this increase also resulted in the enzyme becoming significantly more sensitive than that in mitochondria assayed immediately after their isolation. Concentrations of malonyl-CoA that induced half the maximal degree of sensitization observed were 1-3 microM.