Mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in lean and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice.
ABSTRACT: Isolated mitochondria from liver or brown adipose tissue of obese ob/ob mice demonstrated increased rates of Ca2+ uptake and release compared with those of lean mice. This enhanced transport activity was not found in mitochondria from kidney or skeletal muscle. Respiration-induced membrane potential was the same in mitochondria from lean and ob/ob mice. It is therefore concluded that the increased Ca2+ uptake rates reflect an activation of the Ca2+ uniporter rather than a change in the electrophoretic driving force. As mitochondria from pre-obese ob/ob mice did not show elevated rates of Ca2+ transport, the activated transport in the obese animals was thus a consequence of the state of obesity rather than being a direct effect of the ob/ob genotype. It is suggested that the enhanced activity of the Ca2+-transport pathways in liver and brown adipose tissue may alter metabolic functions in these tissues by modifying cytoplasmic or intramitochondrial Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:The specific binding capacity for purine nucleotides in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria is thought to indicate the capacity of the proton-conductance pathway which leads to uncoupled respiration. This functional relationship was investigated in studies measuring initial Ca2+-uptake rates and membrane potential in the presence or absence of GDP in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria with different GDP-binding capacities. The mitochondria from pre-obese and obese ob/ob mice were less able than those from lean control mice to dissipate membrane potential in the absence of GDP. Mitochondria from the obese animals also maintained a higher Ca2+-uptake rate without GDP in comparison with the rate found with mitochondria from the lean mice. The GDP-dependence of Ca2+ uptake was greater in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria from cold-adapted animals than in those from animals kept at 22 degrees C or at thermoneutrality (33 degrees C). It is concluded that Ca2+-uptake rate and membrane-potential values are depressed in the absence of GDP and indicate indirectly the influence of purine nucleotides on maintaining the proton electrochemical gradient in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria. It is also apparent that the lower GDP-binding capacity in mitochondria from ob/ob mice is related to a decreased ability to dissipate the proton electrochemical gradient.
Project description:Fatty acid synthesis was measured in vivo with 3H2O in interscapular brown adipose tissue of lean and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. At 26 days of age, before the development of hyperphagia, synthesis in brown adipose tissue was higher in the obese than in the lean mice; synthesis was also elevated in the liver, white adipose tissue and carcass of the obese mice. At 8 weeks of age, when hyperphagia was well established, synthesis remained elevated in all tissues of the obese mice, with the exception of brown adipose tissue. Elevated synthesis rates were not apparent in brown adipose tissue of the obese mice at 14 days of age, nor at 35 days of age. These results demonstrate that brown adipose tissue in ob/ob mice has a transitory hyperlipogenesis at, and just after, weaning on to a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Once hyperphagia has developed, by week 5 of life, brown adipose tissue is the only major lipogenic tissue in the obese mice not to exhibit elevated rates of fatty acid synthesis; this suggests that insulin resistance develops much more rapidly in brown adipose tissue than in other lipogenic tissues of the ob/ob mouse.
Project description:1. The specific activity of monoamine oxidase was found to be greater in liver mitochondria from ob/ob mice than from lean mice. The activities of marker enzymes were similar in both tissues. 2. Experiments with various substrates (5-hydroxytryptamine, benzylamine and tyramine) and inhibitors (clorgyline and deprenyl) indicated that, unlike rat liver mitochondria, mouse liver mitochondria contain a predominance of the B-form of monoamine oxidase. 3. The Km values for lean and ob/ob mice were the same for any given substrate and were in the increasing order 5-hydroxytryptamine less than tyramine less than benzylamine. Vmax. was approximately 50% greater in obese than in lean mice. 4. Extraction of liver mitochondria with acetone/water or acetone/water/NH3 to remove lipids decreased the enzyme activity relatively more in obese- than in lean-mice preparations, but residual activity was the same in both preparations.
Project description:Stearic acid desaturase activity was assayed in preparations from perigenital adipose tissue and liver from lean and genetically obese female mice (ob/ob). The total activity in the perigenital adipose tissue from obese mice was threefold greater than in the tissue from lean mice, but per g of adipose tissue the activity was twofold greater in tissue from lean mice. In liver, the activity in obese mice was elevated at 8 weeks of age, remained elevated up to 24 weeks and then decreased by half at 48 weeks, but at all ages was higher than that in lean mice. The decrease in desaturase activity of liver from obese mice at 48 weeks corresponded to a change in the fatty acid composition of liver lipids toward that found in lean mice. Whereas in adipose tissue much of the increased enzyme activity may be due to tissue hyperplasia, in liver it is mainly an increased activity per cell.
Project description:Obesity may result from altered fatty acid (FA) disposal. Altered FA distribution in obese individuals is poorly understood. Lean wild-type C57BL/6J and obese C57BL/6Job/ob mice received an oral dose of [1-(14)C]18:1n-9 (oleic acid), and the radioactivity in tissues was evaluated at various time points. The (14)C concentration decreased rapidly in gastrointestinal tract but gradually increased and peaked at 96 h in adipose tissue, muscle and skin in lean mice. The (14)C concentration was constant in adipose tissue and muscle of obese mice from 4 h to 168 h. (14)C-label content in adipose tissue was significantly affected by genotype, whereas muscle (14)C-label content was affected by genotype, time and the interaction between genotype and time. There was higher total (14)C retention (47.7%) in obese mice than in lean mice (9.0%) at 168 h (P<0.05). The (14)C concentrations in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were higher in obese mice than in lean mice (P<0.05). Perirenal adipose tissue contained the highest (14)C content in lean mice, whereas subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) had the highest (14)C content and accounted for the largest proportion of total radioactivity among fat depots in obese mice. More lipid radioactivity was recovered as TAG in SAT from obese mice than from lean mice (P<0.05). Gene expression suggested acyl CoA binding protein and fatty acid binding protein are important for FA distribution in adipose tissue and muscle. The FA distribution in major tissues was altered in ob/ob mice, perhaps contributing to obesity. Understanding the disparity in FA disposal between lean and obese mice may reveal novel targets for the treatment and prevention of obesity.
Project description:ob/ob mice is an obese mice. CIDE family proteins including Cidea, Cideb and Cidec play important role in lipid metabolism. Cidea is mainly expressed in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Cidec is mainly expressed in the BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT). We generated ob/ob/Cidea-/-/Cidec-/- mice to investigate the phenotype of fat tissue. ob/ob/Cidea-/-/Cidec-/- mice are lean when compared with ob/ob mice. The tissue weight and TAG content of BAT and WAT was extreamly decreased in ob/ob/Cidea-/-/Cidec-/- mice compared with that in ob/ob mice. We next extract the total RNA from the BAT and WAT of ob/ob and ob/ob/Cidea-/-/Cidec-/- mice, to perform microarray analysis using Mouse Gene 1.0 ST array system, Affymetrix. We then analysised the up-regulated and down regulated pathways. Overall design: We extract the RNA of BAT and WAT from 4 month old mice and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We then analysis the data.
Project description:The expression of adipogenic genes is decreased in obesity and diabetes mellitus ; Samuel T. Nadler*, Jonathan P. Stoehr*, Kathryn L. Schueler*, Gene Tanimoto, Brian S. Yandell, and Alan D. Attie*,Â§ ; Departments of * Biochemistry, and Statistics and Horticulture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 53706; and Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95051 ; Communicated by Neal L. First, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, July 13, 2000 (received for review April 3, 2000) ; Obesity is strongly correlated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a common disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism. Although adipocytes are critical in obesity, their role in diabetes has only recently been appreciated. We conducted studies by using DNA microarrays to identify differences in gene expression in adipose tissue from lean, obese, and obese-diabetic mice. The expression level of over 11,000 transcripts was analyzed, and 214 transcripts showed significant differences between lean and obese mice. Surprisingly, the expression of genes normally associated with adipocyte differentiation were down-regulated in obesity. Not all obese individuals will become diabetic; many remain normoglycemic despite profound obesity. Understanding the transition to obesity with concomitant diabetes will provide important clues to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we examined the levels of gene expression in adipose tissue from five groups of obese mice with varying degrees of hyperglycemia, and we identified 88 genes whose expression strongly correlated with diabetes severity. This group included many genes that are known to be involved in signal transduction and energy metabolism as well as genes not previously examined in the context of diabetes. Our data show that a decrease in expression of genes normally involved in adipogenesis is associated with obesity, and we further identify genes important for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experiment Overall Design: For obesity study, lean samples include C57BL/6J lean, (C57BL/6J X BTBR) F1 and BTBR lean, obese sampples incluse C57BL/6J-ob/ob, (C57BL/6J X BTBR) F2-ob/ob and BTBR-ob/ob. All samples are subjected to Mu11K A and B arrays. Experiment Overall Design: For diabetes study, B6-ob/ob, (C57BL/6J X BTBR) F2-ob/ob low glucose, (C57BL/6J X BTBR) F2-ob/ob medium glucose, (C57BL/6J X BTBR) F2-ob/ob high glucose, and BTBR-ob/ob samples were analyzed for genes whose expression levels changes correlated with the plasma glucose levels in these mice. All samples are subjected to Mu11K A and B arrays.
Project description:The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the activity of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel was modulated in the same manner in islets of the ob/ob mouse as in islets of homozygous lean mice of the same strain. The effect of agents that are known to alter the concentrations and movements of intracellular Ca2+ were investigated in relation to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and in relation to the effect of forskolin. In islets of obese mice, verapamil and nifedipine both inhibited glucose-induced insulin release, nifedipine being the more potent inhibitor. Forskolin-stimulated secretion was inhibited either not at all (verapamil) or much less (nifedipine) in islets of the ob/ob mouse compared with those of lean mice. At basal glucose concentrations, verapamil initiated insulin secretion in islets of the ob/ob mouse and acted synergistically with forskolin to evoke a secretory activity that was 3-fold greater than that evoked by 20 mM-glucose. Nifedipine also initiated secretion at basal glucose concentrations and acted synergistically with forskolin, but its effect was considerably smaller than that of verapamil. A comparison of the effect of forskolin in the presence of Ca2+-channel blockers and in the absence of Ca2+ suggests that, in the obese mouse, the operation of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel is impaired.
Project description:In hepatocytes from lean mice vasopressin decreased ketogenesis and increased 14CO2 production from [1-14C]oleate and glucose release; these effects were Ca2+-dependent. None of these effects of vasopressin were obtained with hepatocytes from obese (ob/ob) mice. Similarly, adrenaline did not increase 14CO2 production in these hepatocytes, but it stimulated glucose release. Possible reasons for the impairment of vasopressin action are discussed.
Project description:1. Clearing-factor lipase was assayed in acetone-ether-dried powders of heart and epididymal fat-pads of lean and genetically obese mice (ob/ob). In both tissues the enzyme activity in the adult was higher in the obese mice. 2. In heart the enzyme activity was unchanged from 8 to 48 weeks of age in lean mice, but in obese mice it increased between 8 and 12 weeks of age and remained elevated. 3. Starvation produced changes in the heart clearing-factor lipase activity in obese, but not lean, mice. 4. The clearing-factor lipase activity of epididymal fat-pads decreased rapidly during 24h starvation in both lean and obese mice, but the activity in the obese mice remained higher than that in lean mice. 5. Plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined in both lean and obese mice. Triglyceride concentrations were not greatly different, but the obese mice were hypercholesterolaemic. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were not correlated with changes in clearing-factor lipase activity.