Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the perfused rat hemicorpus compared with rates in the intact animal.
ABSTRACT: The rate of protein synthesis was measured in muscles of the perfused rat hemicorpus, and values were compared with rates obtained in whole animals. In gastrocnemius muscle of fed rats the rate of synthesis measured in the hemicorpus was the same as that in the whole animal. However, in plantaris, quadriceps and soleus muscles rates were higher in the hemicorpus than those in vivo. In the hemicorpus, starvation for 1 day decreased the rate of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, in parallel with decreases in the RNA content, but the soleus remained unaffected. Similar effects of starvation were observed in vivo, so that the relationships between rates in vivo and in the hemicorpus were the same as those in fed rats. Proteins of quadriceps and plantaris muscles were separated into sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions. The rate of synthesis in the sarcoplasmic fraction of the hemicorpus from fed rats was similar to that in vivo, but synthesis in the myofibrillar fraction was greater. In the plantaris of starved rats the rates of synthesis in both fractions were lower, but the relationships between rates measured in vivo and in the perfused hemicorpus were similar to those seen in fed rats. The addition of insulin to the perfusate of the hemicorpus prepared from 1-day-starved animals increased the rates of protein synthesis per unit of RNA in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to values above those seen in fed animals when measured in vivo or in the hemicorpus. Insulin had no effect on the soleus. Overall, the rates of protein synthesis in the hemicorpus differed from those in vivo. However, the effect of starvation when measured in the whole animal was very similar to that measured in the isolated rat hemicorpus when insulin was omitted from the perfusate.
Project description:The effect of glucagon on the rate of muscle protein synthesis was examined in vivo and in the isolated perfused rat hemicorpus. An inhibition of protein synthesis in skeletal muscles from overnight-fasted rats at various plasma concentrations of glucagon was demonstrated in vivo. The plantaris muscle (Type II, fibre-rich) was more sensitive than the soleus (Type I, fibre-rich). Myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins were equally sensitive in vivo. However, protein synthesis in mixed protein and in sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of the heart was unresponsive to glucagon in vivo. In isolated perfused muscle preparations from fed animals, the addition of glucagon also decreased the synthesis of mixed muscle proteins in gastrocnemius (Type I and II fibres) and plantaris, but not in the soleus. The sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions of the plantaris were also equally affected in vitro. Similar results were observed in vitro with 1-day-starved rats, but the changes were less marked.
Project description:Rats were fed on a diet containing 1% beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), a creatine substrate analogue, for 6-10 weeks to deplete their muscle of creatine. This manipulation was previously shown to give a 90% decrease in [phosphocreatine] in skeletal and cardiac muscle and a 50% decrease in [ATP] in skeletal muscle only. Maximal activities of creatine kinase and of representative enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism were measured in the superficial white, medial and deep red portions of the gastrocnemius muscle, in the soleus and plantaris muscle and in the heart. Fast-twitch muscles were smaller in GPA-fed animals than in controls, but the size of the soleus muscle was unchanged. The activities of aerobic enzymes increased by 30-40% in all fast-twitch muscle regions except the superficial gastrocnemius, but were unchanged in the soleus muscle. The activities of creatine kinase and phosphofructokinase decreased by 20-50% in all skeletal-muscle regions except the deep gastrocnemius, and the activity of glycogen phosphorylase generally paralleled these changes. There were no significant changes in the activities of any of the enzymes measured in the heart. The glycogen content of the gastrocnemius-plantaris complex was increased by 185% in GPA-fed rats. The proportion of Type I fibres in the soleus muscle increased from 81% in control rats to 100% in GPA-fed rats, consistent with a previous report of altered isometric twitch characteristics and a decrease in the maximum velocity of shortening in this muscle [Petrofsky & Fitch (1980) Pflugers Arch. 384, 123-129]. We conclude that fast-twitch muscles adapt by a combination of decreasing diffusion distances, increasing aerobic capacity and decreasing glycolytic potential. Slow-twitch muscles decrease glycolytic potential and become slower, thus decreasing energy demand. These results suggest that persistent changes in the [phosphocreatine] and [ATP] are alone sufficient to alter the expression of enzyme proteins and proteins of the contractile apparatus, and that fibre-type-specific thresholds exist for the transformation response.
Project description:Groups of young rats (100 g body wt.) were starved from 23:00 to 11:00 h. The animals were then infused intravenously with diluent or insulin at three different doses to achieve plasma insulin concentrations of 20, 50 and 150 microunits/ml. Before the start of the infusion, animals received a single intravenous injection of indomethacin (250 micrograms) or diluent. After 20 min of infusion, the rats were injected with a large amount of labelled phenylalanine and were killed 10 min later. Insulin produced a dose-dependent decrease in plasma glucose and a dose-dependent rise in protein synthesis in cardiac, gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles. Protein synthesis in the liver was unaffected by insulin. Indomethacin had no effect on plasma glucose concentrations, but blocked the insulin-induced rise in protein synthesis in cardiac, gastrocnemius and plantaris, but not in soleus muscle. The hormone also increased the plasma concentration of prostaglandin E2 and of prostaglandins F2 alpha and E2 in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle. The results show close similarities to previous observations with isolated rabbit muscles in vitro and suggest that the involvement of arachidonic acid metabolism in the action of insulin on protein synthesis is of physiological significance.
Project description:Dietary protein intake is important for skeletal muscle protein synthesis. In this study, we investigated the differential effect of protein sources on hypertrophy of plantaris muscle induced by surgical ablation of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Six-week old mice were fed diets containing caseinate, whey, or soy as protein sources for 2 weeks. Plantaris muscle hypertrophy was induced by a unilateral ablation of synergistic muscles after a week. Food intake of soy protein-fed mice was higher than that of caseinate and whey-fed mice, resulting in higher body and fat weights. Plantaris muscle weight in sham-operated mice was not different across the groups. Overload-operated plantaris muscle weight and increased ratio of overloaded muscle to sham-operated muscle weights were higher in caseinate-fed mice than in whey- and soy protein-fed mice, suggesting caseinate as a promising protein source for muscle hypertrophy.
Project description:Recovery from burn injury is associated with stimulated whole-body protein turnover. Since skeletal muscle and liver are the tissues most likely to influence whole-body measurements, we studied protein kinetics in soleus and plantaris muscles as well as liver 3 days after a 3 s burn on one hindlimb of the rat. Muscles from both the burned and unburned limbs of burned rats were compared with those of uninjured controls to distinguish between local and systemic factors involved. The following measurements were performed: (1) fractional growth rate of the tissue protein pool, determined from tissue protein content on days 2, 3 and 4; (2) fractional protein-synthetic rate, measured by [14C]tyrosine constant infusion on day 3; (3) fractional protein-degradation rate, calculated from the difference between the rates of protein synthesis and growth. Protein growth by soleus and plantaris muscles of control rats and unburned limb of burned rats was not paralleled by those in the burned limb, which showed progressive atrophy between 2 and 4 days post-burn (P less than 0.005). Protein synthesis by soleus but not plantaris muscle in the unburned limb of burned rats was enhanced by 62% (P less than 0.04) above control. Protein synthesis by burned-limb soleus and plantaris muscles was elevated by 114% (P less than 0.001) and 67% (P less than 0.02) respectively above control. Protein degradation by both soleus and plantaris muscles in the unburned limb of burned rats did not differ from control. In contrast, that of soleus and plantaris muscles in the burned limb was stimulated by 230% (P less than 0.001) and 164% (P less than 0.001) respectively compared with controls. Protein turnover of soleus muscles in both control and burned rats was more rapid than in corresponding plantaris muscles. Liver protein mass exhibited steady growth in control rats, but remained unchanged in burned animals between 2 and 4 days post-burn. Liver protein synthesis in burned rats was elevated by 56% (P less than 0.01) and protein breakdown was stimulated by 61% (P less than 0.002) above those of controls. The data indicate that both local and systemic factors influence tissue protein turnover in animals recovering from a single-hindlimb scald.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine if levels of repressors to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) differ between muscles from young adult and aged animals. Total RNA from plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats aged 9 mo (young adult, n = 10) and 37 mo (aged, n = 10) was reverse transcribed and then amplified by PCR. To obtain a semiquantitative measure of the mRNA levels, PCR signals were normalized to cyclophilin or 18S signals from the corresponding reverse transcription product. Normalization to cyclophilin and 18S gave similar results. The mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin were approximately 275-650% (P < 0.001) and approximately 500-1,100% (P < 0.001) greater, respectively, in muscles from aged compared with young adults. In contrast, the protein levels were lower in plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and similar in the soleus muscle of aged vs. young adult rats. Id repressor mRNA levels were approximately 300-900% greater in fast and slow muscles of aged animals (P < or = 0.02), and Mist 1 mRNA was approximately 50% greater in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles (P < 0.01). The mRNA level of Twist mRNA was not significantly affected by aging. Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 protein levels were approximately 17-740% greater (P < 0.05) in hindlimb muscles of aged rats compared with young adult rats. The elevated levels of Id mRNA and protein suggest that MRF repressors may play a role in gene regulation of fast and slow muscles in aged rats.
Project description:The insulin sensitivity of protein synthesis and glucose incorporation into glycogen by the soleus and epitrochlearis muscles from fed rats and 24 h-starved rats was determined in vitro during the first and second hours of incubation after isolation of the muscles. Rates of protein synthesis by both muscles from fed rats in the first hour of incubation were 2-fold higher than in the second hour and were not increased by insulin. Rates of protein synthesis during the first hour in the presence of 6000 microunits of insulin/ml were increased in soleus, but not in epitrochlearis, muscles from starved rats. Rates of protein synthesis in both muscles from fed and starved rats were increased significantly by insulin during the second hour. High concentrations of insulin caused a marked stimulation of the rates of glucose incorporation by both muscles from fed and starved rats in both the first and second hours of incubation. The insulin sensitivity of glucose incorporation during the second hour, defined as the concentration of insulin causing half-maximal stimulation, was increased 10-fold for both muscle types from starved rats (soleus, 65 microunits/ml; epitrochlearis, 45 microunits/ml) relative to muscles from fed rats (soleus, 600 microunits/ml; epitrochlearis, 500 microunits/m). The insulin sensitivity of protein synthesis in the second hour was greater for soleus muscles from starved rats (65 microunits/ml) than from fed rats (500 microunits/ml). In contrast, the insulin sensitivity of protein synthesis in epitrochlearis muscles from starved rats was significantly decreased (225 microunits/ml) compared with fed rats (25 microunits/ml Maximal rates achieved by high concentrations of insulin were not different from those in the same muscle from fed rats. It is suggested that protein synthesis, in distinction to glucose utilization, may be resistant to insulin stimulation during periods of acute starvation in muscles with fibre compositions similar to the epitrochlearis, but not in muscles with fibre compositions similar to the soleus. Partial reversal of the resistance observed in vitro for epitrochlearis muscles from starved rats may be due to the loss of factors which suppress the effect of insulin in vivo.
Project description:1. The effect of hypocaloric feeding (25% of normal food intake for 21 days) of rats on the enzymic and metabolic adaptations in the gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles was studied. 2. In control and hypocaloric rats the muscle relaxation rates at 100 Hz were 35.76 and 11.38% force loss/10 ms respectively. Control rats exhibited enhanced force of muscle contraction as the frequency of stimulation increased from 10 to 100 Hz, with maximum force being at 100 Hz. Hypocaloric rats exhibited a decrease in the increment of force being exerted at high frequencies, with maintenance of force at lower stimulatory frequencies. 3. In muscles of hypocaloric rats, there were significant decreases in the maximal activities of hexokinase (17.6-37.0%), 6-phosphofructokinase (22.7-34.2%), pyruvate kinase (21.2-36.0%), citrate synthase (34.1-41.5%), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (29.4-52.4%) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (26.7-32.1%), whereas the activities of glycogen phosphorylase increased (23.8-43.4%) compared with control values. 4. In soleus-muscle strip preparations of hypocaloric rats, there were significant decreases in the rates of lactate production (28.1%) and glucose oxidation (32.6%) compared with control preparations. 5. Mitochondrial preparations from muscles of hypocaloric rats incubated with various substrates exhibited decreased rates of oxygen uptake compared with control preparations. 6. In muscles of hypocaloric rats (gastrocnemius and soleus), there were significant decreases in the concentrations of glycogen (P less than 0.001) and phosphocreatine (P less than 0.001) and increases in those of pyruvate (P less than 0.001), lactate (P less than 0.001) and ADP (P less than 0.001), whereas those of ATP and AMP remained unchanged. 7. Calculated [lactate]/[pyruvate] and [ATP]/[ADP] ratios exhibited significant increases (P less than 0.05) and decreases (P less than 0.05) in muscles of hypocaloric rats respectively. 8. The results are discussed in relation to the genesis of muscle dysfunction caused by malnutrition.
Project description:Muscle bloodflow and the rate of glucose uptake and phosphorylation were measured in vivo in rats 7 days after unilateral femoral artery ligation and section. Bloodflow was determined by using radiolabelled microspheres. At rest, bloodflow to the gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles of the ligated limb was similar to their respective mean contralateral control values; however, bilateral sciatic nerve stimulation at 1 Hz caused a less pronounced hyperaemic response in the muscles of the ligated limb, being 59, 63 and 49% of their mean control values in the gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles respectively. The rate of glucose utilization was determined by using the 2-deoxy[3H]glucose method [Ferré, Leturque, Burnol, Penicaud & Girard (1985) Biochem. J. 228, 103-110]. At rest, the rate of glucose uptake and phosphorylation was statistically significantly increased in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of the ligated limb, being 126 and 140% of the mean control values respectively. Bilateral sciatic nerve stimulation at 1 Hz caused a 3-5-fold increase in the rate of glucose utilization by the ligated and contralateral control limbs; furthermore, the rate of glucose utilization was significantly increased in the muscles of the ligated limb, being 140, 129 and 207% of their mean control values respectively. For the range of bloodflow to normally perfused skeletal muscle at rest or during isometric contraction determined in the present study, a linear correlation between the rate of glucose utilization and bloodflow can be demonstrated. Applying similar methods of regression analysis to glucose utilization and bloodflow to muscles of the ligated limb reveals a similar linear correlation. However, the rate of glucose utilization at a given bloodflow is increased in muscles of the ligated limb, indicating an adaptation of skeletal muscle to hypoperfusion.
Project description:The synthesis rates of different myosin isoenzymes in a single muscle, and of the same isoenzymes in different muscles (soleus, masseter and plantaris), were measured. The rate of total protein synthesis was significantly higher in the soleus [greater than 95% slow myosin (SM)] than in the plantaris [greater than 95% fast myosin (FM)]. Two fast isoenzymes, FM2 and FM3, were synthesized at different rates in the masseter, and SM was synthesized at a faster rate than FM. Intermediate myosin had a synthesis rate similar to that of FM. There was a small but significant difference between the synthesis rates of the SM isoenzymes of the soleus and masseter muscles. FM3 was synthesized faster in the masseter than in the plantaris, whereas FM2 was synthesized faster in the plantaris than in the masseter.