Stimulatory effect of the intestinal peptide PHI on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT: The newly isolated peptide PHI provoked a dose-dependent stimulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes; at 1 microM-PHI, both processes were increased 1.6-fold as compared with basal values. These PHI-mediated effects were accompanied by the activation of glycogen phosphorylase and the inactivation of pyruvate kinase. PHI (1 microM) also caused a 2-fold increase in hepatocyte cyclic AMP.
Project description:Liver glycogen degradation and phosphorylase activity were measured in normal and phosphorylase kinase-deficient (gsd/gsd) rats. During perfusion or ischaemia, gsd/gsd-rat livers showed a brisk glycogenolysis. There was also a small (1.9-fold) but significant transient increase in their phosphorylase alpha activity during ischaemia, despite their phosphorylase b kinase deficiency; it seems unlikely, however, that this was the main determinant of the glycogenolysis.
Project description:1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) was identified previously as a potent inhibitor of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of glycogen phosphorylase (EC 220.127.116.11). In the present study, the effects of DAB were investigated in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The transport of DAB into hepatocytes was dependent on time and DAB concentration. The rate of DAB transport was 192 pmol/min per mg of protein per mM DAB(medium-concentration). In hepatocytes, DAB inhibited basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis with IC(50) values of 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The primary inhibitory effect of DAB on glycogenolysis was shown to be due to inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase but, at higher concentrations of DAB, inhibition of the debranching enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase, EC 18.104.22.168) may have an effect. No effects on glycogen synthesis were observed, demonstrating that glycogen recycling does not occur in cultured hepatocytes under the conditions tested. Furthermore, DAB had no effects on phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and thereby activation of glycogen phosphorylase, or on protein phosphatase 1, the enzyme responsible for inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase through dephosphorylation.
Project description:1. Ischaemia was applied for 30 min to the liver of Wistar rats and of gsd/gsd rats, which have a genetic deficiency of phosphorylase kinase. The rate of glycogenolysis corresponded closely to the concentration of phosphorylase a. The loss of glycogen from Wistar livers was accounted for by the intrahepatic increase in glucose plus lactate. Further, the accumulation of oligosaccharides was negligible in the gsd/gsd liver. 2. Isolated hepatocytes from Wistar and gsd/gsd rats were incubated for 40 min in the presence of either KCN or glucagon. Again, the production of glucose plus lactate was strictly dependent on the presence of phosphorylase a. However, the catalytic efficiency of phosphorylase a was about 2-fold higher in the presence of KCN. 3. We conclude that the hepatic glycogenolysis induced by anoxia and by KCN is solely mediated by phosphorylase a. The higher catalytic activity of phosphorylase a under these circumstances could be due to an increased concentration of the substrate Pi.
Project description:The adenosine analogues 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and N6-(phenylisopropyl)adenosine (PIA) activate glycogen phosphorylase 5-fold and 4.2-fold respectively in rat hepatocytes incubated in the absence of endogenous adenosine. Half-maximally effective concentrations are 0.5 microM for NECA and 20 microM for PIA, demonstrating the presence of A2-adenosine receptors. Exogenous adenosine activates phosphorylase 4.6-fold, but high rates of adenosine disappearance from the medium render estimates of its half-maximally effective concentration unreliable. These effects of NECA and adenosine are inhibited by 0.1 mM-caffeine. Activation of phosphorylase by a physiological concentration of adenosine (3.3 microM) was 50% inhibited by a physiological concentration of caffeine (35 microM).
Project description:Rat livers perfused at constant flow via the portal vein with dibutyryl cyclic AMP produced glucose equivalents at a steady maximal rate (6 mumol/min per g of liver). Addition of adenosine (150 microM) caused a biphasic effect. (i) First, the glycogenolytic rate rose transiently, to a mean peak of 150% of control levels after 2 min. This glycogenolytic burst was reproduced by two P1-receptor agonists, but not by ATP, and was blocked by a P1-antagonist (8-phenyltheophylline), as well as by inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis (indomethacin, ibuprofen or aspirin). It did not occur in phosphorylase-kinase-deficient livers. The adenosine-induced glycogenolytic burst coincided with moderate and transient changes in portal pressure (+6 cmH2O) and O2 consumption (-20%), but it could not be explained by an increase in cytosolic Pi, since the n.m.r. signal fell precipitously. (ii) Subsequently, the rate of glycogenolysis decreased to one-third of the preadenosine value, in spite of persistent maximal activation of phosphorylase. The decrease could be linked to the decline in cytosolic Pi: both changes were prevented by the adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin, whereas they were not affected by ibuprofen or 8-phenyltheophylline, and were not reproduced by non-metabolized adenosine analogues. In comparison with adenosine, ATP caused a slower decrease of Pi and of glycogenolysis. The fate of the cytosolic Pi was unclear, especially with administered ATP, which did not increase the n.m.r.-detectable intracellular ATP.
Project description:Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor known to regulate the hepatic acute-phase response and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that CREBH functions as a circadian transcriptional regulator that plays major roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The proteolytic cleavage and posttranslational acetylation modification of CREBH are regulated by the circadian clock. Functionally, CREBH is required in order to maintain circadian homeostasis of hepatic glycogen storage and blood glucose levels. CREBH regulates the rhythmic expression of the genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, including liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), and the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC). CREBH interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) to synergize its transcriptional activities in hepatic gluconeogenesis. The acetylation of CREBH at lysine residue 294 controls CREBH-PPAR? interaction and synergy in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism in mice. CREBH deficiency leads to reduced blood glucose levels but increases hepatic glycogen levels during the daytime or upon fasting. In summary, our studies revealed that CREBH functions as a key metabolic regulator that controls glucose homeostasis across the circadian cycle or under metabolic stress.
Project description:Glycogenolysis was studied in glycogen-rich perfused livers in which glycogen phosphorylase was fully converted into the a form by exposure of the livers to dibutyryl cyclic AMP. We monitored intracellular Pi by 31P n.m.r. Perfusion with Pi-free medium during 30 min caused a progressive decrease of the Pi signal to 50% of its initial value. In contrast, exposure of the livers to KCN and/or 2,4-dinitrophenol resulted in a rapid doubling of the Pi signal. Alterations in the intracellular Pi coincided with proportional changes in the rate of hepatic glycogenolysis (measured as the output of glucose plus lactate). The results indicate that the rate of glycogenolysis catalysed by phosphorylase a depends linearly on the hepatic Pi concentration. Hence the Km of phosphorylase a for its substrate Pi must be considerably higher than the concentrations that occur in the cytosol, even during hypoxia.
Project description:Vasopressin, angiotensin and phenylephrine stimulate glycogenolysis in postnatal rat liver by a Ca2+-mediated mechanism not involving cyclic AMP. To determine whether these hormones promote glycogenolysis in foetal liver, we have examined their effects, and those of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, on glycogen metabolism in cultured foetal-rat hepatocytes. Vasopressin and angiotensin (0.1 nM-0.1 microM) had no effects on either glycogen synthesis (as assessed by [14C]glucose incorporation into glycogen) or phosphorylase a activity. However, A23187 at 1 and 10 microM inhibited glycogen synthesis by 31.3 and 89.1% respectively (both P less than 0.001) and stimulated phosphorylase a activity by 66.9 and 184.1% respectively (both P less than 0.01). Incubation of cells in Ca2+-deficient medium attenuated the effects of 10 microM-A23187 on glycogen synthesis and abolished the effects of 1 microM-A23187. As in postnatal liver, glucagon (1 and 20 nM) and isoprenaline (1 and 10 microM), which activate adenylate cyclase, inhibited glycogen synthesis and stimulated phosphorylase a activity in foetal hepatocytes. The minimal effective concentration of phenylephrine was 10 times that of isoprenaline. These results indicate striking differences in the ontogeny of cyclic AMP-mediated and Ca2+-mediated processes which regulate hepatic glycogenolysis. Since increases in cytosolic Ca2+ induce glycogenolysis in foetal-rat liver, the weak or absent responses to vasopressin, angiotensin and the alpha-adrenergic agonists may result from defects in hormone-receptor binding or in post-receptor events leading to the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores.
Project description:Infusion of adenine nucleotides and adenosine into perfused rat livers resulted in stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis, transient increases in the effluent perfusate [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio, and increased portal vein pressure. In livers perfused with buffer containing 50 microM-Ca2+, transient efflux of Ca2+ was seen on stimulation of the liver with adenine nucleotides or adenosine. ADP was the most potent of the nucleotides, stimulating glucose output at concentrations as low as 0.15 microM, with half-maximal stimulation at approx. 1 microM, and ATP was slightly less potent, half-maximal stimulation requiring 4 microM-ATP. AMP and adenosine were much less effective, doses giving half-maximal stimulation being 40 and 20 microM respectively. Non-hydrolysed ATP analogues were much less effective than ATP in promoting changes in hepatic metabolism. ITP, GTP and GDP caused similar changes in hepatic metabolism to ATP, but were 10-20 times less potent than ATP. In livers perfused at low (7 microM) Ca2+, infusion of phenylephrine before ATP desensitized hepatic responses to ATP. Repeated infusions of ATP in such low-Ca2+-perfused livers caused homologous desensitization of ATP responses, and also desensitized subsequent Ca2+-dependent responses to phenylephrine. A short infusion of Ca2+ (1.25 mM) after phenylephrine infusion restored subsequent responses to ATP, indicating that, during perfusion with buffer containing 7 microM-Ca2+, ATP and phenylephrine deplete the same pool of intracellular Ca2+, which can be rapidly replenished in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Measurement of cyclic AMP in freeze-clamped liver tissue demonstrated that adenosine (150 microM) significantly increased hepatic cyclic AMP, whereas ATP (15 microM) was without effect. It is concluded that ATP and ADP stimulate hepatic glycogenolysis via P2-purinergic receptors, through a Ca2+-dependent mechanism similar to that in alpha-adrenergic stimulation of hepatic tissue. However, adenosine stimulates glycogenolysis via P1-purinoreceptors and/or uptake into the cell, at least partially through a mechanism involving increase in cyclic AMP. Further, the hepatic response to adenine nucleotides may be significant in regulating hepatic glucose output in physiological and pathophysiological states.
Project description:Nuclear glycogen was first documented in the early 1940s, but its role in cellular physiology remained elusive. In this study, we utilized pure nuclei preparations and stable isotope tracers to define the origin and metabolic fate of nuclear glycogen. Herein, we describe a key function for nuclear glycogen in epigenetic regulation through compartmentalized pyruvate production and histone acetylation. This pathway is altered in human non-small cell lung cancers, as surgical specimens accumulate glycogen in the nucleus. We demonstrate that the decreased abundance of malin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, impaired nuclear glycogenolysis by preventing the nuclear translocation of glycogen phosphorylase and causing nuclear glycogen accumulation. Re-introduction of malin in lung cancer cells restored nuclear glycogenolysis, increased histone acetylation, and decreased growth of cancer cells transplanted into mice. This study uncovers a previously unknown role for glycogen metabolism in the nucleus and elucidates another mechanism by which cellular metabolites control epigenetic regulation.