Synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid and of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid in the rat liver cell.
ABSTRACT: Adult male rats, under starving and normal conditions, were injected intravenously with N-acetyl[3H]mannosamine and after various time intervals the specific radioactivities of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid were determined in the liver. The specific radioactivity of free NeuAc was high even within 20s after injection; the maximum was reached between 7 and 10 min. The specific radioactivity of CMP-NeuAc showed a lag phase of approx. 1 min. Thereafter it increased quickly and rose above the specific radioactivity of free NeuAc, reaching a maximum about 20 min after injection. These results point to a channelling of the newly synthesized NeuAc molecules into a special compartment, from which they are preferentially used by the enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthetase. It is suggested that the cytosolic enzyme N-acetylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate phosphatase is working in concert with the nuclear localized enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase. Incorporation of radioactive sialic acid into sialoglycoproteins in liver occurred 2 min after injection, and after 10 min bound radioactivity began to appear in the circulation, indicating a transport time of 8 min of sialoglycoproteins from the point of attachment of sialic acid to the point of excretion.
Project description:Sialyltransferases transfer sialic acid from cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to an acceptor molecule. Trans-sialidases of parasites transfer alpha2,3-linked sialic acid from one molecule to another without the involvement of CMP-NeuAc. Here we report another type of sialylation, termed reverse sialylation, catalyzed by mammalian sialyltransferase ST3Gal-II. This enzyme synthesizes CMP-NeuAc by transferring NeuAc from the NeuAcalpha2,3Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha unit of O-glycans, 3-sialyl globo unit of glycolipids, and sialylated macromolecules to 5'-CMP. CMP-NeuAc produced in situ is utilized by the same enzyme to sialylate other O-glycans and by other sialyltransferases such as ST6Gal-I and ST6GalNAc-I, forming alpha2,6-sialylated compounds. ST3Gal-II also catalyzed the conversion of 5'-uridine monophosphate (UMP) to UMP-NeuAc, which was found to be an inactive sialyl donor. Reverse sialylation proceeded without the need for free sialic acid, divalent metal ions, or energy. Direct sialylation with CMP-NeuAc as well as the formation of CMP-NeuAc from 5'-CMP had a wide optimum range (pH 5.2-7.2 and 4.8-6.4, respectively), whereas the entire reaction comprising in situ production of CMP-NeuAc and sialylation of acceptor had a sharp optimum at pH 5.6 (activity level 50% at pH 5.2 and 6.8, 25% at pH 4.8 and 7.2). Several properties distinguish forward/conventional versus reverse sialylation: (i) sodium citrate inhibited forward sialylation but not reverse sialylation; (ii) 5'-CDP, a potent forward sialyltransferase inhibitor, did not inhibit the conversion of 5'-CMP to CMP-NeuAc; and (iii) the mucin core 2 compound 3-O-sulfoGalbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,6(Galbeta1,3)GalNAcalpha-O-benzyl, an efficient acceptor for ST3Gal-II, inhibited the conversion of 5'-CMP to CMP-NeuAc. A significant level of reverse sialylation activity is noted in human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3. Overall, the study demonstrates that the sialyltransferase reaction is readily reversible in the case of ST3Gal-II and can be exploited for the enzymatic synthesis of diverse sialyl products.
Project description:A protein-NeuAc complex involved in colominic acid biosynthesis has been identified in membrane preparations of Escherichia coli K-235. This compound had an Mr (estimated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and autoradiography) of about 100,000 and played the role of an 'initiator' or 'primer' (endogenous acceptor) in the synthesis of the whole polymer. Incubations of E. coli membranes with CMP-[14C]NeuAc (CMP-N-[14C]acetylneuraminic acid) pointed to the existence of a protein fraction (primer acceptor) that linked residues of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuAc) up to a maximal size, later releasing them as low-Mr sialyl polymers (LMrS, Mr less than 10,000). In the presence of colominic acid (final acceptor) the radioactivity linked to the protein quickly decreased, appearing stoichiometrically bound to the whole polysaccharide. When membrane preparations were previously digested with Streptomyces proteinase or de-activated by heating (80 degrees C, 10 min), no incorporation of labelled NeuAc into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material was detected. These results suggested that colominic acid molecules are synthesized while they are bound to a proteinaceous acceptor that is subsequently excised in the presence of colominic acid, generating the native protein. The antibiotic tunicamycin inhibited the biosynthesis of colominic acid, affecting the synthesis of this protein-(NeuAc)n intermediate. All these results are described here for the first time.
Project description:Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation and increased urinary excretion of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc, sialic acid). Overproduction of NeuAc is believed to result from loss of feedback inhibition of uridinediphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) by cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). We report the cloning and characterization of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase cDNA, with mutation analysis of three patients with sialuria. Their heterozygote mutations, R266W, R266Q, and R263L, indicate that the allosteric site of the epimerase resides in the region of codons 263-266. The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria.
Project description:In order to assess metabolic recycling of sialic acid, GM1 ganglioside [nomenclature of Svennerholm (1964) J. Lipid. Res. 5, 145-155; IUPAC-IUB Recommendations (1977) Lipids 12, 455-468], 14C-radiolabelled at the acetyl group of sialic acid, was intravenously injected into Wistar rats, and the presence of radioactive sialic acid in liver sialoglycolipids (gangliosides) and sialoglycoproteins was ascertained. A time-course study (20 min-72 h) showed that the radioactivity present in the liver distributed in the following fractions, with reciprocal proportion varying with time: the protein (glycoprotein) fraction, the ganglioside fraction and the diffusible fraction, which contained low-Mr compounds, including sialic acid. Ganglioside-linked radioactivity gradually decreased with time; protein-linked radioactivity appeared soon after injection (20 min), reached a maximum around 20 h, then slowly diminished; diffusible radioactivity provided a sharp peak at 4 h, then rapidly decreased till disappearing after 40 h. The behaviour of bound radioactivity in the individual liver gangliosides was as follows: (a) rapid diminution with time in GM1, although with a lower rate at the longer times after injection; (b) early appearance (20 min) with a peak at 1 h, followed by continuous diminution, in GM2; (c) early appearance (20 min), peak at 1 h, diminution till 4 h, followed by a plateau, in GM3; (d) appearance at 60 min, maximum around 40 h and slow diminution thereafter, in GD1a, GD1b and GT1b. A detailed study, accomplished at 40 h after injection, demonstrated that almost all radioactivity present in the protein fraction was released by mild acid treatment and recovered in purified sialic acid; most of radioactive glycoprotein-bound sialic acid was releasable by sialidase action. In addition, the radioactivity present in the different gangliosides was exclusively carried by sialic acid and present in both sialidase-resistant and sialidase-labile residues. Only in the case of GD1a was the specific radioactivity of sialidase-resistant sialic acid superior to that of sialidase-releasable sialic acid. The results obtained lead to the following conclusions: (a) radioactive GM3 and GM2 were produced by degradation of GM1 taken up; GM3 originated partly by a process of neosynthesis; (b) radioactive GM1 consisted in part of residual exogenous GM1 and in part of a neosynthetized product; (c) radioactive GD1a originated in part by direct sialylation of GM1 taken up and in part by a neosynthetic process; (d) radioactive GD1b and GT1b resulted only from neosynthesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:In regenerating rat liver slices 24 h after partial hepatectomy, the incorporation of [1-14C]glucosamine into 'free sialic acid' (N-acetylneuraminic acid + CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid) decreased to below 50% of the control values and the incorporation into protein-bound sialic acid decreased to the same extent. The incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into 'free sialic acid' decreased during the period from 6 to 47 h after hepatectomy, showing a minimum at 12 h, and recovered to the control value by 96 h. At 12 h, the activities of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-2-acetoamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose 2-epimerase, EC 220.127.116.11) and N-acyl-D-mannosamine kinase (ATP: 2-acylamino-2-deoxy-D-mannose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 18.104.22.168) in the liver were significantly decreased. The amount of protein-bound sialic acid in the liver was not changed after partial hepatectomy, but the amount in plasma was changed, with a similar pattern to that of the incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into slice 'free sialic acid'. These results indicate that the synthesis of sialic acid in the liver much decreases in the early stage of regeneration and that this may be correlated with the decreased synthesis of plasma sialoglycoproteins.
Project description:It is well established that murine T-lymphocyte activation is accompanied by major changes in cell-surface sialylation, potentially influencing interactions with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs). In the present study, we analyzed early activation of murine CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes at 24 h. We observed a striking and selective up-regulation in the binding of a recombinant soluble form of siglec-E, an inhibitory siglec, which is expressed on several myeloid cell types including antigen-presenting dendritic cells. In contrast, much lower levels of T cell binding were observed with other siglecs, including sialoadhesin, CD22, and siglec-F and the plant lectins Maackia amurensis leukoagglutinin and Sambucus nigra agglutinin. By mass spectrometry, the sialic acid content of 24-h-activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes exhibited an increased proportion of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (NeuAc) to N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (NeuGc) in N-glycans. Reduced levels of NeuGc on the surface of activated T cells were demonstrated using an antibody specific for NeuGc and the expression levels of the gene encoding NeuAc- to NeuGc-converting enzyme, CMP-NeuAc hydroxylase, were also reduced. Siglec-E bound a wide range of sialylated structures in glycan arrays, had a preference for NeuAc versus NeuGc-terminated sequences and could recognize a set of sialoglycoproteins that included CD45, in lysates from activated T-lymphocytes. Collectively, these results show that early in T cell activation, glycan remodelling involves a switch from NeuGc- to NeuAc-terminating oligosaccharides on cell surface glycoproteins. This is associated with a strong up-regulation of siglec-E ligands, which may be important in promoting cellular interactions between early activated T-lymphocytes and myeloid cells expressing this inhibitory receptor.
Project description:The sialylation of the oligosaccharides from small-intestinal mucins during a 13-day infectious cycle was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats with the parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Sialic acid analysis and release, permethylation and analysis by GC-MS of the sialylated oligosaccharides isolated from the 'insoluble' mucin complex revealed a relative decrease (4-7-fold) of N-glycolylneuraminic acid compared with N-acetylneuraminic acid just before parasite expulsion. Northern blots showed that this effect was due to the decreased expression of a hydroxylase converting CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid into CMP-N-glycolylneuraminic acid. Analysis of other rat strains showed that this parasite infection also caused the same effect in these animals. Detailed analysis of infected Sprague-Dawley rats revealed four sialylated oligosaccharides not found in the uninfected animals. These new oligosaccharides were characterized in detail and all shown to contain the trisaccharide epitope NeuAc/NeuGcalpha2-3(GalNAcbeta1-4)Galbeta1 (where NeuGc is N-glycolyl neuraminic acid). This epitope is similar to the Sd(a)- and Cad-type blood-group antigens and suggests that the infection causes the induction of a GalNAcbeta1-4 glycosyltransferase. This model for an intestinal infection suggests that the glycosylation of intestinal mucins is a dynamic process being modulated by the expression of specific enzymes during an infection process.
Project description:Sialic acids of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids play a pivotal role in the structure and function of animal tissues. The pattern of cell surface sialylation is species- and tissue-specific, is highly regulated during embryonic development, and changes with stages of differentiation. A prerequisite for the synthesis of sialylated glycoconjugates is the activated sugar-nucleotide cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), which provides a substrate for Golgi sialyltransferases. Although a mammalian enzymatic activity responsible for the synthesis of CMP-Neu5Ac has been described and the enzyme has been purified to near homogeneity, sequence information is restricted to bacterial CMP-Neu5Ac synthetases. In this paper, we describe the molecular characterization, functional expression, and subcellular localization of murine CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase. Cloning was achieved by complementation of the Chinese hamster ovary lec32 mutation that causes a deficiency in CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase activity. A murine cDNA encoding a protein of 432 amino acids rescued the lec32 mutation and also caused polysialic acid to be expressed in the capsule of the CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase negative Escherichia coli mutant EV5. Three potential nuclear localization signals were found in the murine synthetase, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed predominantly nuclear localization of an N-terminally Flag-tagged molecule. Four stretches of amino acids that occur in the N-terminal region are highly conserved in bacterial CMP-Neu5Ac synthetases, providing evidence for an ancestral relationship between the sialylation pathways of bacterial and animal cells.
Project description:We have previously engineered transgenic insect cell lines to express mammalian glycosyltransferases and showed that these cells can sialylate N-glycoproteins, despite the fact that they have little intracellular sialic acid and no detectable CMP-sialic acid. In the accompanying study, we presented evidence that these cell lines can salvage sialic acids for de novo glycoprotein sialylation from extracellular sialoglycoproteins, such as fetuin, found in fetal bovine serum. This finding led us to create a new transgenic insect cell line designed to synthesize its own sialic acid and CMP-sialic acid. SfSWT-1 cells, which encode five mammalian glycosyltransferases, were transformed with two additional mammalian genes that encode sialic acid synthase and CMP-sialic acid synthetase. The resulting cell line expressed all seven mammalian genes, produced CMP-sialic acid, and sialylated a recombinant glycoprotein when cultured in a serum-free growth medium supplemented with N-acetylmannosamine. Thus the addition of mammalian genes encoding two enzymes involved in CMP-sialic acid biosynthesis yielded a new transgenic insect cell line, SfSWT-3, that can sialylate recombinant glycoproteins in the absence of fetal bovine serum. This new cell line will be widely useful as an improved host for baculovirus-mediated recombinant glycoprotein production.
Project description:Humans are genetically deficient in the common mammalian sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) because of an Alu-mediated inactivating mutation of the gene encoding the enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) hydroxylase (CMAH). This mutation occurred after our last common ancestor with bonobos and chimpanzees, and before the origin of present-day humans. Here, we take multiple approaches to estimate the timing of this mutation in relationship to human evolutionary history. First, we have developed a method to extract and identify sialic acids from bones and bony fossils. Two Neanderthal fossils studied had clearly detectable Neu5Ac but no Neu5Gc, indicating that the CMAH mutation predated the common ancestor of humans and the Neanderthal, approximately 0.5-0.6 million years ago (mya). Second, we date the insertion event of the inactivating human-specific sahAluY element that replaced the ancestral AluSq element found adjacent to exon 6 of the CMAH gene in the chimpanzee genome. Assuming Alu source genes based on a phylogenetic tree of human-specific Alu elements, we estimate the sahAluY insertion time at approximately 2.7 mya. Third, we apply molecular clock analysis to chimpanzee and other great ape CMAH genes and the corresponding human pseudogene to estimate an inactivation time of approximately 2.8 mya. Taken together, these studies indicate that the CMAH gene was inactivated shortly before the time when brain expansion began in humankind's ancestry, approximately 2.1-2.2 mya. In this regard, it is of interest that although Neu5Gc is the major sialic acid in most organs of the chimpanzee, its expression is selectively down-regulated in the brain, for as yet unknown reasons.