The effect of membrane composition and alcohols on the insulin-sensitive reconstituted monosaccharide-transport system of rat adipocyte plasma membranes.
ABSTRACT: The monosaccharide transporter from the plasma membranes of rat adipocytes and insulin-stimulated adipocytes has been reconstituted in sonicated liposomes. The stereospecific D-glucose uptake by liposomes made from a range of phospholipids and incorporating fatty acids has been investigated. D-Glucose uptake is correlated with an increase in lipid fluidity as a consequence of the addition of fluidizing fatty acids, changes in phospholipid acyl chain length and temperature. Benzyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol, which are generally considered to increase bilayer fluidity, decrease stereo-specific D-glucose uptake in both whole adipocytes and reconstituted liposomes. It is suggested that, although these alcohols may affect D-glucose transport by lipid-mediated fluidity changes, they also interact directly with the transporter resulting in inhibition of transport.
Project description:Modification of function of the glucose transporter by nucleotides was studied by using liposomes reconstituted with the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. ADP enclosed in the liposomes inhibited the uptake of D-glucose and nicotinamide in a dose-dependent manner, but other enclosed nucleotides (ATP, AMP, CDP, GDP, UDP) showed no effect on the uptake of both. Only intraliposomal ADP was effective, and extra-liposomal ADP was not, under our experimental conditions. Intraliposomal ADP did not change Km, but decreased Vmax to approximately one-third of control for uptake of both D-glucose and nicotinamide. However, the binding and the affinity of cytochalasin B to the reconstituted liposomes were not affected by intraliposomal ADP. The uptake of uridine was not changed in the presence of ADP, indicating that the nucleoside transporter co-existing in the liposomal membranes is not regulated by ADP. Human erythrocytes whose intracellular ATP was decreased by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also showed decreased uptake of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and nicotinamide. This phenomenon was very similar to that found in the liposomes. These findings suggest the possibility that the function of the glucose transporter is directly and negatively modified by an increased concentration of intracellular ADP.
Project description:A kinetic study of the uptake of nicotinamide by reconstituted liposomes containing the human erythrocyte glucose transporter, compared with that of D-glucose, demonstrated that the Km and Vmax. values were almost the same for each compound, and that the uptake of D-glucose was competitively inhibited by nicotinamide. At 20 mM concentration, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and 4,6-O-ethylidene-D-glucose all caused 50% inhibition of nicotinamide uptake, but L-glucose and nicotinic acid were not inhibitory. Similar results were obtained for the uptake of D-glucose. Cytochalasin B binding to the liposomes was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by either nicotinamide or D-glucose. Antibody for glucose transporter detected in band 4.5 by SDS/PAGE inhibited the uptake of D-glucose and nicotinamide. A possible uptake of nicotinamide by nucleoside transporter was excluded. In human erythrocytes, cytochalasin B binding was inhibited dose-dependently by either nicotinamide or D-glucose, and cytochalasin B depressed the uptake of both nicotinamide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. These findings were well reproduced in the reconstituted liposomes. The very close similarities between uptake of nicotinamide and D-glucose suggest that the glucose transporter plays a direct role in transport of nicotinamide, which is structurally quite different from monosaccharides, and thus that the transporter is probably multifunctional.
Project description:The cDNAs for two putative glucose transporters from mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes were isolated and sequenced. One of these cDNAs encodes the murine homolog of the human hepG2/erythrocyte glucose transporter, termed GT1. GT1 mRNA is most abundant in mouse brain and is expressed in both 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes. The other cDNA encodes a glucose transporter-like protein, termed GT2, that has a unique amino acid sequence and tissue distribution. GT2 cDNA encodes a protein with 63% amino acid sequence identity and a similar structural organization to GT1. GT2 mRNA is found at high levels in mouse skeletal muscle, heart, and adipose tissue, all of which exhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. GT2 mRNA is absent from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes but is induced dramatically during differentiation into adipocytes. This increase in mRNA content correlates closely with the acquisition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We propose that GT2 is an insulin-regulated glucose transporter.
Project description:1. The lipid fluidity of three major rat liver plasma-membrane subfractions, as well as Golgi apparatus and endocytic fractions, was assessed with a fatty acid spin probe by using e.s.r. techniques. 2. The sinusoidal (blood-facing) plasma-membrane subfraction was the most fluid of the three plasma-membrane regions. Fractions originating from the bile-canalicular and contiguous (lateral) regions were most rigid. Endocytic fractions isolated (endosomes and diacytosomes) were of a similar fluidity to fractions originating from the sinusoidal plasma-membrane region. By far the most fluid fractions examined were derived from the Golgi-apparatus complex. 3. The three plasma-membrane subfractions each showed a different response to the bilayer-fluidizing effect of benzyl alcohol. 4. Arrhenius-type plots of the order parameter S and outer hyperfine splitting, 2T( parallel), identified lipid-phase separations in the plasma-membrane subfractions.
Project description:1. The uptake of liposomes containing the photoprotein obelin by rat isolated adipocytes was investigated with the aim of producing liposome-cell fusion, enabling obelin to be introduced into the cytoplasm of intact cells. 2. Incubation of liposomes containing obelin with rat isolated adipocytes resulted in a time-dependent uptake of entrapped obelin by the adipocytes. The uptake by adipocytes (at 2h) of liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine+phosphatidylserine (molar ratio 4:1) and phosphatidylcholine+N-octadecylamine (molar ratio 4:1) was approx. 6, 10 and 10% of original entrapped obelin per g dry wt. of adipocytes respectively. 3. During incubation with adipocytes some of the liposomes became permeable to Ca(2+) ions, resulting in stimulation of obelin luminescence from within the liposomes. This increase in permeability to Ca(2+) seemed to be the result of the interaction of liposomes with the cell membrane. 4. Approx. 50% of liposome uptake could be inhibited by cytochalasin B (500mum). This was consistent with this uptake being the result of endocytosis. The remaining uptake was probably the result of adhesion of liposomes to the cell membrane. 5. In an attempt to detect the presence of cytoplasmic obelin, after incubation of adipocytes with liposomes, a method of causing a rapid rise in cell-membrane permeability to Ca(2+) was developed in which an anti-cell anti-body-complement reaction occurred at the cell membrane. There was no detectable transfer of active obelin into the cell cytoplasm. 6. After incubation of liposomes with adipocytes in the absence of bovine serum albumin, obelin luminescence from a small proportion of liposomes increased (approx. 1.5%) in response to anti-(5'-nucleotidase) antibody plus complement. 7. It was concluded that under the conditions of these experiments, (a) no detectable transfer (<0.1%) of liposome-entrapped obelin to the adipocyte cytoplasm had occurred, (b) an increase in liposome permeability to Ca(2+) occurred during incubation with adipocytes, (c) at least 50% of liposome uptake by adipocytes was the result of endocytosis, presumably into secondary lysosomes, and the remaining uptake was apparently the result of loose attachment of liposomes to the cell surface, and (d) in the absence of bovine serum albumin, a portion of at least one surface antigen, the ectoenzyme 5'-nucleotidase, was transferred from the adipocyte membrane to the liposome membrane.
Project description:Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) catalyses the initial step of fatty acid import into the mitochondrial matrix, the site of beta-oxidation, and its inhibition by malonyl-CoA is a primary control point for this process. The enzyme exists in at least two isoforms, denoted L-CPT I (liver type) and M-CPT I (skeletal-muscle type), which differ in their kinetic characteristics and tissue distributions. A property apparently unique to L-CPT I is that its sensitivity to malonyl-CoA decreases in vivo with fasting or experimentally induced diabetes. The mechanism of this important regulatory effect is unknown and has aroused much interest. CPT I is an integral outer-membrane protein and displays little activity after removal from the membrane by detergents, precluding direct purification of active protein by conventional means. Here we describe the expression of a 6 x His-tagged rat L-CPT I in Pichia pastoris and purification of the detergent-solubilized enzyme in milligram quantities. Reconstitution of the purified product into a liposomal environment yielded a 200--400-fold increase in enzymic activity and restored malonyl-CoA sensitivity. This is the first time that a CPT I protein has been available for study in a form that is both pure and active. Comparison of the kinetic properties of the reconstituted material with those of L-CPT I as it exists in mitochondria prepared from yeast over-expressing the enzyme and in livers from fed or fasted rats permitted novel insight into several aspects of the enzyme's behaviour. The malonyl-CoA response of the liposomal enzyme was found to be greater when the reconstitution procedure was carried out at 22 degrees C compared with 4 degrees C (IC(50) approximately 11 microM versus 30 microM, respectively). When the sensitivities of L-CPT I in each of the different environments were compared, they were found to decrease in the following order: fed liver>fasted liver approximately liposomes prepared at 22 degrees C approximately P. pastoris mitochondria>liposomes prepared at 4 degrees C. In addition, pre-treatment of L-CPT I liposomes with the membrane-fluidizing reagent benzyl alcohol caused densensitization to the inhibitor. In contrast with the variable response to malonyl-CoA, the liposomal L-CPT I displayed a pH profile and kinetics with regard to the carnitine and acyl-CoA substrates similar to those of the enzyme in fed or fasted liver mitochondria. However, despite a normal sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, L-CPT I in P. pastoris mitochondria displayed aberrant behaviour with regard to each of these other parameters. The kinetic data establish several novel points. First, even after stringent purification procedures in the presence of detergent, recombinant L-CPT I could be reconstituted in active, malonyl-CoA sensitive form. Second, the kinetics of the reconstituted, 6 x His-tagged L-CPT I with regard to substrate and pH responses were similar to what is observed with rat liver mitochondria (whereas in P. pastoris mitochondria the enzyme behaved anomalously), confirming that the purified preparation is a suitable model for studying the functional properties of the enzyme. Third, wide variation in the response to the inhibitor, malonyl-CoA, was observed depending only on the enzyme's membrane environment and independent of interaction with other proteins. In particular, the fluidity of the membrane had a direct influence on this parameter. These observations may help to explain the mechanism of the physiological changes in the properties of L-CPT I that occur in vivo and are consistent with the current topographical model of the enzyme.
Project description:The nutraceutical benefits of ?-sitosterol (SIT) are well documented. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of SIT on adipogenesis, glucose transport, and lipid mobilization in rat adipocytes. Primary cultures of rat preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes were used in this study. Glucose uptake was measured by the uptake of radio-labeled glucose. Adipogenesis and lipolysis were measured by oil-red-O and glycerol quantification methods, respectively. The expression of protein kinase B (Akt), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K) genes in SIT-treated adipocytes were assessed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data showed that SIT induced glucose uptake in adipocytes. It also stimulated adipogenesis in differentiating preadipocytes. Interestingly, although SIT displayed general insulin-mimetic activity by stimulating glucose uptake and adipogenesis, it also induced lipolysis in adipocytes. Furthermore, the SIT-induced lipolysis was not attenuated by insulin and co-incubation of SIT with epinephrine improved epinephrine-induced lipolysis. GLUT4 gene expression was highly down-regulated in SIT-treated adipocytes, compared to insulin-treated adipocytes, which was up-regulated. Insulin- and SIT-treated adipocytes showed similar levels of Akt, HSL, and PI3 K gene down-regulation. These observations suggest that the elevation of glucose uptake in SIT-treated adipocytes was unrelated to de novo synthesis of GLUT4 and the SIT-induced lipolysis is associated with the down-regulation of Akt and PI3K genes. The unique effects of SIT on the regulation of glucose uptake, adipogenesis, and lipolysis in adipocytes show that it has potential to be utilized in diabetes and weight management.
Project description:1. The heterologous expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in Xenopus oocytes has been shown to cause a differential targeting of these glucose-carrier isoforms to cellular membranes and a distinct induction of glucose transport activity. In this study we have evaluated the effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on glucose uptake and glucose transporter distribution in Xenopus oocytes expressing mammalian GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose carriers. 2. Insulin and IGF-I stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes, but not in GLUT1-expressing oocytes or in water-injected oocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin and IGF-I on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes occurred via activation of the IGF-I receptor. 3. Subcellular-fractionation studies indicated that insulin and IGF-I stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface of the oocyte. 4. Incubation of intact oocytes with insulin stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, an effect that was blocked by the additional presence of wortmannin. Furthermore, wortmannin totally abolished the insulin-induced stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes. 5. In this study, both the insulin-induced GLUT4 carrier translocation and GLUT4-dependent insulin-stimulated glucose transport have been reconstituted in the Xenopus oocyte. These observations, together with the fact that wortmannin, as found in adipocytes, inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport in oocytes, suggest that the heterologous expression of GLUT4 in oocytes is a useful experimental model by which to study the cell biology of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation.
Project description:We expressed the rat GLUT1 facilitative glucose transporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the use of a galactose-inducible expression system. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that a majority of this protein is retained in an intracellular structure that probably corresponds to endoplasmic reticulum. Yeast cells expressing GLUT1 exhibited little increase in glucose-transport activity. We prepared a crude membrane fraction from these cells and made liposomes with this fraction using the freeze-thaw/sonication method. In this reconstituted system, D-glucose-transport activity was observed with a Km for D-glucose of 3.4 +/- 0.2 mM (mean +/- S.E.M.) and was inhibited by cytochalasin B (IC50= 0.44 +/- 0.03 microM), HgCl2 (IC50)= 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM), phloretin (IC50= 49 +/- 12 microM) and phloridzin (IC50= 355 +/- 67 microM). To compare these properties with native GLUT1 we made reconstituted liposomes with a membrane fraction prepared from human erythrocytes, in which the Km of D-glucose transport and ICs of these inhibitors were approximately equal to those obtained with GLUT1 made by yeast. When the relative amounts of GLUT1 in the crude membrane fractions were measured by quantitative immunoblotting, the specific activity of the yeast-made GLUT1 was 110% of erythrocyte GLUT1, indicating that GLUT1 expressed in yeast is fully active in glucose transport.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140), a nuclear receptor corepressor, is important for lipid and glucose metabolism. In adipocytes, RIP140 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon), followed by arginine methylation, and exported to the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates for the first time a cytoplasmic function for RIP140: to counteract insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) membrane partitioning and glucose uptake in adipocytes. Cytoplasmic RIP140 interacts with the Akt substrate AS160, thereby impeding AS160 phosphorylation by Akt; this in turn reduces GLUT4 trafficking. This signal transduction pathway can be recapitulated in the epididymal adipocytes of diet-induced obese mice: nuclear PKCvarepsilon is activated, cytoplasmic RIP140 increases, and GLUT4 trafficking and glucose uptake are reduced. The data reveal a new, cytoplasmic function for RIP140 as a negative regulator of GLUT4 trafficking and glucose uptake, and shed insight into the regulation of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by a nuclear-initiated counteracting mechanism.