Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-dependent release of prolactin from GH3 pituitary tumour cells. A quantitative analysis.
ABSTRACT: The involvement of cyclic AMP in mediating regulatory peptide-controlled prolactin release from GH3 pituitary tumour cells was investigated. Cholera toxin and forskolin elicited concentration-dependent increases in both GH3 cell cyclic AMP content and prolactin release. The maximum rise in prolactin release with these agents was 2-fold over basal. 8-Bromo-cyclic AMP produced a similar stimulation of prolactin release. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine also produced an increase in prolactin release and GH3 cell cyclic AMP content. However, the magnitude of the stimulated prolactin release exceeded that obtained with any other agent. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (thyroliberin) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide produced a concentration-dependent rise in both cell cyclic AMP content and prolactin release. However, only vasoactive intestinal polypeptide elicited an increase in cell cyclic AMP content at concentrations relevant to the stimulation of prolactin release. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and thyrotropin-releasing hormone, when used in combination, were additive with respect to prolactin release. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and forskolin, at concentrations that were maximal upon prolactin release, were, when used in combination, synergistic upon GH3 cell cyclic AMP content but were not additive upon prolactin release. In conclusion the evidence supports a role for cyclic AMP in the mediation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- but not thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated prolactin release from GH3 cells. A quantitative analysis indicates that a 50-100% rise in cyclic AMP suffices to stimulate cyclic AMP-dependent prolactin release fully.
Project description:We examined the mechanism by which adenosine inhibits prolactin secretion from GH3 cells, a rat pituitary tumour line. Prolactin release is enhanced by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which increases cyclic AMP, and by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which increases inositol phosphates (IPx). Analogues of adenosine decreased prolactin release, VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and TRH-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and IPx generation. Inhibition of InsP3 production by R-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) was rapid (15 s) and was not affected by the addition of forskolin or the removal of external Ca2+. Addition of adenosine deaminase or the potent adenosine-receptor antagonist, BW-A1433U, enhanced the accumulation of cyclic AMP by VIP, indicating that endogenously produced adenosine tonically inhibits adenylate cyclase. The potency order of adenosine analogues for inhibition of cyclic AMP and IPx responses (measured in the presence of adenosine deaminase) was N6-cyclopentyladenosine greater than R-PIA greater than 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. This rank order indicates that inhibitions of both cyclic AMP and InsP3 production are mediated by adenosine A1 receptors. Responses to R-PIA were blocked by BW-A1433U (1 microM) or by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin. A greater amount of toxin was required to eliminate the effect of R-PIA on inositol phosphate than on cyclic AMP accumulation. These data indicate that adenosine, in addition to inhibiting cyclic AMP accumulation, decreases IPx production in GH3 cells, possibly by directly inhibiting phosphoinositide hydrolysis.
Project description:The interaction between forskolin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the regulation of cyclic AMP production in GH3 pituitary tumour cells was investigated. Both forskolin (10nM-10 microns) and VIP (10pM-10nM) increased the cyclic AMP content of GH3 cells. Forskolin (50-100nM) was additive with VIP in stimulating cyclic AMP accumulation when low concentrations (less than 1 nM) of the peptide were used, but exhibited a synergistic interaction with higher VIP concentrations (10-100 nM). These effects on cyclic AMP accumulation were reflected in a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve for VIP-stimulated prolactin release from GH3 cells, a process known to be regulated by intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations. The synergy observed did not appear to be related to changes in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, since it was even more marked in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Studies of the time-course of VIP-induced changes in GH3-cell cyclic AMP content revealed that, with high concentrations of VIP, production ceased within 2 min of addition. This attenuation of cyclic AMP synthesis was still observed in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, but was markedly inhibited by low concentrations of forskolin (50-100nM). The results suggest that VIP-induced cyclic AMP production rapidly becomes desensitized. This process, which is prevented by forskolin, may be related to changes in the ability of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein to couple receptor occupancy to activation of adenylate cyclase.
Project description:The influence of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on cyclic AMP production in GH3 cells has been studied. The stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation induced by forskolin and cholera toxin was potentiated by 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). Moreover, PDBu, which causes attenuation of the maximal response to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), also induced a small right shift in the dose-response curve for VIP-induced cyclic AMP accumulation. PDBu-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was unaffected by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin or the inhibitory muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine. PDBu stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity required the presence of a cytosolic factor which appeared to translocate to the plasma membrane in response to the phorbol ester. The diacylglycerol-generating agents thyroliberin, bombesin and bacterial phospholipase C each stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation, but, unlike PDBu, did not attenuate the stimulation induced by VIP. These results suggest that PKC affects at least two components of the adenylate cyclase complex. Stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation is probably due to modification of the catalytic subunit, whereas attenuation of VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation appears to be due to the phosphorylation of a different site, which may be the VIP receptor.
Project description:The 4-chlorophenylthio analogue of cyclic AMP evoked profound and long-lasting changes in cytosolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) in pituitary-derived GH3 cells. However, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a hormone considered to act via cyclic AMP, was ineffective in modulating [Ca2+]i. The ability of VIP to modulate [Ca2+]i was enhanced by treatments that increased intracellular cyclic AMP. Much greater concentrations of intracellular cyclic nucleotides were achieved by the analogue than with VIP, under any condition. Thus cyclic AMP may play a prominent role in regulating [Ca2+]i in these cells, but the ability of hormones to stimulate its synthesis is limited, leading to a weak action on [Ca2+]i.
Project description:The effects of dopamine on pituitary prolactin secretion and pituitary cyclic AMP accumulation were studied by using anterior pituitary glands from adult female rats, incubated in vitro. During 2h incubations, significant inhibition of prolactin secretion was achieved at concentrations between 1 and 10nm-dopamine. However, 0.1-1mum-dopamine was required before a significant decrease in pituitary cyclic AMP content was observed. In the presence of 1mum-dopamine, pituitary cyclic AMP content decreased rapidly to reach about 75% of the control value within 20min and there was no further decrease for at least 2h. Incubation with the phosphodiesterase inhibitors theophylline (8mm) or isobutylmethylxanthine (2mm) increased pituitary cyclic AMP concentrations 3- and 6-fold respectively. Dopamine (1mum) had no effect on the cyclic AMP accumulation measured in the presence of theophylline, but inhibited the isobutylmethylxanthine-induced increase by 50%. The dopamine inhibition of prolactin secretion was not affected by either inhibitor. Two derivatives of cyclic AMP (dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 8-bromo cyclic AMP) were unable to block the dopamine (1mum) inhibition of prolactin secretion, although 8-bromo cyclic AMP (2mm) significantly stimulated prolactin secretion and both compounds increased somatotropin (growth hormone) release. Cholera toxin (3mug/ml for 4h) increased pituitary cyclic AMP concentrations 4-5-fold, but had no effect on prolactin secretion. The inhibition of prolactin secretion by dopamine was unaffected by cholera toxin, despite the fact that dopamine had no effect on the raised pituitary cyclic AMP concentration caused by this factor. Dopamine had no significant effect on either basal or stimulated somatotropin secretion under any of the conditions tested. We conclude that the inhibitory effects of dopamine on prolactin secretion are probably not mediated by lowering of cyclic AMP concentration, although modulation of the concentration of this nucleotide in some other circumstances may alter the secretion of the hormone.
Project description:The inhibition of prolactin secretion and cyclic AMP accumulation in GH3 cells by muscarinic agonists was blocked by preincubation of the cells with pertussis toxin (islet-activating protein). There was a lag of approx. 80 min in the onset of the effect on secretion. These results suggest that muscarinic agonists decrease prolactin secretion by inhibiting adenylate cyclase activity.
Project description:1. The effects of thyroliberin were studied in cultured rat pituitary-tumour cells that synthesize and secrete prolactin (the GH4C1 cell strain). 2. Prolactin and cyclic AMP were measured by radioimmunological methods, and a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was characterized by using histone as substrate. 3. Prolactin release was studied after 5-60min of treatment, and synthesis after 48h of treatment with thyroliberin. One-half maximum stimulation of release and synthesis were observed at 0.25 and at 4nM respectively. 4. Cyclic AMP was temporarily increased in cell suspensions after treatment with thyroliberin, and one-half maximum stimulation was observed at 25nM. 5. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased prolactin release and synthesis, one-half maximum effects being obtained at 20 micronM. 6. A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, which was one-half maximally stimulated at 30 nM-cyclic AMP, was demonstrated. 7. An increase in the activity ratio (-cyclic AMP/+cyclic AMP) of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was observed after treatment with thyroliberin. Total protein kinase activity in the presence of cyclic AMP was unaltered. The time-course of enzyme activation was similar to that of cyclic AMP formation and corresponded to the time when prolactin release was first observed. 8. It is concluded that thyroliberin induces cyclic AMP formation, resulting in the activation of a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.
Project description:We have studied the chronic effect of cholera toxin (CTX) on prolactin synthesis and secretion in GH3 pituitary-tumour cells. Time-course analysis showed that prolactin secretion increased with time of CTX exposure, reached a peak at 3 h, and decreased thereafter. Prolactin synthesis was also shown to be stimulated by CTX. The basic and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels of the CTX-treated cells followed a biphasic time response similar to that of prolactin secretion. Exposure of cells to CTX for more than 3 h abolished the subsequent CTX-catalysed ADP-ribosylation in vitro. Moreover, a significant decrease in the pertussis-toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation was found after cells were exposed to CTX for longer than 6 h. Western-blot analysis indicated that the amount of Gs alpha (alpha-subunit of Gs) protein increased within 3 h, followed by a gradual decrease to 50% of the control level at 24 h. The accumulation of Gs alpha mRNA increased within 6 h of CTX exposure, and decreased thereafter to 40% of the basal level at 48 h. Our findings that prolonged treatment of CTX induced similar patterns of time responses in Gs alpha protein expression, cyclic AMP production and prolactin secretion indicate that CTX-induced changes in Gs alpha protein levels may be responsible for the cellular response leading to prolactin secretion.
Project description:The effects of pertussis toxin on the responses of rat pituitary-tumour (GH) cells to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (thyroliberin, TRH) were examined. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin did not alter the affinity or concentration of TRH receptors, or the sensitivity of the TRH receptor to inhibition by guanine nucleotides. TRH caused an increase in low-Km GTPase activity in membrane-containing fractions from both control and pertussis-toxin-treated cells. TRH stimulation of inositol phosphate formation was insensitive to pertussis toxin. TRH caused a biphasic increase in the concentrations of cytosolic free Ca2+ as monitored by intracellularly trapped Quin 2, and this increase was the same in control and toxin-treated cultures. The toxin did not alter the increase in prolactin and growth-hormone (somatotropin) release stimulated by TRH or shift the TRH dose-response curve, and it did not affect the TRH-induced rise in prolactin synthesis measured over 24 h. However, pertussis toxin did block the ability of somatostatin and muscarinic agonists to inhibit prolactin and growth-hormone secretion stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide when analysed under the same conditions as those in which the TRH system was unaffected. These data indicate that the guanine nucleotide effects on TRH binding and activity are not mediated by Ni, but possibly by another member of the family of guanine-nucleotide-dependent regulatory proteins.
Project description:Rap1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and is localized on pancreatic zymogen granules. The current study was designed to determine whether GTP-Rap1 is involved in the regulation of amylase secretion. Rap1A/B and the two Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Epac1 and CalDAG-GEF III, were identified in mouse pancreatic acini. A fraction of both Rap1 and Epac1 colocalized with amylase in zymogen granules, but only Rap1 was integral to the zymogen granule membranes. Stimulation with cholecystokinin (CCK), carbachol, and vasoactive intestinal peptide all induced Rap1 activation, as did calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol ester, forskolin, 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, and the Epac-specific cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. The phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 abolished carbachol- but not forskolin-induced Rap1 activation. Co-stimulation with carbachol and 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP led to an additive effect on Rap1 activation, whereas a synergistic effect was seen on amylase release. Although the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished forskolin-stimulated CREB phosphorylation, it did not modify forskolin-induced GTP-Rap1 levels, excluding PKA participation. Overexpression of Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, which blocked Rap1 activation, reduced the effect of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, and vasoactive intestinal peptide on amylase release by 60% and reduced CCK- as well as carbachol-stimulated pancreatic amylase release by 40%. These findings indicate that GTP-Rap1 is required for pancreatic amylase release. Rap1 activation not only mediates the cAMP-evoked response via Epac1 but is also involved in CCK- and carbachol-induced amylase release, with their action most likely mediated by CalDAG-GEF III.