Purification and characterization of the N-terminal propeptide of human type III procollagen.
ABSTRACT: The N-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen was purified from human ascitic fluid by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel chromatography at pH 8.6, Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and another DEAE-Sephacel chromatography at pH 4.5. The Mr of the human peptide was about 42 000, which corresponds in size to the propeptide released by the specific N-proteinase during the extracellular processing of collagen. Bacterial-collagenase digestion of the human peptide produced three fragments, which could be separated on a Bio-Gel P-10 column. The human propeptide and its collagenase-derived fragments, an N-terminal non-collagenous domain Col 1, a C-terminal non-helical domain Col 2 and a collagenous domain Col 3, resembled those derived from the N-terminal segment of bovine type III procollagen in their amino acid composition. The human peptide was found to contain sulphate, which may explain its extremely low isoelectric point (3.1). Antibodies against the human N-terminal propeptide reacted similarly with both the purified human peptide and a corresponding segment of bovine type III procollagen. The human propeptide could be used in developing radioimmunoassays for monitoring fibrotic processes.
Project description:The non-collagenous N-terminal segment of type I procollagen from dermatosparactic sheep skin was isolated in the form of the peptide Col 1 from a collagenase digest of the protein. The peptide has a blocked N-terminus, which was identified as pyrrolid-2-one-5-carboxylic acid. Appropriate overlapping fragments were prepared from reduced and alkylated peptide Col 1 by cleavage with trypsin at lysine, arginine and S-aminoethyl-cysteine residues and by cleavage with staphylococcal proteinase at glutamate residues. Amino acid sequence analysis of these fragments by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry established the whole sequence of peptide Col 1 except for a peptide junction (7--8) and a single Asx residue (44), and demonstrated that peptide Col 1 consists of 98 amino acid residues. The N-terminal portion of peptide Col 1 (86 residues) shows an irregular distribution of glycine, whereas the C-terminal portion (12 residues) possesses the triplet structure Gly-Xy and is apparently derived from the precursor-specific collagenous domain of procollagen. The central region of the peptide contains ten cysteine residues located between positions 18 and 73 and shows alternating polar and hydrophobic sequence elements. The regions adjacent to the cysteine-rich portion have a hydrophilic nature and are abundant in glutamic acid. The data are consistent with previous physicochemical and immunological evidence that distinct regions at the N- and C-termini of the non-collagenous domain possess a less rigid conformation than does the central portion of the molecule.
Project description:The N-terminal extension peptide of type III procollagen, isolated from foetal-calf skin, contains 130 amino acid residues. To determine its amino acid sequence, the peptide was reduced and carboxymethylated or aminoethylated and fragmented with trypsin, Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase and bacterial collagenase. Pyroglutamate aminopeptidase was used to deblock the N-terminal collagenase fragment to enable amino acid sequencing. The type III collagen extension peptide is homologous to that of the alpha 1 chain of type I procollagen with respect to a three-domain structure. The N-terminal 79 amino acids, which contain ten of the 12 cysteine residues, form a compact globular domain. The next 39 amino acids are in a collagenase triplet sequence (Gly- Xaa - Yaa )n with a high hydroxyproline content. Finally, another short non-collagenous domain of 12 amino acids ends at the cleavage site for procollagen aminopeptidase, which cleaves a proline-glutamine bond. In contrast with type I procollagen, the type III procollagen extension peptides contain interchain disulphide bridges located at the C-terminus of the triple-helical domain.
Project description:About half of the rabbit antisera raised against type-I procollagen, p alpha 1(I) chain or nonreduced procollagen peptides reacted in a radioimmunoassay with the reduced form of peptide Col 1, which comprises the whole non-collagenous region at the N-terminus of procollagen. Proteolytic fragments prepared from reduced peptide Col 1 were still effective inhibitors of the antibodies and allowed the localization of two antigenic determinants. The antigenically active regions have the sequences less than Glu-Glu-Glu-Gly-Gln-Gln-Glu and Gly-Asp-Thr-Gly-Pro-Arg, and are located at the N- and C-termini of the peptide respectively. Antibodies raised against reduced peptide Col 1 bind to a determinant localized in a different region of the peptide.
Project description:Cells were isolated from the major arteries of 17-day chick embryos by digestion of the tissue with collagenase and trypsin. The cells, when examined immediately after isolation, exhibited a high degree of viability and they were shown to synthesize and secrete procollagen at a high and constant rate for several hours when incubated in suspension in modified Krebs medium. Continuous labelling of the cells with [(14)C]proline demonstrated a lag of about 30min between the time at which the synthesis of non-diffusible peptide-bound hydroxy[(14)C]proline became linear and the time at which its secretion into the medium became linear. This lag time compares with that of 18min observed for freshly isolated matrix-free cells from embryonic-chick tendon, which synthesize and secrete the same type of collagen. Gel-filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the collagenous polypeptides secreted into the medium were in the precursor form, known as procollagen, and that the constituent pro-alpha-chains were linked by interchain disulphide bonds and were also in a triple-helical conformation. Characterization of the secreted procollagen by gel-filtration chromatography, polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, DEAE-agarose chromatography, and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of peptides obtained by CNBr cleavage, indicated that the predominant form was type-I procollagen. This work extends the range of freshly isolated matrix-free cell systems, which have been characterized for use in studies on the biosynthesis and secretion of procollagen, and it indicates differences in the rates of secretion of procollagen in different cell types secreting the same type of procollagen.
Project description:Human neutrophil procollagenase was activated by incubation with recombinant active stromelysin. Activation was achieved by cleavage of the Gly78-Phe79 peptide bond at the end of the propeptide domain in a single-step activation mechanism. In addition, accelerated activation was achieved when N-terminally truncated, latent collagenase (with Phe49 as its N-terminal residue) was incubated with recombinant active stromelysin. Determination of the specific activity of recombinant-stromelysin-activated neutrophil collagenase with dinitrophenyl-octapeptide or type I collagen demonstrated the generation of high specific activity. The specific activity of stromelysin-activated enzyme was considerably higher than that of trypsin- or HgCl2-activated collagenase. Thus human neutrophil collagenase is superactivated, like the homologous fibroblast collagenase [Murphy, Cockett, Stephens, Smith and Docherty (1987) Biochem. J. 248, 265-268]. The occurrence of Phe79 at the N-terminus of the neutrophil collagenase seemed to be critical for superactivation, which is in agreement with data published by Suzuki, Enghild, Morodomi, Salvesen and Nagase [(1990) Biochemistry 29, 10261-10270] on fibroblast collagenase.
Project description:The proteolytic processing of procollagen V is complex and depends on the activity of several enzymes among which the BMP-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-1)/tolloid metalloproteinase and the furin-like proprotein convertases. Few of these processing interactions could have been predicted by analysing the presence of conserved consensus sequences in the proalpha1(V) chain. In the present study we opted for a cell approach that allows a straightforward identification of processing interactions. A construct encompassing the complete N-terminal end of the proalpha1(V) chain, referred to as Nalpha1, was recombinantly expressed to be used for enzymatic assays and for antibody production. Structural analysis showed that Nalpha1 is a monomer composed of a compact globule and an extended tail, which correspond respectively to the non-collagenous Nalpha1 subdomains, TSPN-1 (thrombospondin-1 N-terminal domain-like) and the variable region. Nalpha1 was efficiently cleaved by BMP-1 indicating that the triple helix is not required for enzyme activity. By mutating residues flanking the cleavage site, we showed that the aspartate residue at position P2' is essential for BMP-1 activity. BMP-1 activity at the C-terminal end of the procollagen V was assessed by generating a furin double mutant (R1584A/R1585A). We showed that, in absence of furin activity, BMP-1 is capable of processing the C-propeptide even though less efficiently than furin. Altogether, our results provide new relevant information on this complex and poorly understood mechanism of enzymatic processing in procollagen V function.
Project description:Procollagen assembly is initiated within the endoplasmic reticulum by three alpha-chains associating via their C-propeptides (C-terminal propeptides). To study the requirements for the association of procollagen monomers at synthesis we have reconstituted the initial stages in the folding, assembly and modification of procollagen using semi-permeabilized cells. By translating a type-III procollagen "mini-gene' which lacks part of the triple-helical domain, we demonstrate that these cells efficiently carry out the assembly of hydroxylated, triple-helical, procollagen trimers and allow the identification of specific disulphide-bonded intermediates in the folding pathway. Mutant chains, which lack the ability to form inter-chain disulphide bonds within the C-propeptide, were still able to assemble within this system. Furthermore, characterization of the trimeric molecules formed suggested that inter-chain disulphide bonds had formed within the C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide). However, when hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues was inhibited no inter-chain disulphide bonds were formed in the C-telopeptide, indicating that hydroxylation is required for the initial nucleation of the triple-helical domain. Mutant chains which lacked the ability to form inter-chain disulphide bonds within the C-propeptide or the C-telopeptide could still assemble to form trimeric triple-helical molecules linked by inter-chain disulphide bonds within the N-propeptide (N-terminal propeptide). These results indicate that inter-chain disulphide bond formation within the C-propeptide or the C-telopeptide is not required for chain association and triple-helix formation.
Project description:Recessive mutations in the cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 (LEPRE1) and peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase B (PPIB) genes result in phenotypes that range from lethal in the perinatal period to severe deforming osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). These genes encode CRTAP (encoded by CRTAP), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1; encoded by LEPRE1) and cyclophilin B (CYPB; encoded by PPIB), which reside in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and can form a complex involved in prolyl 3-hydroxylation in type I procollagen. CYPB, a prolyl cis-trans isomerase, has been thought to drive the prolyl-containing peptide bonds to the trans configuration needed for triple helix formation. Here, we describe mutations in PPIB identified in cells from three individuals with OI. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from the most severely affected infant make some overmodified type I procollagen molecules. Proα1(I) chains are slow to assemble into trimers, and abnormal procollagen molecules concentrate in the RER, and bind to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 (P4H1). These findings suggest that although CYPB plays a role in helix formation another effect is on folding of the C-terminal propeptide and trimer formation. The extent of procollagen accumulation and PDI/P4H1 binding differs among cells with mutations in PPIB, CRTAP and LEPRE1 with the greatest amount in PPIB-deficient cells and the least in LEPRE1-deficient cells. These findings suggest that prolyl cis-trans isomerase may be required to effectively fold the proline-rich regions of the C-terminal propeptide to allow proα chain association and suggest an order of action for CRTAP, P3H1 and CYPB in procollagen biosynthesis and pathogenesis of OI.
Project description:Embryonic-chick tendon poly(A)-containing RNA was translated in the wheat-germ and mRNA-dependent rabbit reticulocyte-lysate systems. The ability of each system to synthesize polypeptides similar to pro-alpha chains of collagen was tested on the bases of electrophoretic mobility and susceptibility to highly purified bacterial collagenase. Very small amounts of polypeptides in the size range of pro-alpha chains were synthesized in the wheat-germ system, whereas efficient synthesis of two polypeptides similar to pro-alpha1 and pro-alpha2 chains was achieved in the reticulocyte lysate. The collagenous nature of the major high-molecular-weight products synthesized was demonstrated by their susceptibility to collagenase and ability to act as a substrate for purified collagen proline hydroxylase. Determinations of the relative amounts of these translation products suggest that the 2:1 ratio of pro-alpha1 and pro-alpha2 chains found in type I procollagen is reflected in proportional amounts of translatable mRNA for pro-alpha1 and pro-alpha2 chains. Comparisons of the electrophoretic mobilities of hydroxylated and unhydroxylated reticulocyte-lysate translation products were made with appropriate standards of hydroxylated and unhydroxylated procollagen polypeptides. The results suggest that, in common with a number of secreted proteins, procollagen is synthesized as pre-pro molecules consistent with the ;Signal Hypothesis'.
Project description:To investigate the transcriptional apparatus in wheat mitochondria, mitochondrial extracts were subjected to column chromatography and protein fractions were analyzed by in vitro transcription and mobility shift assays. Fractions eluting from DEAE-Sephacel between 0.2 and 0.3 M KCl displayed DNA-binding activity and supported specific transcription initiated from a wheat cox2 promoter. The active DEAE-Sephacel pool was further resolved by chromatography on phosphocellulose. Fractions that exhibited DNA-binding activity and that stimulated both specific and nonspecific transcription in vitro were highly enriched in a 63-kDa protein (p63). From peptide sequence obtained from purified p63, a cDNA encoding the protein was assembled. The predicted amino acid sequence (612 amino acid residues, 69 kDa) contains a basic N-terminal targeting sequence expected to direct transport of the protein into mitochondria. The p63 sequence also features an acidic domain characteristic of transcriptional activation factors, as well as sequence blocks displaying limited similarity to positionally equivalent regions in sigma factors from eubacteria related to mitochondria. Recombinant p63 possesses DNA-binding activity, exhibiting an affinity for the core cox2 promoter element and upstream regions in gel shift assays and having the ability to enhance specific transcription in vitro. Transcripts encoding p63 are expressed at an early stage in the germination of isolated wheat embryos, in a temporal pattern parallelling that of newly synthesized precursors of cox2, a mitochondrial gene. Taken together, these data suggest a role for p63 in transcription in wheat mitochondria.