Pertussis toxin substrate is a guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate-, N-ethylmaleimide-, Mg2+- and temperature-sensitive GTP-binding protein.
ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of guanine nucleotides and Mg2+ on ADP-ribosylation of rat brain and liver membrane proteins catalysed by Bordetella pertussis toxin (IAP) and cholera toxin (CT). Labelling of proteins in the presence of [alpha-32P]NAD+, ATP and CT required GTP or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP [S]). In contrast, labelling of one (liver) or two (brain) polypeptides by IAP was enhanced by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) or GTP, but was blocked by GTP[S] or guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG). The order of labelling intensity was GDP[S] greater than GTP greater than no addition greater than GTP[S] = p [NH]ppG. Mg2+ increased labelling by CT, but decreased labelling by IAP. In addition, Mg2+ potentiated the effects of the guanine nucleotides, increasing the inhibitory effects of GTP[S] and the activatory effects of GDP[S] or GTP. Preincubating liver membranes at 30 degrees C in the presence of 10 mm-MgCl2 inhibited labelling by IAP irreversibly. Pretreatment of liver membranes with 4.95 mM-N-ethylmaleimide decreased labelling by CT by approximately 15%, but almost completely blocked labelling by IAP. These results suggest that the undissociated, GDP-bound, conformation of Ni, the inhibitory GTP-binding protein of adenylate cyclase, is the preferred substrate for ADP-ribosylation by IAP. This conformation, which is prevalent in native membranes, is sensitive to temperature, Mg2+ ions and alkylating agents such as N-ethylmaleimide. At 30 degrees C, Mg2+ may cause dissociation and denaturation of Ni in native membranes.
Project description:In cerebral-cortical membranes, hydrolysis-resistant guanine nucleotides exert a dual regulatory effect on phospholipase C activity. Nanomolar concentrations of guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) inhibited basal phospholipase C activity, with a maximum inhibition of 30% at 10 nM. Increasing the concentration of p[NH]ppG or GTP[S] to over 10 nM resulted in a reversal of the inhibitory effect and onset of stimulation of phospholipase C activity. These inhibitory effects were blocked by 100 microM-guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate. GTP was relatively ineffective in producing either stimulation or inhibition of phospholipase C activity. Similarly, ATP, adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and GDP were also ineffective. Expression of the dual effects of guanine nucleotides was affected by the Mg2+ concentration. At 0.3 mM-Mg2+, both the inhibitory and the stimulatory components of p[NH]ppG action were evident. At 2.5 mM-Mg2+, only p[NH]ppG stimulation was observed. Pertussis-toxin treatment blocked the p[NH]ppG-mediated inhibition of phospholipase C activity. These results demonstrate that non-hydrolysable guanine nucleotides exert both a stimulatory and an inhibitory effect on membrane phospholipase C activity. These effects may be mediated through distinct GTP-binding proteins.
Project description:Activation of superoxide-producing NADPH oxidase of neutrophils requires the presence of cell membranes, cytosolic components and arachidonate and is markedly enhanced by non-hydrolysable analogues of guanine nucleotides, i.e. guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5'[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG). Gel filtration and ultrafiltration of the cytosol decreased the basal activity of NADPH oxidase. Activity could be restored by GTP, suggesting participation of the nucleotide in basal activation. Preincubation of neutrophil cytosol with periodate-oxidized p[NH]ppG (ox-p[NH]ppG) followed by gel filtration resulted in a time-dependent enhancement of basal oxidase activity. The presence of GDP or GTP, but not ATP, during the incubation with ox-p[NH]ppG abolished this enhancement. These data are consistent with a stable association of ox-p[NH]ppG with an oxidase-linked cytosolic protein. SDS/PAGE of neutrophil cytosol preincubated with [3H]ox-p[NH]ppG revealed radioactivity in bands migrating as 100, 70, 47, 34 and 22 kDa proteins. Evidence for covalent labelling of the cytosolic protein p47-phox with [3H]ox-p[NH]ppG is presented. Heterogeneity of cytosolic GTP-binding sites and possible participation of protein p47-phox in functional interaction with GTP analogues during cell-free activation are suggested.
Project description:We aimed to elucidate the putative role of GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of insulin biosynthesis. For this purpose, freshly isolated rat islets were incubated in the presence of liposomes containing GDP, guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]), GTP, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-methylene]triphosphate (p[CH2]ppG), guanosine 5'[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) and ATP, and the effects of the liposomal delivery of these substances on rates of biosynthesis of insulin and total protein were determined. Insulin biosynthesis during a 1 h incubation at 1.67 mM-glucose was stimulated by ATP- and GTP[S]-containing liposomes as compared with control liposomes. At 16.7 mM-glucose, only the GTP[S]-containing liposomes stimulated insulin biosynthesis. No inhibition of islet protein and insulin synthesis was observed with GDP-, GDP[S]-, p[CH2]ppG- and p[NH]ppG-containing liposomes. By determining the subcellular distribution of insulin mRNA, it was found that the mRNA content associated with microsomes was increased and that associated with the cytosolic mono-/poly-somes decreased when the islets were incubated with GTP[S]-containing liposomes, resulting in an approximate doubling of the ratio of microsomal to polysomal-associated insulin mRNA. ATP-containing liposomes produced no effects on the association of insulin mRNA with microsomes. By using photoaffinity labelling and immunoprecipitation techniques, specific binding of GTP[35S] to the alpha-subunit of the signal-recognition particle (SRP) receptor in islet homogenates containing physiological concentrations of GTP and GDP was demonstrated. These findings suggest that the GTP-binding subunit(s) of the SRP receptor, and possibly also of other GTP-binding proteins involved in this process, may regulate insulin biosynthesis by stimulating the translocation of insulin mRNA to the endoplasmic reticulum and by increasing preproinsulin-peptide translocation into the lumen of the reticulum.
Project description:Exogenously added phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP2) is rapidly associated with cerebral-cortical membranes. Substrate association with membranes was promoted by Mg2+, but inhibited by bivalent chelators. Once associated with the membrane, the PtdInsP2 was resistant to displacement by EDTA. The apparent phospholipase C activity was dependent on the degree of association of substrate with membranes. After preincubation of membranes with substrate, PtdInsP2 hydrolysis was independent of the incubation volume, indicating that substrate and membrane-associated phospholipase C were not independently diluted. Hydrolysis of the membrane-associated substrate was stimulated by Ca2+, guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG), guanosine 5'[gamma-thio]triphosphate and carbachol in the presence of p[NH]ppG. Carbachol in the absence of guanine nucleotides, GDP, GTP, ATP and pyrophosphate was ineffective. These results demonstrate that exogenously added PtdInsP2 substrate is rapidly associated with membranes and hydrolysed by a phospholipase C whose activity is regulated by guanine nucleotides and agonist in the presence of guanine nucleotides. Use of exogenously added substrate for studies on the regulation of membrane phospholipase C requires consideration as to possible effects of incubation conditions on the partitioning of substrate into membranes.
Project description:These studies examined the structural specificity for guanine nucleotide-facilitated hormonal activation and guanine nucleotide stabilization of cardiac adenylate cyclase. 1. The phosphonate analogues of GTP, p[CH(2)]ppG (guanosine 5'-[betagamma-methylene]-triphosphate) and pp[CH(2)]pG (guanosine 5'-[alphabeta-methylene]triphosphate), were the most effective activators of adenylate cyclase. Other nucleotides producing significant activation (P<0.01) were, in decreasing order of activation: ITP, GDP, GMP, GTP, XTP, CTP, p[NH]ppG (guanosine 5'-[betagamma-imido]triphosphate), dGTP and 2'-O-methyl-GTP. Guanosine, cyclic GMP, UTP and ppppG (guanosine tetraphosphate) had no effect, and 7-methyl-GTP caused a decrease in the activity. 2. Preincubation of membranes at 37 degrees C for 15min before assay at 24 degrees C produced an 80% decrease in adenylate cyclase activity, and preincubation with p[CH(2)]ppG and pp[CH(2)]pG protected and resulted in a net increase in activity. Other nucleotides that completely or partially preserved activity in decreasing order of effectiveness were p[NH]ppG, GDP, GTP, dGTP, ITP, ppppG, 2'-O-methyl-GTP, GMP, CTP and XTP. Several compounds had no effect, including guanosine, cyclic GMP and UTP, whereas preincubation with 7-methyl-GTP produced a further decrease (P<0.05) in activity. 3. The concentration-dependence for activation and stabilization by the naturally occurring guanine nucleotides was examined in the absence of a regenerating system and revealed GMP to have no stabilizing effect and to be less potent than either GDP or GTP in activating adenylate cyclase. 4. A significant correlation (r=0.90) was found between the properties of activation and stabilization for the compounds examined. These findings are consistent with there being a single nucleotide site through which both the activation and stabilization of adenylate cyclase are mediated.
Project description:1. Incubation of human platelet membranes with guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) causes a time-dependent increase in the activation of adenylate cyclase due to Gs (the stimulatory GTP-binding protein). Forskolin enhances adenylate cyclase activity but does not interfere with the process of activation. The activation follows first-order kinetics in both the presence and the absence of the assay components. 2. ATP in the presence or the absence of an ATP-regenerating system of phosphocreatine and creatine kinase inhibits activation. 3. Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP does not lead to receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase acting via Gi (the inhibitory GTP-binding protein). The ADP analogue adenosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (ADP[S]) does not inhibit the activation process. 4. Phosphocreatine alone inhibits adenylate cyclase activation at concentrations above 1 mM. 5. Inhibition by phosphocreatine is not due to the chelation of free Mg2+ ions. 6. Inhibition by ATP and the other assay components occurs throughout the activation process, decreasing both the rate of activation and the maximum activity obtained. 7. Maximal activation of adenylate cyclase after prolonged incubation with p[NH]ppG slowly reverses in the presence of the assay components. 8. A 10-fold excess of the GDP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) over p[NH]ppG inhibits the activation process completely, at all stages of the time course. 9. Preincubations in the presence and absence of ATP, cyclic AMP, phosphocreatine and creatine kinase show equal sensitivity to increasing GDP[S] concentration. These data show that the inhibition observed in the presence of ATP is not due to endogenous or contaminating guanine nucleotides, and suggest that phosphoryl transfer may regulate adenylate cyclase activity.
Project description:Stimulated hydrolysis of the inositol phospholipids phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] was investigated by studying the phosphoinositides produced in a suspended preparation of plasma membranes by transference of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP. At basal Ca2+ concentration (calculated free Ca2+, 150 nM) phospholipid hydrolysis was stimulated either by the muscarinic agonists carbamoylcholine and bethanecol or by the addition of the non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate [p(NH)ppG]. GTP was without effect on basal hyrolysis. Both GTP and p(NH)ppG enhanced the rapid (within 10 s) hydrolysis of PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2 induced by carbamoylcholine in a dose-dependent manner. A rightward shift in the competition curve of carbamoylcholine for bound L-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate was seen on addition of GTP or p(NH)ppG (100 microM) under phosphorylating conditions. Pretreatment of intact islet cells with Bordetella pertussis toxin, islet-activating protein (IAP) or treatment of membranes with IAP under conditions which elicited ADP-ribosylation of a protein of Mr 41,000 was without effect on muscarinic binding, phosphoinositide phosphorylation or subsequent hydrolysis by carbamoylcholine. The findings indicate the involvement of a GTP-binding protein in the coupling of the muscarinic receptor to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the islet cell and suggest that this is distinct from the GTP-binding regulatory component of adenylate cyclase which is covalently modified by IAP.
Project description:The effects of guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate (GDP[S]) on the kinetics of activation of rat liver membrane adenylate cyclase by guanosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) were examined. GDP[S] caused immediate inhibition of the activation by p[NH]ppG at all time points tested. Substantial inhibition by GDP[S] was observed even after the time required for the enzyme to reach its steady-state activity, but the extent of inhibition became progressively smaller as the preincubation time with p[NH]ppG increased. The rate at which adenylate cyclase became quasi-irreversibly activated was a strictly first-order process. In the presence of glucagon, the formation of the irreversibly activated state was much slower. A combination of GDP[S] and glucagon could partially reverse the quasi-irreversible activation by p[NH]ppG. Glucagon decreased the lag time required for p[NH]ppG to activate adenylate cyclase and increased the extent of activation by p[NH]ppG. This stimulatory effect of the hormone on top of guanine nucleotide decreased on preincubation with p[NH]ppG, but not with GTP. Our results suggest that the activation of adenylate cyclase by non-hydrolysable GTP analogues is a two-stage process: the formation of a reversibly activated form (G rev) is a rapid process, followed by a much slower formation of the quasi-irreversibly activated form (G irr). Glucagon can stimulate G rev but not G irr, and can partially facilitate the formation of the G rev from the G irr state.
Project description:1. Inhibition of GTP-dependent membrane fusion of rat liver microsomes requires preincubation of the membranes with GDP (17 microM) and relatively high Mg2+ concentration (0.5 mM) as well as AlCl3 (30 microM) and KF (5 mM). Preincubation is required for maximal inhibition (75%). 2. Vesicle fusion in rat liver microsomes has been demonstrated in the absence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Further, inhibition by AlF4- of GTP-dependent vesicle fusion in the absence of PEG has been demonstrated. 3. Under similar preincubation conditions AlF4- can bring about inhibition (80%) of the high-affinity PEG-stimulated GTPase activity in rat liver microsomes, previously described by Nicchitta, Joseph & Williamson [(1986) FEBS Lett. 209, 243-248]. 4. Preincubation of small-Mr GTP-binding proteins (Gn proteins) on nitrocellulose strips with GDP (20 pM), AlCl3 (30 microM) and KF (5 mM) results in inhibition of binding of guanosine 5'-[gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate to Gn proteins. The extent of inhibition of this binding differs for different Gn proteins.
Project description:Membrane fractions obtained from hepatocytes treated with glucagon exhibited a decreased glucagon (with or without GTP)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. A maximum effect was seen in around 5 min. No change in the rate of cyclic AMP production was observed for the basal, NaF-, p[NH]ppG (guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]-triphosphate)- and GTP-stimulated states of the enzyme. The lag observed in the p[NH]ppG-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity of native membranes was abolished when membranes from glucagon-pretreated cells were used. When Mn2+ replaced Mg2+ in the assays, the magnitude of the apparent desensitization was decreased. Mn2+ abolished the lag of onset of p[NH]ppG-stimulated activity in native membranes. The desensitization process was dose-dependent on glucagon, which exhibited a Ka of 4 X 10(-10) M. Depletion of intracellular ATP did not affect this process. It is suggested that this desensitization occurs at the level of the guanine nucleotide-regulatory protein.