Metabolic and functional consequences of introducing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate into saponin-permeabilized human platelets.
ABSTRACT: In an earlier study we reported the effect of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] in releasing Ca2+ from highly purified human platelet intracellular membrane vesicles. [Authi & Crawford (1985) Biochem. J. 230, 247-253]. We have now investigated the metabolic and functional consequences of introducing Ins(1,4,5)P3 into saponin-permeabilized platelets. Washed human platelets when resuspended in a suitable medium were permeabilized with saponin (10-14 micrograms/ml) to allow entry of low-Mr water-soluble molecules without significant release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme protein lactate dehydrogenase. Saponin-permeabilized platelets show identical platelet responses (shape change, aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine) to both collagen (5 micrograms/ml) and thrombin (0.1 unit/ml) as obtained with intact cells, indicating that there is minimal disturbance to the surface membrane receptor topography for these two agonists. Ins(1,4,5)P3 (1-10 microM) added to saponin-treated platelets (but not to intact platelets) induced dose-related shape change, aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine which at maximal doses was comparable with responses obtained with thrombin or collagen. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and aspirin, if added prior to saponization and Ins(1,4,5)P3 addition, completely inhibited both aggregation and release of 5-hydroxy[14C]tryptamine (EC50 for indomethacin, 50 nM; for aspirin, 30 microM). We believe that Ins(1,4,5)P3 induces the release of Ca2+ from intracellular storages sites which stimulates the Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 releasing arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. Arachidonic acid is then converted to the aggregatory prostanoids (prostaglandin H2 and thromboxane A2) resulting in the observed responses. This concept is supported by the use of the thromboxane receptor antagonists EPO 45 and EPO 92, both of which also completely inhibit Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced responses in saponin-permeabilized platelets. Electron microscopy of the platelet preparations revealed that thrombin- and collagen-induced platelet aggregates of intact and saponized cells were identical, showing extensive pseudopod formation and dense granule release. The Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced aggregates also showed similar dense granule release but an almost total absence of pseudopod formation. These results are discussed in the light of the second messenger role of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in stimulus-response coupling in platelets.
Project description:The effects of the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin (Tg) and 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ) were examined by using Ca(2+)-regulatory systems of platelet mixed membranes, saponin-permeabilized and intact platelets. Both agents inhibit Ca(2+)-ATPase activities of platelet mixed membranes, without any effect on the basal Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Tg is more effective (EC50 = 35 nM) than tBuBHQ (EC50 = 580 nM). The effect of the two inhibitors on 45Ca2+ release from saponin-permeabilized platelets has also been characterized. 45Ca2+ uptake into non-mitochondrial intracellular stores occurs via an ATP-dependent mechanism, and if added at equilibrium the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 releases 50% of the accumulated 45Ca2+. Maximally effective concentrations of Tg (1 microM) and tBuBHQ (50 microM) release 77% and 68% of the accumulated 45Ca2+. Addition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 together with either Tg or tBuBHQ resulted in a non-additive release which was the same as with either Tg or tBuBHQ alone, indicating that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool was a subset of the pool that is sensitive to the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors. Release of 45Ca2+ by either Tg or tBuBHQ was not affected by heparin, which totally blocked Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, and Tg was found not to affect [32P]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding to its receptor on mixed membranes. Thus both Tg and tBuBHQ release Ca2+ from a pool that totally overlaps the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive pool without affecting Ins(1,4,5)P3 function. In intact indomethacin-treated Fura 2-loaded platelets, Tg and tBuBHQ cause Ca2+ elevation, arising from release from intracellular stores and influx from the outside. Both Tg and tBuBHQ elevated Ca2+ to similar levels, which were less and slower than those observed with thrombin. Addition of thrombin to cells already treated with Tg or tBuBHQ produced further elevation of Ca2+, indicating agonist utilization of a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor-insensitive pool. In aggregation experiments Tg and tBuBHQ showed different functional effects. In indomethacin-treated cells Tg induces slow aggregation and secretion responses, whereas tBuBHQ only induces shape change. Both agents show synergistic secretory responses with the protein kinase C activator dioctanoylglycerol (DiC8). Tg also showed greater ability than tBuBHQ to release [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) from [3H]AA-labelled platelets. Additionally, in [32P]Pi-labelled platelets both Tg and tBuBHQ induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, a 27 kDa protein and the 45 kDa protein pleckstrin, but Tg showed a greater ability than tBuBHQ to cause phosphorylation of pleckstrin. These studies indicate that Tg and tBuBHQ are effective in releasing the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ pool in platelets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Project description:We studied the dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) by permeabilized rat intestinal epithelial cells incubated in a medium resembling intracellular ionic strength and pH. Saponin-permeabilized cells rapidly dephosphorylated Ins(1,4,5)P3 to a mixture of three InsP2 (inositol bisphosphate) isomers, namely Ins(1,4)P2, Ins(1,5)P2 and Ins(4,5)P2. These products were identified by h.p.l.c. analysis after dephosphorylation of both 3H- and 32P-labelled Ins(1,4,5)P3. Ins(1,4)P2 accumulated to about half of the concentration attained by Ins(1,5)P2 and Ins(4,5)P2. Ins(1,4,5)P3 dephosphorylation was inhibited, by up to 75%, by 10 mM-glucose 6-phosphate. In these conditions Ins(1,4)P2 became the predominant product, indicating that glucose 6-phosphate inhibited non-specific dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, at least at the 1- and 4-phosphate groups. Ins(1,4)P2 was further dephosphorylated, and the major InsP (inositol monophosphate) product was Ins4P. Most of the glucose 6-phosphate-inhibitable Ins(1,4,5)P3 phosphatase activity was exposed on the cell surface. The glucose 6-phosphate-insensitive Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase activity was not detected until the cells were permeabilized with saponin. This intracellular 5-phosphatase activity was: (i) predominantly associated with the particulate portion of the cell; (ii) strongly inhibited by 10 mM-2,3-bisphosphoglycerate; (iii) insensitive to 50 mM-Li+. Therefore the Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase activity in enterocytes appears similar to the 5-phosphatase that has been characterized in a number of cell types.
Project description:The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of significance for the future design of molecules with enhanced selectivity.
Project description:Culture of glomerular mesangial cells in the absence of insulin decreased the degree of contraction of individual cells in response to vasoconstrictive agonists, angiotensin II, platelet-activating factor and endothelin 1, as compared with cells cultured in the presence of insulin (0.7 nM). This change was associated with a decreased sensitivity of the intracellular Ca2+ response to vasoactive agents in fura-2-loaded cells and with an increase in the basal level of prostanoid [prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2] production estimated by radioimmunoassay. Addition of exogenous PGE2 to insulin-exposed cells decreased the contractile response to that observed in insulin-deficient cells. Inclusion of 8-bromo cyclic AMP had a similar effect. In 45Ca2(+)-release studies it was shown that, in saponin-permeabilized insulin-exposed cells, preincubation with exogenous PGE2 or 8-bromo cyclic AMP decreased the sensitivity of 45Ca2+ release in response to Ins(1,4,5)P3, as demonstrated by an increase in the EC50 (concn. giving half-maximal effect) to 0.182 +/- 0.024 microM and 0.457 +/- 0.031 microM respectively, as compared with untreated permeabilized cells (EC50 0.091 +/- 0.021 microM). A similar decrease in Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive 45Ca2+ release was seen in permeabilized cells from insulin-free conditions of culture (EC50 0.20 +/- 0.061 microM). As altered glomerular haemodynamics are found in insulinopaenic diabetic conditions, it is proposed that a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ availability in response to vasoactive agonists and consequent decrease in mesangial-cell contractility contributes to the hyperfiltration seen in this condition.
Project description:Inositol-polyphosphate-induced Ca2+ mobilization was investigated in saponin-permeabilized SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Ins(1,4,5)P3 induced a dose-related release from intracellular Ca2+ stores with an EC50 (concn. giving half-maximal effect) of 0.1 microM and a maximal release of 70%. Ins(1,3,4)P3, DL-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 did not evoke Ca2+ mobilization in these cells when used at concentrations up to 10 microM. However, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was found to release Ca2+ in a dose-related manner, but the response was dependent on the source of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 used. When commercially available D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was used, the EC50 and maximal response values were 1 microM and 50% respectively, compared with values for chemically synthesized DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 of 2 microM and 25%. The enhanced maximal response of commercial D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was decreased by pretreatment with rat brain crude Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase and was therefore concluded to be indicative of initial Ins(1,4,5)P3 contamination of the Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 preparation. When metabolism of DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (10 microM) in these cells at 25 degrees C was investigated by h.p.l.c., substantial amounts of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (0.2 microM) and Ins(1,3,4)P3 (0.8 microM) were found to be produced within 3 min. Analysis of DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 incubation with cells at 4 degrees C, however, indicated that metabolism had been arrested ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 detection limits were estimated to be approx. 0.01 microM). When chemically synthesized DL-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 and incubation conditions of low temperature were used, the Ca2(+)-releasing properties of this compound were established to be 1 microM and 19% for the EC50 and maximal response values respectively. The results obtained strongly suggest that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 alone has the ability to release intracellular Ca2+. However, in the presence of sub-maximal concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ca2+ release appears to be synergistic with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, but at supramaximal concentrations not even additive effects are observed.
Project description:The effects of a whole series of adenine nucleotides on Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release were characterized in permeabilized A7r5 smooth-muscle cells. Several adenine nucleotides activated the Ins(1, 4,5)P3 receptor. It was observed that 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphoulphate, CoA, di(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate (Ap4A) and di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A) were more effective than ATP. Ap4A and Ap5A also interacted with a lower EC50 than ATP. In order to find out how these adenine nucleotides affected Ins(1,4, 5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, we have measured their effect on the response of permeabilized A7r5 cells to a progressively increasing Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration. Stimulatory ATP and Ap5A concentrations had no effect on the threshold Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration for initiating Ca2+ release, but they stimulated Ca2+ release in the presence of supra-threshold Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentrations by increasing the co-operativity of the release process. Inhibition of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release at higher ATP concentrations was associated with a further increase in co-operativity and also with a shift in threshold towards higher Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentrations. ATP had no effect on the non-specific Ca2+ leak in the absence of Ins(1,4,5)P3. We conclude that the adenine-nucleotide-binding site can be activated by many different adenine nucleotides. Binding of these compounds to the transducing domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor increases the efficiency of transmitting Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding to channel opening. The inhibition by high ATP concentrations is exerted at a different site, related to Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding.
Project description:Ca2+ release from intracellular stores occurs via two families of intracellular channels, each with their own specific agonist: Ins(1, 4,5)P3 for the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) for the ryanodine receptor. We now report that cADPR inhibited Ins(1, 4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release in permeabilized A7r5 cells with an IC50 of 20 microM, and in permeabilized 16HBE14o- bronchial mucosal cells with an IC50 of 35 microM. This inhibition was accompanied by an increase in specific [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding. 8-Amino-cADPR, but not 8-bromo-cADPR, antagonized this effect of cADPR. The inhibition was prevented by a whole series of inositol phosphates (10 microM) that did not affect Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release, and by micromolar concentrations of PPi and various nucleotide di- or triphosphates. We propose that cADPR must interact with a novel regulatory site on the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor or on an associated protein. This site is neither the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding domain, which prefers Ins(1,4,5)P3 and only binds nucleotides and PPi in the millimolar range, nor the stimulatory adenine nucleotide binding site.
Project description:Thrombin-stimulated (10 s) human platelets produce Ins(1,4,5)P3 and an additional inositol trisphosphate (InsP3), in approximately a 1:20 ratio. The major InsP3 co-migrates with Ins(1,3,4)P3 on strong-anion-exchange h.p.l.c. To identify this species unequivocally, we treated putative Ins(1,3,4)P3 obtained from thrombin-stimulated myo-[3H]inositol-labelled platelets with NaIO4/NaBH4 or 4-phosphomonoesterase. The products indicate that the major InsP3 is at least 90% D-Ins(1,3,4)P3. D-[3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3 added to saponin-permeabilized platelets is hydrolysed to an InsP2 (7.8%) and phosphorylated by a kinase to yield an inositol polyphosphate (0.9%) in 5 min. The phosphorylation product co-migrates with Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 on Partisphere WAX h.p.l.c. Under similar conditions, L-[3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3 is dephosphorylated but not phosphorylated. Relative phosphatase:kinase ratios are 8.7:1 (Vmax. values) and 0.86:1 (Km values) with respect to D-Ins(1,3,4)P3. The kinase activity is predominantly cytosolic (96.8% of total activity) in freeze-thaw-disrupted platelets, and the accumulation of its product is Ca2(+)-dependent. The activity is identified as a 6-kinase on the basis of its product's insensitivity to 5-phosphomonoesterase, resistance to periodate oxidation and co-migration with standard Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 on h.p.l.c. Incubation of platelets with beta-phorbol dibutyrate (beta-PDBu, 76 nM), causing activation of protein kinase C, results in a 57.5% inhibition (reversible by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine) of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 accumulation. alpha-PDBu, which does not stimulate protein kinase C, has no effect. Stimulation of intact platelets with thrombin results in the production of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 (1.4-fold rise in 30 s) and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, with the latter being the major InsP4 species. Accumulation of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 is slightly delayed in comparison with Ins(1,3,4)P3 and is relatively small. We propose that the major route of Ins(1,3,4)P3 metabolism in stimulated human platelets is via phosphatase action.
Project description:Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was able to mobilize the entire Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ store in saponin-permeabilized SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner, yielding an EC50 value of 2.05 +/- 0.45 microM, compared with 0.14 +/- 0.03 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3. However, L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 [= D-Ins(1,3,5,6)P4] failed to cause mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ at concentrations up to 100 microM. Binding studies using pig cerebellar membranes as a source of both Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-specific binding sites have revealed a marked contrast in their stereospecificity requirements. Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptors from pig cerebella exhibited stringent stereospecificity, L-Ins(1,4,5)P3 and L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 were > 1000-fold weaker, whereas Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (IC50 762 +/- 15 nM) was only about 40-fold weaker than D-Ins(1,4,5)P3 (IC50 20.7 +/- 9.7 nM) at displacing specific [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding from an apparently homogeneous Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor population. In contrast, the Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-binding site exhibited poor stereoselectivity. Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 produced a biphasic displacement of specific [32P]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding, with two-site analysis revealing KD values for high- and low-affinity sites of 2.1 +/- 0.5 nM and 918 +/- 161 nM respectively. L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 also produced a biphasic displacement of specific [32P]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 binding which was less than 10-fold weaker than with D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 (IC50 values for the high- and low-affinity sites of 17.2 +/- 3.7 nM and 3010 +/- 542 nM respectively). Therefore, although L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 appears to be a high-affinity Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-binding-site ligand in pig cerebellum, it is a very weak agonist at the Ca(2+)-mobilizing receptors of permeabilized SH-SY5Y cells. We suggest that the ability of D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 to access intracellular Ca2+ stores may derive from specific interaction with the Ins(1,4,5)P3- and not the Ins(1,3,4,5)P4-receptor population.
Project description:The temporal and dose-response relationships of platelet-activating-factor (PAF)-induced changes in the concentrations of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), Ins(1,4,5)P3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) were examined. In addition, phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) substrate (40-47 kDa protein) was determined. In high-dose PAF-activated platelets, all three signal molecules increased rapidly and transiently, with the peak Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration preceding maximal elevation of [Ca2+]i by 5 s. In low-dose PAF-activated platelets there were large increases in [Ca2+]i and dense-granule release, without any increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and DAG or 40-47 kDa protein phosphorylation. Staurosporine, a non-specific PKC inhibitor, produced enhanced elevations in the concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3, DAG and thromboxane B2, and the duration of the Ca2+ signal in platelets stimulated with a high dose, but not a low dose, of PAF. These results suggest there are both phospholipase C-dependent and -independent changes in Ca2+ homoeostasis. Endogenously activated PKC regulates the formation of signal molecules.