Accumulation of triacylglycerol in cultured rat hepatocytes is increased by ethanol and by insulin and dexamethasone.
ABSTRACT: Isolated hepatocytes from female rats were cultured in HI-WO/BA medium for 6 days. To the medium was added oleate, ethanol, dexamethasone and insulin. With oleate To alone, triacylglycerol accumulated; ethanol augmented the accumulation by 90%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that ethanol in vitro increases the content of triacylglycerol in liver cells. Further addition of dexamethasone or insulin did not alter the accumulation of triacylglycerol, indicating that these hormones did not play permissive roles for the effect of ethanol in the present system. Dexamethasone and insulin, in the absence of ethanol, increased the accumulation of triacylglycerol by 30% and 50% respectively. The concentration of glycerol 3-phosphate was increased in the presence of ethanol; however, with time the concentration of glycerol 3-phosphate declined almost to control values, while the accumulation of triacylglycerol continued linearly; this suggests that the effect of ethanol was not mediated via fluctuations in the concentration of glycerol 3-phosphate. These results are discussed in relation to earlier investigations in vivo and in vitro.
Project description:Isolated rat hepatocytes were cultured in a modified HI-WO/BA medium for 16 h. In the following 24 h oleate or oleate plus ethanol was added to the medium. After this period the medium was changed again and the cultures were further incubated with [1-14C]oleate alone or with [1-14C]oleate plus ethanol for 6 h. This allowed a comparison of effects of short-term (6 h) and long-term (24 + 6 h) exposure to ethanol on fatty acid metabolism. The increased intracellular accumulation of triacylglycerol in the presence of ethanol was quantitatively accounted for by increased fatty acid uptake, by decreased fatty acid oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and by decreased VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein)-triacylglycerol secretion. Ketone-body production was not affected. After short-term exposure the rate of accumulation of triacylglycerol was increased by 50%. This increase was accounted for by increased fatty acid uptake (44%), decreased tricarboxylic acid-cycle activity (49%) and decreased VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion (7%). After long-term exposure, the rate of accumulation of triacylglycerol was increased by 74%. This increase was accounted for by increased fatty acid uptake (34%), decreased tricarboxylic acid-cycle activity (34%) and decreased VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion (32%). The larger increase in accumulation of triacylglycerol after long-term exposure to ethanol was entirely accounted for by increased inhibition of secretion of VLDL-triacylglycerol. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the observations are discussed.
Project description:Rat hepatocytes in monolayer culture were preincubated for 19 h with 1 microM-dexamethasone, and the incubation was continued for a further 23 h with [14C]oleate, [3H]glycerol and 1 microM-dexamethasone. Dexamethasone increased the secretion of triacylglycerol into the medium in particles that had the properties of very-low-density lipoproteins. The increased secretion was matched by a decrease in the triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine that remained in the hepatocytes. Preincubating the hepatocytes for the total 42 h period with 36 nM-insulin decreased the amount of triacylglycerol in the medium and in the cells after the final incubation for 23 h with radioactive substrates. However, insulin had no significant effect on the triacylglycerol content of the cell and medium when it was present only in the final 23 h incubation. Insulin antagonized the effects of dexamethasone in stimulating the secretion of triacylglycerol from the hepatocytes, especially when it was present throughout the total 42 h period. The labelling of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium when hepatocytes were incubated with [14C]oleate and [3H]glycerol was greater than that of phosphatidylcholine. The appearance of this lipid in the medium, unlike that of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine, was not stimulated by dexamethasone, or inhibited by colchicine. However, the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium was decreased when the hepatocytes were incubated with both dexamethasone and insulin. These findings are discussed in relation to the control of the synthesis of glycerolipids and the secretion of very-low-density lipoproteins and lysophosphatidylcholine by the liver, particularly in relation to the interactions of glucocorticoids and insulin.
Project description:Rat hepatocytes were incubated in monolayer culture for 8 h. Glucagon (10nM) increased the total phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity by 1.7-fold. This effect was abolished by adding cycloheximide, actinomycin D or 500 pM-insulin to the incubations. The glucagon-induced increase was synergistic with that produced by an optimum concentration of 100 nM-dexamethasone. Theophylline (1mM) potentiated the effect of glucagon, but it did not affect the dexamethasone-induced increase in the phosphohydrolase activity. The relative proportion of the phosphohydrolase activity associated with membranes was decreased by glucagon when 0.15 mM-oleate was added 15 min before the end of the incubations to translocate the phosphohydrolase from the cytosol. This glucagon effect was not seen at 0.5 mM-oleate. Since glucagon also increased the total phosphohydrolase activity, the membrane-associated activity was maintained at 0.15 mM-oleate and was increased at 0.5 mM-oleate. This activity at both oleate concentrations was also increased in incubations that contained dexamethasone, particularly in the presence of glucagon. Insulin increased the relative proportion of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase that was associated with membranes at 0.15 mM-oleate, but not at 0.5 mM-oleate. It also decreased the absolute phosphohydrolase activity on the membranes at both oleate concentrations in incubations that also contained glucagon and dexamethasone. None of the hormonal combinations significantly altered the total glycerol phosphate acyltransferase activity. However, glucagon significantly increased the microsomal activities, and insulin had the opposite effect. Glucagon also decreased the mitochondrial acyltransferase activity. There was a highly significant correlation between the total phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and the synthesis of neutral lipids from glycerol phosphate and 0.5 mM-oleate in homogenates of cells from all of the hormonal combinations. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity is increased in the long term by glucocorticoids and also by glucagon through cyclic AMP. In the short term, glucagon increases the concentration of fatty acid required to translocate the cytosolic reservoir of activity to the membranes on which phosphatidate is synthesized. Insulin opposes the combined actions of glucagon and glucocorticoids. The long-term events explain the large increases in the phosphohydrolase activity that occur in vivo in a variety of stress conditions. The expression of this activity depends on increases in the net availability of fatty acids and their CoA esters in the liver.
Project description:The effect of adrenaline on triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion was examined in isolated rat hepatocytes. Cells were incubated with 0.5 mM-[1-14C]oleate, and the accumulation of triacylglycerol and [14C]triacylglycerol was measured in the incubation medium. Triacylglycerol appearing in the medium was present in a form with properties similar to very-low-density lipoproteins. Triacylglycerol, [14C]triacylglycerol and [14C]phospholipid contents of hepatocytes were also determined. Addition of 10 microM-(-)adrenaline decreased accumulation of glycerolipid in the incubation medium and also decreased cellular [14C]phospholipid content. Prazosin abolished these effects, whereas propranolol did not. The hormone did not affect cellular triacylglycerol content or rates of incorporation of [1-14C]oleate into cell triacylglycerol. The effect of adrenaline on the removal of newly secreted triacylglycerol and the secretion of synthesized glycerolipid was also examined. The catecholamine did not affect rates of removal of newly secreted triacylglycerol. Adrenaline did inhibit the secretion of pre-synthesized lipid by the cells, as assessed by the appearance of radiolabelled triacylglycerol from hepatocytes that had been preincubated with [1,2,3-3H]-glycerol. Adrenaline did not affect rates of fatty acid uptake by hepatocytes, but did stimulate oxidation of [1-14C]oleate, principally to 14CO2.
Project description:Triacylglycerol metabolism has been studied in kidney cortex tubules from starved rats, prepared by collagenase treatment. Triacylglycerol was determined by a newly developed fully enzymic method. Incubation of tubules in the absence of fatty acids led to a decrease of endogenous triacylglycerol by about 50% in 1h. Addition of albuminbound oleate or palmitate resulted in a steady increase of tissue triacylglycerol over 2h. The rate of triacylglycerol synthesis was linearly dependent on oleate concentration up to 0.8mm, reaching a saturation at higher concentrations. Triacylglycerol formation from palmitate was less than that from oleate. This difference was qualitatively the same when net synthesis was compared with incorporation of labelled fatty acids. Quantitatively, however, the difference was less with the incorporation technique. Gluconeogenic substrates, which by themselves had no effect on triacylglycerol concentrations, stimulated neutral lipid formation from fatty acids. Glucose and lysine did not have such a stimulatory effect. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis from lactate by mercaptopicolinic acid likewise inhibited triacylglycerol formation. This inhibitory effect was seen with oleate as well as with oleate plus lactate. When [2-(14)C]lactate was used the incorporation of label into triacylglycerol was found in the glycerol moiety exclusively. Addition of dl-beta-hydroxybutyrate (5mm) to the incubation medium in the presence of oleate or oleate plus lactate led to a significant increase in triacylglycerol formation. In contrast with the gluconeogenic substrates, dl-beta-hydroxybutyrate had no stimulatory effect on fatty acid uptake. The results suggest that renal triacylglycerol formation is a quantitatively important metabolic process. The finding that gluconeogenic substrates, but not glucose, increase lipid formation, indicates that the glycerol moiety is formed by glyceroneogenesis in the proximal tubules. The effect of ketone bodies seems to be caused by the sparing action of these substrates on fatty acid oxidation. The decrease of triacylglycerol in the absence of exogenous substrates confirms previous conclusions that endogenous lipids provide fatty acids for renal energy metabolism.
Project description:Hepatocytes derived from diabetic rats were cultured in serum-free Waymouth's medium containing various supplements, after an initial 4 h period during which the cells were allowed to attach to the culture dish in the presence of foetal-bovine serum (10%). After removal of serum, these cells secreted much less very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoprotein B (apoB) and triacylglycerol than those derived from normal rats when cultured for 24 h in the basal medium. Inclusion of oleate (0.75 mM) in the medium initially increased the output of apoB and triacylglycerol, but the rates remained lower than those observed in normal hepatocytes and declined to zero after 72 h. This time-dependent decline in VLDL output was prevented by addition of dexamethasone to the oleate-containing medium. Levels of apoB and triacylglycerol output characteristic of normal hepatocytes could only be completely restored, however, by further addition of a mixture of lipogenic substrates (lactate plus pyruvate) to the medium. Restoration of normal levels of VLDL secretion in diabetic hepatocytes in vitro by this means was accompanied by a normal inhibitory response of apoB and triacylglycerol output to short-term (24 h) treatment with insulin or glucagon. Exposure of the cells to insulin for 72 h enhanced the secretion of VLDL, whereas treatment with glucagon for the same period potentiated the original inhibitory effect. The defective secretion of VLDL apoB observed when diabetic hepatocytes were cultured in the basal medium for 24 h could also be rectified by inclusion of a mixture of oleate (0.75 mM), lactate (10 mM), pyruvate (1 mM), dexamethasone (1 microM) and insulin (78 nM) in the medium during the 4 h attachment period in the presence of serum. Under these conditions, the increase in the secretory response of triacylglycerol was not so pronounced.
Project description:Partially hepatectomized rats were used to investigate the mechanism of fatty-liver development in the regenerating rat liver. After partial hepatectomy the amount of hepatic triacylglycerol increased by almost 4-fold compared with sham-operated rats. The activities of both cytosolic and microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase were enhanced at 12 h after surgery. The activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase was increased at a later stage of regeneration. Analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed a significant decrease of lipids associated with very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Relative to control, the rate of hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis from [3H]glycerol in vivo was stimulated at 22 h after partial liver resection. However, secretion of glycerol-labelled triacylglycerol in VLDL was the same in control and hepatectomized rats. In cultures of hepatocytes from hepatectomized donor rats, the concentration of triacylglycerol and the biosynthesis of this lipid from [3H]glycerol or from [3H]oleate were enhanced. The secretion of total triacylglycerol into the medium was not affected, resulting in a net accumulation of intracellular triacylglycerol. The rate of secretion of leucine-labelled apolipoproteins B and E associated with VLDL was similar in cell cultures from hepatectomized and sham-operated rats. The results of this study show that the enhancement of the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in hepatectomized livers is not accompanied by an increase of the secretion of VLDL.
Project description:1. Adipose tissues from rats fed a balanced diet were incubated in the presence of glucose (20mm) with the following additions: insulin, anti-insulin serum, insulin+acetate, insulin+pyruvate, insulin+lactate, insulin+phenazine methosulphate, insulin+oleate+albumin, insulin+adrenaline+albumin, insulin+6-N-2'-O-dibutyryl 3':5'-cyclic AMP+albumin. 2. Measurements were made of the whole tissue concentrations of adenine nucleotides, hexose phosphates, triose phosphates, glycerol 1-phosphate, 3 phosphoglycerate, 6-phosphogluconate, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, acid-soluble CoA, citrate, isocitrate, malate and 2-oxoglutarate, and of the release into the incubation medium of lactate, pyruvate and glycerol after 1h of incubation. 3. Fluxes of [(14)C]glucose carbon through the major pathways of glucose metabolism were calculated from the yields of (14)C in various products after 2h of incubation. Fluxes of [(14)C]acetate, [(14)C]pyruvate or [(14)C]lactate carbon in the presence of glucose were also determined. 4. Measurements were also made of the whole-tissue concentrations of metabolites in tissues taken directly from Nembutal-anaesthetized rats. 5. Whole tissue mass-action ratios for phosphofructokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase and the combined (aldolasextriose phosphate isomerase) reaction were similar in vivo and in vitro. The reactants of phosphofructokinase appeared to be far from mass-action equilibrium. In vitro, the reactants of hexokinase also appeared to be far from mass-action equilibrium. 6. Correlation of observed changes in glycolytic flux with changes in fructose 6-phosphate concentration suggested that phosphofructokinase may show regulatory behaviour. The enzyme appeared to be activated in the presence of oleate or adrenaline and to be inhibited in the presence of lactate or pyruvate. 7. Evidence is presented that the reactants of lactate dehydrogenase and glycerol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase may be near to mass-action equilibrium in the cytoplasm. 8. No satisfactory correlations could be drawn between the whole-tissue concentrations of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, citrate and glycerol 1-phosphate and the observed rates of triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis. Under the conditions employed, the concentration of glycerol 1-phosphate appeared to depend mainly on the cytoplasmic [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratios. 9. Calculated hexose monophosphate pathway flux rates roughly correlated with fatty acid synthesis rates and with whole tissue [6-phosphogluconate]/[glucose 6-phosphate] ratios. The relative rates of production of NADPH for fatty acid synthesis by the hexose monophosphate pathway and by the ;malic enzyme' are discussed. It is suggested that all NADH produced in the cytoplasm may be used in that compartment for reductive synthesis of fatty acids, lactate or glycerol 1-phosphate.
Project description:1. The synthesis and secretion of glycerolipid by monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes was measured by determining the incorporations of [3H]glycerol, [3H]oleate and [14C]choline and by the absolute concentration of triacylglycerol. 2. The presence of albumin in the medium stimulated the accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine in the medium by 11-13-fold. 3. Cycloheximide did not significantly alter the accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine. 4. This process was particularly sensitive to inhibition by chlorpromazine and verapamil, compared with the secretion of triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. By contrast, it was relatively less sensitive to EGTA. 5. It is suggested that intracellular Ca2+ may be important in the production of lysophosphatidylcholine, which then accumulates in the medium by binding to albumin. In vivo this lysophosphatidycholine may be a means of delivering choline and polyunsaturated fatty acids to other organs.
Project description:Embryos of Cuphea lanceolata have more than 80 mol% of decanoic acid ('capric acid') in their triacylglycerols, while this fatty acid is virtually absent in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Seed development was complete 25-27 days after pollination, with rapid triacylglycerol deposition occurring between 9 and 24 days. PtdCho amounts increased until day 15 after pollination. Analysis of embryo lipids showed that the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool consisted of mainly long-chain molecular species, with a very small amount of mixed medium-chain/long-chain glycerols. Almost 100% of the fatty acid at position sn-2 in triacylglycerols (TAG) was decanoic acid. When equimolar mixtures of [14C]decanoic and [14C]oleic acid were fed to whole detached embryos, over half of the radioactivity in the DAG resided in [14C]oleate, whereas [14C]decanoic acid accounted for 93% of the label in the TAG. Microsomal preparations from developing embryos at the mid-stage of TAG accumulation catalysed the acylation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate with either decanoyl-CoA or oleoyl-CoA, resulting in the formation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), DAG and TAG. Very little [14C]glycerol entered PtdCho. In combined incubations, with an equimolar supply of [14C]oleoyl-CoA and [14C]decanoyl-CoA in the presence of glycerol 3-phosphate, the synthesized PtdCho species consisted to 95% of didecanoic and dioleic species. The didecanoyl-glycerols were very selectively utilized over the dioleoylglycerols in the production of TAG. Substantial amounts of [14C]oleate, but not [14C]decanoate, entered PtdCho. The microsomal preparations of developing embryos were used to assess the acyl specificities of the acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT, EC 184.108.40.206) and the acyl-CoA:sn-1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (LPAAT, EC 220.127.116.11) in Cuphea lanceolata embryos. The efficiency of acyl-CoA utilization by the GPAT was in the order decanoyl = dodecanoyl greater than linoleoyl greater than myristoyl = oleoyl greater than palmitoyl. Decanoyl-CoA was the only acyl donor to be utilized to any extent by the LPAAT when sn-decanoylglycerol 3-phosphate was the acyl acceptor. sn-1-Acylglycerol 3-phosphates with acyl groups shorter than 16 carbon atoms did not serve as acyl acceptors for long-chain (greater than or equal to 16 carbon atoms) acyl-CoA species. On the basis of the results obtained, we propose a schematic model for triacylglycerol assembly and PtdCho synthesis in a tissue specialized in the synthesis of high amounts of medium-chain fatty acids.