Immunoreactive insulin from mouse brain cells in culture and whole rat brain.
ABSTRACT: Foetal mouse brain cells were cultured as described previously [Sotelo, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Toh & Wurth (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 653-657] without added insulin and without foetal calf serum after 12 days in culture. Examination by phase-contrast microscopy showed that these modifications did not appear to affect growth and development of the cells adversely. Silver impregnation of the cultures and indirect immunofluorescence following reaction with tetanus toxin showed that a high proportion of the cells resembled neurones. Analysis of concentrated culture medium by radioimmunoassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) revealed that the cells produced two main forms of immunoreactive insulin which differed from authentic pancreatic insulin in retention time. Immunoreactive somatostatin was also produced in culture and this was resolved into at least three forms by h.p.l.c. Immunoreactive insulin was also extracted from whole rat brain by using two published procedures. The method of Havrankova, Schmechel, Roth & Brownstein [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) 75, 5737-5741] consistently gave greater yields of insulin than did that of Eng & Yalow [Diabetes (1980) 29, 105-109] and the concentration was about three times that of plasma. The extracted insulin was further characterized by h.p.l.c. in each case and was found to behave like authentic pancreatic insulin. The production of insulin and somatostatin by foetal mouse brain cells in culture suggests that they may be a useful model system for studies of neuropeptide biosynthesis.
Project description:A greatly simplified assay for myristoyl-CoA:glycylpeptide N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) activity is described. The assay is based on the differential solubility of the acyl-peptides produced as a consequence of the NMT activity and yields results comparable with those obtained with the original assay described by Towler & Glaser [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 2812-2816], which requires h.p.l.c. to determine the production of the acyl-peptides. The use of the revised assay in the preliminary steps of the purification of rat brain NMT is described, and its use in determining the fatty acid-specificity of the enzyme is illustrated. The results are shown to be comparable with those obtained with the h.p.l.c.-based assay.
Project description:The ontogeny of rat liver glutathione S-transferase (EC 188.8.131.52) (GSTs) during foetal and postnatal development was investigated. The GSTs are dimers, the subunits of which belong to three multigene families, Alpha (subunits 1, 2, 8 and 10), Mu (subunits 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11) and Pi (subunit 7) [Mannervik, Alin, Guthenberg, Jennsson, Tahir, Warholm & Jörnvall (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 7202-7206; Kispert, Meyer, Lalor, Coles & Ketterer (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 789-793]. There is considerable structural homology within each gene family, with the result that whereas reverse-phase h.p.l.c. successfully differentiates individual subunits, immunocytochemical and Northern-blotting analyses may only differentiate families. Enzymic activity, h.p.l.c. and Northern blotting indicated that expression of GST increased from very low levels at 12 days of foetal growth to substantial amounts at day 21. At birth, GST concentrations underwent a dramatic decline and remained low until 5-10 days post partum, after which they increased to adult levels. During the period under study, GST subunits underwent differential expression. The Mu family had a lower level of expression than the Alpha family, and, within the Alpha family, subunit 1 was more dominant in the adult than the foetus. Subunit 2 is the major form in the foetus. Most noteworthy were subunits 7 and 10, which were prominent in the foetus, but present at low levels post partum. Immunocytochemical analysis of the 17-day foetal and newborn rat livers showed marked differences in the distribution of GSTs in hepatocytes. In the 17-day foetal liver Pi greater than Alpha greater than Mu whereas in the newborns Alpha greater than Mu much greater than Pi. Erythropoietic cells were not stained for any of the three GST families. Steady-state mRNA concentrations in the foetus correlated with the relative transcription of the Alpha, Mu and Pi class genes. However, in those genes expressed post partum, namely the Alpha and Mu class, low transcriptional activity was associated with high concentrations of mRNA. This suggests that there is a switch from transcriptional control to post-transcriptional control at birth. GST 7-7 appears to be regulated predominantly by transcription throughout the period of liver development under observation.
Project description:Overexpression of pp60c-src in mouse fibroblasts potentiates both agonist-induced signalling through beta-adrenergic receptors and cyclic AMP accumulation in response to cholera toxin [Bushman, Wilson, Luttrell, Moyers and Parsons (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 7462-7466; Moyers, Bouton and Parsons (1993) Mol. Cell. Biol. 13, 2391-2400]. In reconstitution experiments in vitro, phosphorylation of Gs alpha by immune-complexed pp60c-src resulted in enhanced rates of receptor-mediated guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) binding and GTP hydrolysis [Hausdorff, Pitcher, Luttrell, Linder, Kurose, Parsons, Caron and Lefkowitz (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 5720-5724]. These results suggest that one mechanism by which pp60c-src affects signalling through the beta-adrenergic receptor is by phosphorylation and functional alteration of the G protein. To elucidate how phosphorylation of Gs alpha might affect its function, we subjected phosphorylated, recombinant Gs alpha to tryptic phosphopeptide analysis. Phosphotryptic peptides were purified by h.p.l.c. and analysed by Edman degradation to determine the cycle numbers at which radiolabelled phosphotyrosine was released. Candidate peptides that contained Tyr residues at the corresponding positions were synthesized, phosphorylated in vitro by pp60c-src, and their migrations in two-dimensional electrophoresis/t.l.c. were compared with those of tryptic phosphopeptides from intact Gs alpha. We report here that Gs alpha is phosphorylated on two residues by pp60c-src, namely, Tyr-37 and Tyr-377. Tyr-37 lies near the site of beta gamma binding in the N-terminus, within a region postulated to modulate GDP dissociation and activation by GTP [Johnson, Dhanasekaran, Gupta, Lowndes, Vaillancourt and Ruoho (1991) J. Cell Biochem. 47, 136-146], while Tyr-377 is located in the extreme C-terminus, within a region of Gs alpha important for receptor interaction [Sullivan, Miller, Masters, Beiderman, Heideman and Bourne (1987) Nature (London) 334, 712-715]. The location of these residues suggests that phosphorylation may affect the function of both of these regulatory domains.
Project description:Human von Willebrand factor (hp-vWF) is a high-molecular- mass protein found in plasma as a series of multimers. It consists of subunits comprising 2050 amino acids linked by disulphide bonds into multimers of various size ranging in molecular mass up to greater than 10000kDa. Partial proteolysis at position Tyr842-Mer843 of the subunit [Dent et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 6306-6310] by a vWF-specific protease [Furlan et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 7503-7507] results in the generation of an N-terminal and a C-terminal fragment and the appearance of hp-vWF triplet bands. It has been suggested [Furlan et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 7503-7507] that (i) the intermediate triplet band of the primary dimer represents a dimer of two C-terminal fragments, (ii) the slower migrating satellite band of the primary dimer represents an asymmetric structure composed of a mature subunit to which one N-terminal and one C-terminal fragment are linked by disulphide bonds, and (iii) the faster migrating satellite band of the primary dimer contains two N-terminal fragments. Here we used recombinant vWF (r-vWF) for structural analysis of hp-vWF multimers. r-vWF exhibited no proteolytic degradation and all multimers contained mature subunits. High-resolution agarose-gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional electrophoresis demonstrated that (i) r-vWF multimers and hp-vWF intermediate triplet bands exhibited identical molecular mass and electrophoretic mobilities, (ii) the faster and slower migrating satellite bands of hp-vWF differ by less than the molecular mass of one subunit from the corresponding intermediate triplet band, and (iii) the triplet bands of hp-vWF are composed of mature and degraded subunits. The results support a structural model of hp-vWF triplet bands according to which the intermediate triplet bands represent multiple numbers of symmetric and/or asymmetric dimers, the slower migrating satellite bands have one extra N-terminal fragment, and the faster migrating satellite band lacks one N-terminal fragment respectively in comparison with the corresponding intermediate triplet band.
Project description:1. To elucidate further the possible role of polyamines in the synthesis of nuclei acids, a study of the effect of exogenously administered amines on the synthesis of RNA by Drosophila melanogaster larvae was undertaken. This system was chosen because of the previous investigations [Dion, A.S. & Herbst, E.J. (1967) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58, 2367-2371; Herbst, E.J. & Dion, A.S. (1970) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 29, 1563-1567] relating putrescine and spermidine to growth and development of Drosophila.
Project description:Phosphocreatine (PCr) was found to alter the phosphorylation state of two proteins of apparent molecular masses 18 and 29 kDa in dialysed cell-free extracts of rat skeletal muscle in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP. The 29 kDa protein was identified as phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), phosphorylated at the active-site histidine residue by 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-biPG). 2,3-biPG labelling from [gamma-32P]ATP occurred through the concerted action of phosphoglycerate kinase and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase. PCr-dependent labelling, which required creatine kinase, resulted from a shift in the phosphoglycerate kinase equilibrium towards 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-biPG) synthesis, ultimately resulting in an increase in available [2-32P]2,3-biPG. The maximal catalytic activity of PGM was unaffected by PCr. The 18 kDa protein was transiently phosphorylated at a histidine residue, probably by 1,3-biPG. No proteins of this monomeric molecular mass are known to bind 1,3-biPG, suggesting that the 18 kDa protein is an undescribed phosphoenzyme intermediate. Previous observations of 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate-dependent protein phosphorylation in cytosolic extracts [Ueda & Plagens (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 1229-1233; Pek, Usami, Bilir, Fischer-Bovenkerk & Ueda (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 4294-4298], attributed to the action of novel kinases, are likely to represent phosphoenzyme intermediates labelled by bisphosphorylated metabolites in a similar manner.
Project description:The beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) exerts a central role in the transduction of catecholamine effects in white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT). A recent report has documented that insulin strongly down-regulates beta3-AR expression and catecholamine responsiveness in 3T3-F442A adipocytes [Fève, El Hadri, Quignard-Boulangé and Pairault (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 5677-5681]. In the present report we show that the rise in plasma insulin levels elicited by the fasted/fed transition is associated with a reduction in beta3-AR mRNA levels and beta-adrenergic responsiveness in WAT and BAT. beta3-AR transcripts are also decreased in adipose tissue from animals subjected for 6 h to euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamps. Moreover, insulin acts directly on cultured rat white and brown adipocytes to decrease beta3-AR gene expression and adenylate cyclase activity in response to beta3-AR-selective agonists. These results suggest that there is a close relationship between food intake, plasma insulin levels and beta3-AR expression.
Project description:Free-radical attack upon uric acid generates allantoin [Ames, Cathcart, Schwiers & Hochstein (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 6858-6862]. Methods are described for the accurate measurement of uric acid and allantoin in human body fluids. The concentrations of uric acid and allantoin in human serum and synovial fluid are reported. It is suggested that measurement of changes in allantoin concentration may be a useful index of free-radical reactions taking place in vivo.
Project description:We propose a new method for analyzing an ensemble of transition states to extract components of the reaction coordinate. We use the kernel principal component analysis (kPCA), which is a generalization of the ordinary PCA that does not make a linearization approximation We applied this method to a TPS study of human LDH we had previously published [Quaytman, S.; Schwartz, S. D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2007, 104, 12253] and extracted a reasonable representation for the reaction coordinate.
Project description:It has recently been proposed that although small amphiphilic molecules partition into phospholipid vesicles this partition is reduced by a factor of 10(3)-10(4)-fold by the presence of proteins in biological membranes [Conrad & Singer (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.76, 5202-5206 and (1981) Biochemistry20, 808-818]. However, the affinity with which 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonate partitions into, or binds to, Triton X-100 micelles and submitochondrial particles is very similar and therefore does not support this proposal.