The ability of adenosine to decrease the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in isolated hepatocytes. A cyclic AMP-mediated effect.
ABSTRACT: The presence of adenosine (25-250 microM) or of 2-chloroadenosine (2.5-100 microM) in the incubation medium caused a marked decrease in the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in isolated hepatocytes. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of cyclic AMP, an activation of phosphorylase and of fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase, and an inactivation of pyruvate kinase and of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase. As a rule, the changes in the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate-modifying system were slower but more persistent than those in the activities of phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase. The effect of the nucleoside to decrease the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was not affected by an inhibitor of adenosine transport and could not be obtained in a liver high-speed supernatant. These data indicate that the effect of adenosine to decrease the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is mediated by the stimulation of adenylate cyclase, secondary to the binding of adenosine to membranous receptors. Like glucagon, 2-chloroadenosine stimulated gluconeogenesis in isolated hepatocytes, whereas adenosine had an opposite effect.
Project description:The ability of glucagon and of adrenaline to affect the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in isolated hepatocytes was re-investigated because of important discrepancies existing in the literature. We were unable to detect a significant difference in the sensitivity of the hepatocytes with regard to the effect of glucagon to initiate the interconversion of phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase, and also to cause the disappearance of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. In contrast, we have observed differences in the time-course of these various changes, since the interconversions of phosphorylase and of pyruvate kinase were at least twice as fast as those of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and of fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase. When measured in a cell-free system in the presence of MgATP, the cyclic AMP-dependent interconversion of pyruvate kinase was 5-10-fold more rapid than those of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and of fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase. These data indicate that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase are relatively poor substrates for cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase; they also support the hypothesis that the two catalytic activities belong to a single protein. Adrenaline had only a slight effect on the several parameters under investigation, except for the activation of phosphorylase. In the absence of Ca2+ ions from the incubation medium, however, adrenaline had an effect similar to that of glucagon.
Project description:Hepatocytes from overnight-starved rats were incubated with 1-20 mM-fructose, -dihydroxyacetone, -glycerol, -alanine or -lactate and -pyruvate with or without 0.1 microM-glucagon. The production of glucose and lactate was measured, as was the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The concentrations of fructose (below 5 mM) and dihydroxyacetone (above 1 mM) that gave rise to an increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate were those at which a glucagon effect on the production of glucose and lactate could be observed. Glycerol had no effect on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content or on production of lactate, and glucagon did not stimulate the production of glucose from this precursor. With alanine or lactate/pyruvate as substrates, glucagon stimulated glucose production whether the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was increased or not. The extent of inactivation of pyruvate kinase by glucagon was not affected by the presence of the various gluconeogenic precursors. The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the effect of glucagon on gluconeogenesis from precursors entering the pathway at the level of triose phosphates or pyruvate is discussed.
Project description:Infusion of adenosine into perfused rat livers resulted in transient increases in glucose output, portal-vein pressure, the effluent perfusate [lactate]/[pyruvate] ratio, and O2 consumption. 8-Phenyltheophylline (10 microM) inhibited adenosine responses, whereas dipyridamole (50 microM) potentiated the vasoconstrictive effect of adenosine. The order of potency for adenosine analogues was: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than L-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than cyclohexyladenosine greater than D-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine, consistent with adenosine actions modulated through P1-purine receptors of the A2-subtype. Hepatic responses exhibited homologous desensitization in response to repeated infusion of adenosine. Adenosine effects on the liver were attenuated at lower perfusate Ca2+ concentrations. Indomethacin decreased hepatic responses to both adenosine and NECA. Whereas adenosine stimulated glycogen phosphorylase activity in isolated hepatocytes, NECA caused no effect in hepatocytes. The response to adenosine in hepatocytes was inhibited by dipyridamole (50 microM), but not 8-phenyltheophylline (10 microM). The present study indicates that, although adenosine has direct effects on parenchymal cells, indirect effects of adenosine, mediated through the A2-purinergic receptors on another hepatic cell type, appear to play a role in the perfused liver.
Project description:1. Incubation of hepatocytes from fed or starved rats with increasing glucose concentrations caused a stimulation of lactate production, which was further increased under anaerobic conditions. 2. When glycolysis was stimulated by anoxia, [fructose 2,6-bis-phosphate] was decreased, indicating that this ester could not be responsible for the onset of anaerobic glycolysis. In addition, the effect of glucose in increasing [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] under aerobic conditions was greatly impaired in anoxic hepatocytes. [Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] was also diminished in ischaemic liver, skeletal muscle and heart. 3. The following changes in metabolite concentration were observed in anaerobic hepatocytes: AMP, ADP, lactate and L-glycerol 3-phosphate were increased; ATP, citrate and pyruvate were decreased: phosphoenolpyruvate and hexose 6-phosphates were little affected. Concentrations of adenine nucleotides were, however, little changed by anoxia when hepatocytes from fed rats were incubated with 50 mM-glucose. 4. The activity of ATP:fructose 6-phosphate 2-phosphotransferase was not affected by anoxia but decreased by cyclic AMP. 5. The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the regulation of glycolysis is discussed.
Project description:The adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (Itu) was found to have the following effects on glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes of fasted rats. (1) Itu strongly stimulated glycogen synthesis from different substrates (glucose, lactate plus pyruvate, dihydroxyacetone, glycerol and fructose). In cells incubated with these substrates, the well-known stimulating effect of amino acids and that of Itu was more than additive. (2) In parallel with the increase in glycogen deposition, there was an increase in synthase a and a decrease in phosphorylase a concentrations after administration of Itu. Synthase a was increased by Itu and amino acids in an additive manner, whereas the observed activation of phosphorylase after addition of amino acids was antagonized by Itu. (3) In contrast with amino acids, Itu increased neither the cell volume nor the aspartate and glutamate concentrations. (4) Itu enhanced the levels of cyclic AMP. The stimulation of glycogen deposition in the presence of Itu persisted when the cyclic AMP concentration was further increased by adenosine or 2-chloroadenosine. (5) Itu decreased the concentration of ATP, but its effects on glycogen synthesis, synthase a and phosphorylase a concentrations persisted when the ATP catabolism was prevented by adenosine. (6) The effect of Itu on glycogen synthesis was not the result of inhibition of adenosine kinase, since 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine, another inhibitor of this enzyme, had no effect on glycogen deposition.
Project description:The mechanism of the antihyperglycaemic action of dexfenfluramine (DEXF) was investigated in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to glucagon. Preincubation of hepatocytes with DEXF caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cyclic AMP formation by 100 nM glucagon (Ki = 0.29 mM) that was almost complete at 1 mM DEXF. Surprisingly, glucagon-induced phosphorylase activation was not affected by DEXF despite the significant drop in cyclic AMP levels. Glucose production stimulated by glucagon was inhibited by up to 48% by 1 mM DEXF, and the rate of glucose production correlated positively with the steady-state concentration of glucose 6-phosphate. DEXF also partially restored lactate + pyruvate production which was abolished by an optimal concentration of glucagon. Although DEXF was not able to prevent the inactivation of pyruvate kinase by glucagon, the lack of further accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate in DEXF-treated cells supports the conclusion that the flux through pyruvate kinase is stimulated, probably via the increase in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, thereby increasing glycolysis. Our results thus indicate that DEXF counteracts the inhibition of glycolysis by glucagon and that this property might contribute to the antihyperglycaemic effect of this drug. Furthermore, this study shows that, in the presence of the drug, glucagon caused phosphorylase activation and pyruvate kinase inactivation without a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels.
Project description:In hepatocytes from overnight-fasted rats incubated with glucose, palmitate decreased the production of lactate, the detritiation of [2-3H]- and [3-3H]-glucose, and the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Similarly, perfusion of hearts from fed rats with beta-hydroxybutyrate resulted in an inhibition of the detritiation of [3-3H]glucose and a fall in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. This fall could result from an increase in citrate (hepatocytes and heart) and sn-glycerol 3-bisphosphate concentration. It is suggested that a fall in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration participates in the inhibition of glycolysis by fatty acids and ketone bodies.
Project description:Injection of insulin to fed rats diminished the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in white adipose tissue. Incubation of epididymal fat-pads or adipocytes with insulin stimulated lactate release and sugar detritiation and also decreased fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Such a decrease was, however, not observed in fat-pads from starved or alloxan-diabetic rats. Incubation of adipocytes from fed rats with various concentrations of glucose or fructose led to a dose-dependent rise in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate which correlated with lactate output and detritiation of 3-3H-labelled sugar. In adipocytes from fed rats, palmitate stimulated the detritiation of [3-3H]glucose without affecting lactate production and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Incubation of epididymal fat-pads from fed rats in the presence of antimycin stimulated lactate output but decreased fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration. Changes in lipolytic rates brought about by noradrenaline, insulin, adenosine and corticotropin in adipocytes from fed rats were not related to changes in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate or to rates of lactate output. In fed rats, the activity of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase was not changed after treatment of adipocytes with insulin, noradrenaline or adenosine. It is suggested that the decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration observed after insulin treatment can be explained by the increase in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, an inhibitor of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase.
Project description:Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes from fasted rats with 0-6 mM-glucose caused an increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] (0.2 to about 5 nmol/g) without net lactate production. A release of 3H2O from [3-3H]glucose was, however, detectable, indicating that phosphofructokinase was active and that cycling occurred between fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A relationship between [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate] and lactate production was observed when hepatocytes were incubated with [glucose] greater than 6 mM. Incubation with glucose caused a dose-dependent increase in [hexose 6-phosphates]. The maximal capacity of liver cytosolic proteins to bind fructose 2,6-bisphosphate was 15 nmol/g, with affinity constants of 5 X 10(6) and 0.5 X 10(6) M-1. One can calculate that, at 5 microM, more than 90% of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is bound to cytosolic proteins. In livers of non-anaesthetized fasted mice, the activation of glycogen synthase was more sensitive to glucose injection than was the increase in [fructose 2,6-bisphosphate], whereas the opposite situation was observed in livers of fed mice. Glucose injection caused no change in the activity of liver phosphofructokinase-2 and decreased the [hexose 6-phosphates] in livers of fed mice.
Project description:Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was found to cause a dose-dependent decrease in fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase concomitant with an increase in cyclic AMP in cultured HT29 cancer cells from human colon. The maximum effect was a 41% decrease obtained with 10 nM-VIP, and half-maximum effect was obtained with 0.75 nM-VIP. The effect of 2.5 nM-VIP was almost totally counteracted (i.e. fructose 2,6-bisphosphate concentration was restored) by either adrenaline (1 microM) or the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist UK-14304 (1 microM); the alpha 2-agonist clonidine (1 microM) was less efficient, since the VIP effect was decreased by 72% only. The adrenaline effect was totally antagonized by 1 microM-yohimbine. It is concluded that, in the HT29 cancer cells, the fructose 2,6-bisphosphate-producing system is sensitive to variations of cyclic AMP concentration and is under the dual control of VIP and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.