Role of Ca2+ ions in the regulation of intramitochondrial metabolism in rat epididymal adipose tissue. Evidence against a role for Ca2+ in the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin.
ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of rat epididymal-adipose-tissue pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase, NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase to Ca2+ ions was studied both in mitochondrial extracts and within intact coupled mitochondria. It is concluded that all three enzymes may be activated by increases in the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ and that the distribution of Ca2+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane is determined, as in rat heart mitochondria, by the relative activities of a uniporter (which transports Ca2+ into mitochondria and is inhibited by Mg2+ and Ruthenium Red) and an antiporter (which allows Ca2+ to leave mitochondria in exchange for Na+ and is inhibited by diltiazem). Previous studies with incubated fat-cell mitochondria have indicated that the increases in the amount of active non-phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal tissue exposed to insulin are the result of activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase. In the present studies, no changes in the activity of the phosphatase were found in extracts of mitochondria, and thus it seemed likely that insulin altered the intramitochondrial concentration of some effector of the phosphatase. Incubation of rat epididymal adipose tissue with medium containing a high concentration of CaCl2 (5mM) was found to increase the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase to much the same extent as insulin. However, the increases caused by high [Ca2+] in the medium were blocked by Ruthenium Red, whereas those caused by insulin were not. Moreover, whereas the increases resulting from both treatments persisted during the preparation of mitochondria and their subsequent incubation in the absence of Na+, only the increases caused by treatment of the tissue with insulin persisted when the mitochondria were incubated in the presence of Na+ under conditions where the mitochondria are largely depleted of Ca2+. It is concluded that insulin does not act by increasing the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+. This conclusion was supported by finding no increases in the activities of the other two Ca2+-responsive intramitochondrial enzymes (NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) in mitochondria prepared from insulin-treated tissue compared with controls.
Project description:The effects of Mg2+ on the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase within intact mitochondria prepared from control and insulin-treated rat epididymal adipose tissue was explored by incubating the mitochondria in medium containing the ionophore A23187. The apparent Ka for Mg2+ was approximately halved in the mitochondria derived from insulin-treated tissue in both the absence and the presence of Ca2+. In this system, the major effect of Ca2+ was also to decrease the apparent Ka for Mg2+, rather than to change the Vmax. of the phosphatase. Damuni, Humphreys & Reed [(1984) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 124, 95-99] have reported that spermine activates ox kidney pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase. Studies were carried out on phosphatase from pig heart and rat epididymal adipose tissue which confirm and extend this observation. The major effect of spermine is shown to be a decrease in the Ka for Mg2+, which is apparent in both the presence and the absence of Ca2+. Spermine did not affect the sensitivity of the phosphatase to Ca2+ at saturating concentrations of Mg2+. Other polyamines tested were not as effective as spermine. No alteration in the maximum activity or Mg2+-sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase was apparent in extracts of mitochondria from insulin-treated tissue. The close similarity of the effects of spermine and the changes in kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase within mitochondria from insulin-treated adipose tissue suggests that insulin may activate pyruvate dehydrogenase by increasing the concentration of spermine within the mitochondria. However, it is concluded that insulin is more likely to alter the interaction of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system with some other polybasic intramitochondrial component whose action can be mimicked by spermine.
Project description:Increases in the amount of the active non-phosphorylated form of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal adipose tissue, as a result of incubation with insulin, persist not only during the preparation of mitochondria but also during subsequent incubation of coupled mitochondria in the presence of respiratory substrates. No effect on insulin was found if the hormone was added directly to mitochondria in the presence or absence of added plasma membranes. Concentrations of several possible regulators of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (ATP, ADP, NADH, NAD+, acetyl-CoA, CoA and potassium) were measured in rat epididymal-adipose-tissue mitochondria incubated under conditions where differences in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity persist as a result of insulin action. No alterations were found, and it is suggested that inhibition of the kinase is not the principal means by which insulin activates pyruvate dehydrogenase. The intramitochondrial concentration of magnesium was also unaffected. Differences in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in interscapular brown adipose tissue associated with manipulation of plasma insulin concentrations of cold-adapted rats were also shown to persist during the preparation and subsequent incubation of mitochondria in the presence or absence of GDP. It is pointed out that the persistence of the effect of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase in incubated mitochondria will facilitate the recognition of the mechanism of this action of the hormone. Evidence that the short-term action of insulin involves an increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity rather than inhibition of that of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase is discussed.
Project description:1. Previous studies showed that the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase within intact rat heart mitochondria of pyruvate is much diminished in mitochondria from starved or diabetic animals [see Kerbey, Randle, Cooper, Whitehouse, Pask & Denton (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 327-348]. In the present study, diminished responses to added Ca2+ and ADP were also found in these mitochondria. 2. Starvation or diabetes did not affect the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio of the ATP content. Moreover, starvation and diabetes did not alter the response of the intramitochondrial Ca2+-sensitive enzyme, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, to changes in the extramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ and 2-oxoglutarate, thus indicating that there were no appreciable changes in the distribution of Ca2+ and H+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane. 3. Pyruvate, Ca2+ and ADP were found to have synergistic effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, particularly in mitochondria from starved and diabetic rats. 4. The results suggest that the effects of diabetes and starvation on pyruvate dehydrogenase are not brought about by changes in the distribution of these effectors across the mitochondrial inner membrane or by changes in the intrinsic sensitivity of the kinase or phosphatase of the pyruvate dehydrogenase system to pyruvate, Ca2+ or ADP; rather it is probably that there is an increase in the maximum activity of kinase relative to that of the phosphatase. 6. The results also lend further support to the hypothesis that adrenaline may bring about the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the rat heart by an increase in the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+.
Project description:Mitochondria from rat epididymal white adipose tissue were made permeable to small molecules by toluene treatment and were used to investigate the effects of Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the re-activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate by endogenous phosphatase. Re-activation of fully phosphorylated enzyme after addition of 0.18 mM-Mg2+ showed a marked lag of 5-10 min before a maximum rate of reactivation was achieved. Increasing the Mg2+ concentration to 1.8 mM (near saturating) or the addition of 100 microM-Ca2+ resulted in loss of the lag phase, which was also greatly diminished if pyruvate dehydrogenase was not fully phosphorylated. It is concluded that, within intact mitochondria, phosphatase activity is highly sensitive to the degree of phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and that the major effect of Ca2+ may be to overcome the inhibitory effects of sites 2 and 3 on the dephosphorylation of site 1. Apparent K0.5 values for Mg2+ and Ca2+ were determined from the increases in pyruvate dehydrogenase activity observed after 5 min. The K0.5 for Mg2+ was diminished from 0.60 mM at less than 1 nM-Ca2+ to 0.32 mM at 100 microM-Ca2+; at 0.18 mM-Mg2+, the K0.5 for Ca2+ was 0.40 microM. Ca2+ had little or no effect at saturating Mg2+ concentrations. Since effects of Ca2+ are readily observed in intact coupled mitochondria, it follows that Mg2+ concentrations within mitochondria are sub-saturating for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase and hence less than 0.5 mM.
Project description:Rat epididymal-adipose-tissue mitochondria were made selectively permeable to small molecules without the loss of matrix enzymes by treating the mitochondria with toluene under controlled conditions. With this preparation the entire pyruvate dehydrogenase system was shown to be retained within the mitochondrial matrix and to retain its normal catalytic activity. By using dilute suspensions of these permeabilized mitochondria maintained in the cuvette of a spectrophotometer, it was possible to monitor changes of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity continuously while the activities of the interconverting kinase and phosphatase could be independently manipulated. Permeabilized mitochondria were prepared from control and insulin-treated adipose tissue, and the properties of both the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and the phosphatase were compared in situ. No difference in kinase activity was detected, but increases in phosphatase activity were observed in permeabilized mitochondria from insulin-treated tissue. Further studies showed that the main effect of insulin treatment was a decrease in the apparent Ka of the phosphatase for Mg2+, in agreement with earlier studies with mitochondria made permeable to Mg2+ by using the ionophore A23187 [Thomas, Diggle & Denton (1986) Biochem. J. 238, 83-91]. No effects of spermine were detected, although spermine diminishes the Ka of purified phosphatase preparations for Mg2+. Since effects of insulin on pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase activity are not evident in mitochondrial extracts, it is concluded that insulin may act by altering some high-Mr component which interacts with the pyruvate dehydrogenase system within intact or permeabilized mitochondria, but not when the mitochondrial membranes are disrupted.
Project description:The metal-ion requirement of extracted and partially purified pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase from rat epididymal fat-pads was investigated with pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase [(32)P]phosphate as substrate. The enzyme required Mg(2+) (K(m) 0.5mm) and was activated additionally by Ca(2+) (K(m) 1mum) or Sr(2+) and inhibited by Ni(2+). Isolated fat-cell mitochondria, like liver mitochondria, possess a respiration- or ATP-linked Ca(2+)-uptake system which is inhibited by Ruthenium Red, by uncouplers when linked to respiration, and by oligomycin when linked to ATP. Depletion of fat-cell mitochondria of 75% of their total magnesium content and of 94% of their total calcium content by incubation with the bivalent-metal ionophore A23187 leads to complete loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity. Restoration of full activity required addition of both MgCl(2) and CaCl(2). SrCl(2) could replace CaCl(2) (but not MgCl(2)) and NiCl(2) was inhibitory. The metal-ion requirement of the phosphatase within mitochondria was thus equivalent to that of the extracted enzyme. Insulin activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat epididymal fat-pads was not accompanied by any measurable increase in the activity of the phosphatase in extracts of the tissue when either endogenous substrate or (32)P-labelled pig heart substrate was used for assay. The activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase in fat-pads by insulin was inhibited by Ruthenium Red (which may inhibit cell and mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+)) and by MnCl(2) and NiCl(2) (which may inhibit cell uptake of Ca(2+)). It is concluded that Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are cofactors for pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase and that an increased mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+) might contribute to the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by insulin.
Project description:1. Increasing concentrations of both Ca2+ and Sr2+ (generated by using EGTA buffers) resulted in 4-fold increases in the initial activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase within intact uncoupled mitochondria from rat epididymal adipose tissue incubated in the presence of the ionophore A23187, ATP, Mg2+ and oligomycin. The k0.5 values (concentrations required for half-maximal effects) for Ca2+ and Sr2+ were 0.54 and 7.1 microM respectively. In extracts of the mitochondria, pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase activity was stimulated about 4-fold by Ca2+ and Sr2+, with k0.5 values of 1.08 and 6.4 microM respectively. 2. NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase appeared to be rate-limiting in the oxidation of threo-Ds-isocitrate and oxoglutarate by uncoupled mitochondria from brown adipose tissue of cold-adapted rats. Ca2+ (and Sr2+) diminished the Km for the oxidation of both threo-Ds-isocitrate and oxoglutarate. The kinetic constants for these oxidations were very similar to those obtained for the activities of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in extracts of the mitochondria. In particular, the k0.5 values for Ca2+ were all in the range 0.2--1.6 microM and Sr2+ was found to mimic Ca2+, but with k0.5 values about 10 times greater. 3. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase, NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase may all be increased by Ca2+ and Sr2+ within intact mitochondria. In all cases the k0.5 values are close to 1 and 10 microM respectively, as found for the separated enzymes. Experiments on brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria incubated in the presence of albumin suggest that it may be possible to use the sensitivity of the dehydrogenases to Ca2+ as a means of assessing the distribution of Ca2+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Project description:The administration in vivo of either adrenaline or glucagon alone resulted in increases of about 2-fold in the amounts of active, non-phosphorylated, pyruvate dehydrogenase in the livers of fed male or female rats, whereas when administered together increases of about 4-fold were obtained. Ca2+-dependent increases in the amount of active enzyme of up to about 5-fold could be achieved in isolated rat liver mitochondria by incubating them with increasing extramitochondrial [Ca2+]; from this, two conditions of Ca loading were chosen which caused increases in active enzyme similar to those with the hormone treatments given above. The increases in enzyme activity owing to these Ca loads persisted through the 're-isolation' of mitochondria and their incubation in Na+-free KCl-based media containing EGTA. Differences from values obtained with unloaded controls could be diminished by adding Na+ ions to cause the egress of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, or enough extramitochondrial Ca2+ to saturate the enzyme in its Ca2+-dependent activation; the effects of Na+ could be blocked by diltiazem, an inhibitor of mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange. The re-isolated, Ca-preloaded, mitochondria also exhibited enhanced activities of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase when assayed at non-saturating [2-oxoglutarate] by two different methods; effects of Na+, Ca2+ or diltiazem on the persistent activations of this enzyme were similar to those for pyruvate dehydrogenase. Na+ caused a marked depletion, which could be blocked by diltiazem, of the 45Ca content of re-isolated mitochondria which had pre-loaded with Ca, containing 45Ca, to the same degrees as above. The activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in incubated liver mitochondria prepared from rats subjected to the hormone treatments given above were found to behave in a very similar manner to those exhibited in the re-isolated, Ca-preloaded, mitochondria. It is concluded that these hormones each bring about the activations of these rat liver enzymes by causing increases in intramitochondrial [Ca2+], and that their effects, as such, are additive.
Project description:Increases in the amount of active, non-phosphorylated, pyruvate dehydrogenase which result from the perfusion of rat hearts with adrenaline were still evident during the preparation of mitochondria in sucrose-based media containing EGTA (at 0 degrees C) and their subsequent incubation at 30 degrees C in Na+-free KCl-based media containing respiratory substrates and EGTA. The differences from control values gradually diminished with time of incubation, but were still present after 8 min. Similar increases resulting from an increase in the concentration of Ca2+ in the perfusing medium also persisted. However, similar increases caused by 5 mM-pyruvate were only maintained during the preparation of mitochondria, not their incubation. Parallel increases, within incubated mitochondria, were found in the activity of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex assayed at a non-saturating concentration of 2-oxoglutarate. The enhancement of the activities of both of these Ca2+-sensitive enzymes within incubated mitochondria as a result of perfusion with adrenaline or a raised concentration of Ca2+ in the medium could be abolished within 1 min by the presence of 10 mM-NaCl. This effect of Na+ was blocked by 300 microM-diltiazem, which has been shown to inhibit Na+-induced egress of Ca2+ from rabbit heart mitochondria [Vághy, Johnson, Matlib, Wang & Schwartz (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 6000-6002]. The enhancements could also be abolished by increasing the extramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ to a value where it caused maximal activation of the enzymes within control mitochondria. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that adrenaline activates rat heart pyruvate dehydrogenase by increasing the intramitochondrial concentration of Ca2+ and that this increase persists through to incubated mitochondria. Support for this conclusion was obtained by the yielding of a similar set of results from parallel experiments performed on control mitochondria that had firstly been preincubated (under conditions of steady-state Ca2+ cycling across the inner membrane) with sufficient proportions of Ca-EGTA buffers to achieve a similar degree of Ca2+-activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (as caused by adrenaline) and had then undergone the isolation procedure again.
Project description:The regulatory properties of the Ca2+-sensitive intramitochondrial enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase, NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) in extracts of rat liver mitochondria appeared to be essentially similar to those described previously for other mammalian tissues. In particular, the enzymes were activated severalfold by Ca2+, with half-maximal effects at about 1 microM-Ca2+ (K0.5 value). In intact rat liver mitochondria incubated in a KCl-based medium containing 2-oxoglutarate and malate, the amount of active, non-phosphorylated, pyruvate dehydrogenase could be increased severalfold by increasing extramitochondrial [Ca2+], provided that some degree of inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (e.g. by pyruvate) was achieved. The rates of 14CO2 production from 2-oxo-[1-14C]glutarate at non-saturating, but not at saturating, concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate by the liver mitochondria (incubated without ADP) were similarly enhanced by increasing extramitochondrial [Ca2+]. The rates and extents of NAD(P)H formation in the liver mitochondria induced by non-saturating concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate, threo-DS-isocitrate or citrate were also increased in a similar manner by Ca2+ under several different incubation conditions, including an apparent 'State 3.5' respiration condition. Ca2+ had no effect on NAD(P)H formation induced by beta-hydroxybutyrate or malate. In intact, fully coupled, rat liver mitochondria incubated with 10 mM-NaCl and 1 mM-MgCl2, the apparent K0.5 values for extramitochondrial Ca2+ were about 0.5 microM, and the effective concentrations were within the expected physiological range, 0.05-5 microM. In the absence of Na+, Mg2+ or both, the K0.5 values were about 400, 200 and 100 nM respectively. These effects of increasing extramitochondrial [Ca2+] were all inhibited by Ruthenium Red. When extramitochondrial [Ca2+] was increased above the effective ranges for the enzymes, a time-dependent deterioration of mitochondrial function and ATP content was observed. The implications of these results on the role of the Ca2+-transport system of the liver mitochondrial inner membrane are discussed.