Membrane retrieval in the guinea-pig neurohypophysis. Isolation and characterization of secretory vesicles and coated microvesicles after radiolabel incorporation in vivo.
ABSTRACT: We have developed small-scale methods for the isolation and biochemical characterization of subcellular fractions from single guinea-pig posterior-pituitary glands. Secretory vesicles and coated microvesicles produced in this way were of similar purity to those isolated from large amounts of tissue by conventional ultracentrifugation. [35S]Cysteine injected into the hypothalamus was found in the soluble contents of secretory vesicles isolated from the neural lobes 24 h later. High-pressure liquid-chromatographic analysis revealed that the radiolabel was incorporated into the expected neurosecretory products (oxytocin, vasopressin and neurophysin) and also into a biosynthetic intermediate in the vasopressin system. The membranes of secretory vesicles were labelled with [3H]choline 24 h after its hypothalamic injection. Little or no [3H]choline could be demonstrated in coated microvesicles at this time, although these structures were labelled 5 days after injection. Stimulating hormone secretion by chronic dehydration produced a significant fall in [3H]choline content of the secretory-vesicle membranes without any transfer of label into coated microvesicles, suggesting that coated microvesicles are not involved in membrane retrieval in the neurohypophysis.
Project description:A possible role of low pH in secretory vesicles for processing and secretion in the neurohypophysis was investigated. Subcellular fractionation of guinea-pig neural lobes revealed that a proton present in the membranes from this tissue could not be ascribed to secretory vesicles. However, a proton pump was found in coated microvesicles. Secretory vesicles isolated from rats and guinea pigs were stable under conditions known to lyse secretory vesicles from the adrenal medulla owing to the generation of a proton gradient. These results suggest that the internal pH of secretory vesicles from the neurohypophysis is closer to neutral than is the pH in chromaffin secretory vesicles. Processing of a neurophysin-glycopeptide intermediate from the biosynthesis of vasopressin in intact secretory vesicles incubated in vitro was activated by the addition of NH4Cl, known to increase the intravesicular pH. This activation of neurohormone processing was also apparent in isolated nerve endings incubated in the presence of NH4Cl, suggesting that NH4Cl can also be used to increase the intravesicular pH in intact nerve endings. However, NH4Cl did not affect the secretion of neurohormones, indicating that a low intravesicular pH is not important for exocytosis in the neurohypophysis. Our results indicate that a low pH generated during processing by mechanisms other than ATP-dependent proton transport may inhibit the processing enzymes, thereby preventing extensive breakdown of neurohormone precursors.
Project description:Coated microvesicles isolated from bovine neurohypophyses could be loaded with Ca2+ in two different ways, either by incubation in the presence of ATP or by imposition of an outwardly directed Na+ gradient. Na+, but not K+, was able to release Ca2+ accumulated by the coated microvesicles. These results suggest the existence of an ATP-dependent Ca2+-transport system as well as of a Na+/Ca2+ carrier in the membrane of coated microvesicles similar to that present in the membranes of secretory vesicles from the neurohypophysis. A kinetic analysis of transport indicates that the apparent Km for free Ca2+ of the ATP-dependent uptake was 0.8 microM. The average Vmax. was 2 nmol of Ca2+/5 min per mg of protein. The total capacity of microvesicles for Ca2+ uptake was 3.7 nmol/mg of protein. Both nifedipine (10 microM) and NH4Cl (50 mM) inhibited Ca2+ uptake. The ATPase activity in purified coated-microvesicles fractions from brain and neurohypophysis was characterized. Micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ in the presence of millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ did not change enzyme activity. Ionophores increasing the proton permeability across membranes activated the ATPase activity in preparations of coated microvesicles from brain as well as from the neurohypophysis. Thus the enzyme exhibits properties of a proton-transporting ATPase. This enzyme seems to be linked to the ion accumulation by coated microvesicles, although the precise coupling of the proton transport to Ca2+ and Na+ fluxes remains to be determined.
Project description:The change in the radioactivity of vasopressin-neurophysin in the rat neurohypophysis after an intracisternal injection of [(35)S]cysteine was fitted to several mathematical models. The data fitted best a model in which there is a linear input of radioactive protein into one pool of the neurohypophysis, from which it is either released by an exponential process or transferred to a second pool from which it is released by a second exponential process with a rate constant much lower than the first. This model is compatible with the existence of a ;readily releasable' pool first postulated by Sachs et al. (1967). Data for the change in radioactivity of vasopressin also gave a good fit in this model. Calculation of the rate constants suggested that the first pool represented about 2% of the total hormone.
Project description:We found that glucagon stimulated membrane protein kinase C (PKC) activity and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis in 24 h-cultured rat hepatocytes. Phorbol myristate acetate, 8-bromo cyclic AMP, vasopressin, noradrenaline and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 also stimulated membrane PKC activity. However, only vasopressin and noradrenaline stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation, whereas all agonists stimulated the rate of release of water-soluble choline metabolites into the medium. Choline, and to a much lesser extent phosphocholine, were released, suggesting predominantly phospholipase D activation. This was supported by the finding that the accumulation of phosphatidate and diacylglycerol was enhanced by the agents in [3H]myristate-labelled hepatocytes, as was [32P]phosphatidylethanol formation. Since the time courses for the release of choline into the medium and the accumulation of phosphatidate and diacylglycerol caused by vasopressin and glucagon were similar, the more rapid activation of PKC by vasopressin probably reflects diacylglycerol formation from phosphoinositide breakdown. The inability of glucagon to stimulate inositol phosphate production was not due to the prolonged culture, since similar results were obtained in 4 h cultures. We conclude that the stimulation of membrane PKC activity by glucagon correlates with accumulation of diacylglycerol and phosphatidate derived from the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine.
Project description:The neurohypophysis (NH), located at the posterior lobe of the pituitary, is a major neuroendocrine tissue, which mediates osmotic balance, blood pressure, reproduction, and lactation by means of releasing the neurohormones oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) from the brain into the peripheral blood circulation. The major cellular components of the NH are hypothalamic axonal termini, fenestrated endothelia and pituicytes, the resident astroglia. However, despite the physiological importance of the NH, the exact molecular signature defining neurohypophyseal cell types and in particular the pituicytes, remains unclear. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq), we captured seven distinct cell types in the NH and intermediate lobe (IL) of adult male mouse. We revealed novel pituicyte markers showing higher specificity than previously reported. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that pituicyte is an astrocytic cell type whose transcriptome resembles that of tanycyte. Single molecule in situ hybridization revealed spatial organization of the major cell types implying intercellular communications. We present a comprehensive molecular and cellular characterization of neurohypophyseal cell types serving as a valuable resource for further functional research.
Project description:The effects of the potent tumour-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism were investigated in the neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15. TPA (100 nM) stimulated by 150-200% the release into the medium of 3H radioactivity from cells that had been pre-labelled with [3H]choline. H.p.l.c. analysis of the medium revealed that TPA stimulated the release of only free [3H]choline (212 +/- 11% of control), without affecting such other labelled metabolites as [3H]phosphocholine and [3H]glycerophosphocholine. This effect was concentration-dependent, with a half-maximal effect obtained at 27.5 +/- 6.8 nM, and was observable as early as 5-10 min after exposure to TPA. The TPA-induced release of [3H]choline into the medium was accompanied by a small and variable decrease in cellular [3H]PtdCho (to 93 +/- 4% of control). However, the radioactivity associated with water-soluble cellular choline metabolites (mainly [3H]phosphocholine and [3H]glycerophosphocholine) remained unchanged. TPA also stimulated the release of [3H]choline derived from [3H]PtdCho that had been produced via the methylation pathway from [3H]methionine. These data suggest that phosphatidylcholine may serve as the source of free choline released from the cells in response to TPA. The possible enzymic mechanisms underlying this response are discussed.
Project description:WRK 1 cells were labelled to equilibrium with 2-myo-[3H]inositol and stimulated with vasopressin. Within 3 s of hormone stimulation there was a marked accumulation of 3H-labelled InsP2 and InsP3 (inositol bis- and tris-phosphate), but not of InsP (inositol monophosphate). There was an associated, and rapid, depletion of 3H-labelled PtdInsP and PtdInsP2 (phosphatidylinositol mono- and bis-phosphates), but not of PtdIns (phosphatidylinositol), in these cells. Some 4% of the radioactivity in the total inositol lipid pool of WRK 1 cells was recovered in InsP2 and InsP3 after 10 s stimulation with the hormone. The selectivity of the vasopressin receptors of WRK 1 cells for a variety of vasopressin agonists and antagonists revealed these to be of the V1a subtype. There was no receptor reserve for vasopressin-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in WRK 1 cells. The accumulation of inositol phosphates was enhanced in the presence of Li+ions. Half-maximal accumulation of InsP, InsP2 and InsP3 in vasopressin-stimulated cells was observed with 0.9, 3.0 and 3.6 mM-Li+ respectively. Bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine also provoked inositol phosphate accumulation in WRK 1 cells. The effects of sub-optimal concentrations of bradykinin and vasopressin upon inositol phosphate accumulation were additive, but those of optimal concentrations of the hormones were not.
Project description:The kinetics of vasopressin-stimulated PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis in relation to sustained diacylglycerol (DAG) formation was investigated in A10 vascular-smooth-muscle cells in culture. Vasopressin stimulated a transient increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 mass formation, which was mirrored by a decrease in PtdIns(4,5)P2 mass levels. Vasopressin stimulated sustained accumulation of total [3H]inositol phosphates ([3H]IP) in the presence of Li+; however, this was significantly decreased by adding a vasopressin-receptor antagonist at different times after initial stimulation. Vasopressin-stimulated phospholipase D (PLD) activity was found to be a transient phenomenon lasting approx. 2 min. Experiments involving agonist preincubation with subsequent addition of butanol confirmed that vasopressin-stimulated PLD activity was desensitized. Vasopressin stimulated an increase in formation of choline, but not of phosphocholine, suggesting that PLD was the major catalytic route of PtdCho hydrolysis in this cell line. The roles of choline and inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in the prolonged phase of DAG formation was examined by comparing vasopressin-stimulated changes in DAG levels in the presence of butanol, the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-31-8220 or a V1a-receptor antagonist. Vasopressin-stimulated DAG formation was decreased by 40-50% in the presence of butanol between 1 and 10 min; however, during more prolonged stimulation butanol was without significant effect. In cells pretreated with Ro-31-8220, vasopressin-stimulated DAG formation was decreased by approx. 30% at 2 min, but was significantly potentiated at later times. This coincided with an enhancement of vasopressin-stimulated [3H]IP accumulation. In cells exposed to the V1a-receptor antagonist 5 min after addition of vasopressin, subsequent DAG formation was significantly decreased, indicating that sustained formation of DAG, like [3H]IP accumulation, was dependent on continual agonist receptor activation. The results are discussed in terms of different phospholipid-hydrolytic pathways providing DAG generation.
Project description:An accumulation of 3H-labelled inositol phosphates is observed when prelabelled rat superior cervical sympathetic ganglia are exposed to [8-arginine]vasopressin or to muscarinic cholinergic stimuli. The response to vasopressin is much greater than the response to cholinergic stimuli. The response to vasopressin is blocked by a V1-vasopressin antagonist, and oxytocin is a much less potent agonist than vasopressin. Vasopressin causes no increase in the cyclic AMP content of ganglia. These ganglia therefore appear to have functional V1-vasopressin receptors that are capable of activating inositol lipid breakdown, but no V2-receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase. The first [3H]inositol-labelled products to accumulate in stimulated ganglia are inositol trisphosphate and inositol bisphosphate, suggesting that the initiating reaction in stimulated inositol lipid metabolism is a phosphodiesterase-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (and possibly also phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate). This response to exogenous vasopressin occurs in ganglia incubated in media of reduced Ca2+ concentration. The physiological functions of the V1-vasopressin receptors of these ganglia remain unknown.
Project description:Cells from the zona glomerulosa of rat adrenals were isolated and maintained for 3 days in primary culture. Specific vasopressin binding was determined by using [3H]vasopressin. [3H]Vasopressin binding was time-dependent (half-time of about 2 min for 6 nM free ligand) and reversible on addition of unlabelled vasopressin (80% dissociation within 30 min). Dose-dependent [3H]vasopressin binding at equilibrium indicated that vasopressin interacted with two populations of sites: high-affinity sites (dissociation constant, Kd = 1.8 nM; maximal binding capacity = 10 fmol/10(6) cells) and low-affinity sites. Vasopressin increased the cellular content of labelled inositol mono-, bis- and tris-phosphate in cells prelabelled with myo-[3H]inositol. The vasopressin concentration eliciting half-maximal inositol phosphate accumulation was very close to the Kd value for vasopressin binding to high-affinity sites. Competition experiments using agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivity for previously characterized vasopressin receptors indicated that vasopressin receptors from rat glomerulosa cells are V1 receptors of the vascular or hepatic subtype. The detected specific vasopressin-binding sites might represent the specific receptors mediating the mitogenic and steroidogenic effects of vasopressin on glomerulosa cells from rat adrenals.