Collagen heterogeneity and quantification in developing bovine nuchal ligament.
ABSTRACT: The collagenous components were investigated in peptic digests of developing bovine nuchal ligament. Types I and III collagen were the major species isolated, but the presence of types IV, V and VI was also shown. Changes in the pepsin-susceptibility of nuchal ligament during foetal development were observed. CNBr-cleavage peptide analysis indicated that type I collagen became cross-linked rapidly, as evidenced by the lack of alpha 1(I)CB6. At present it is not clear if this decrease in pepsin-susceptibility is due to cross-linking of collagen, to increased deposition of elastin, or to both. Quantification of collagen types I and III was shown to depend on the method used. When pepsin-solubilized material was examined an apparent increase in type III collagen with respect to foetal age was observed, whereas when CNBr digests of intact ligament were examined a relatively constant amount of type III collagen (approx. 24%) was found. The constant amount of type III collagen observed during foetal development changed at birth and increased in mature nuchal ligament to represent approx. 45% of the total collagen.
Project description:Elastin mRNA levels were quantified in sheep nuchal ligament and lung during the latter half of foetal development with elastin-specific cDNA (complementary DNA) probes using both hybridization in solution (saturation analysis) and hybridization on a fixed support (Northern analysis). For the solution-hybridization studies, cDNA prepared from nuchal-ligament mRNA was enriched to 65% for elastin sequences by hybridizing it to its template at a R0t (mol X s X litre-1) value that included only the abundant class of mRNA sequences. Hybridization of this probe to RNA extracted from nuchal ligament between 70 and 138 days after conception demonstrated elastin sequences increased about 10-fold (from 0.047 to 0.438% of total RNA). In contrast, lung elastin mRNA levels increased only 3-fold (from 0.009 to 0.022% of total RNA) during the same period. Over this development period these values correspond to increases in the average number of elastin mRNA molecules from 950 to 20 000 molecules/ligament cell and from 130 to 330 molecules/lung cell. For Northern analysis, elastin mRNA was purified from near-term-sheep nuchal ligament on sucrose density gradients. Analysis of the translation products of this elastin mRNA showed that relative elastin precursor synthesis was at least 80% of total [3H]valine incorporation. The Mr of this elastin mRNA, determined by methylmercury-agarose-gel electrophoresis, was approx. 1.25 X 10(6). Northern hybridization of nuchal ligament and lung RNA to a [32P]cDNA probe, transcribed from this sucrose-gradient-purified elastin mRNA, confirmed the developmental changes in elastin mRNA levels detected by solution-hybridization techniques. The specificity of this method was confirmed by using a cloned elastin gene fragment. These studies demonstrate that elastin mRNA levels in organs such as nuchal ligament and lung increase with foetal development, but that there are significant differences in the average cellular elastin mRNA content of these two organs.
Project description:A collagenous glycoprotein (Mr 140000) was isolated from dissociative extracts of foetal bovine nuchal ligament and purified by a combination of ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. This glycoprotein (designated MFPI) exists as a large-Mr disulphide-bonded aggregate in the absence of a reducing agent. The purified glycoprotein was shown to contain about 6% (w/w) carbohydrate, mostly as galactose, glucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis showed the presence of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, indicative of its collagenous nature. The collagenous nature of this glycoprotein was further investigated by enzyme digestion. Pepsin digestion produced three major fragments, which were identical with peptides of type VI collagen. Bacterial-collagenase digestion of the unreduced glycoprotein also produced several discrete peptides. However, reduction of the glycoprotein before bacterial-collagenase digestion resulted in the degradation of these discrete peptides. Glycoprotein MFPI extracted in dissociative conditions appears to be a larger-Mr form of type VI collagen, believed to originate from microfibrillar components in the intact tissue.
Project description:The data presented clearly suggest that relative amounts of mRNAs for elastins a, b and c are developmentally regulated in foetal-calf nuchal ligament and aorta and that this regulation is tissue-specific. In nuchal ligament, at earlier stages of foetal development, the relative amounts of mRNAs for elastins a and b are very low. After the foetal age of about 6 months the relative amount of mRNA for elastin b begins to increase. This is followed by an increase in the relative amount of mRNA for elastin a. In aorta, with increasing foetal age, the relative amounts of mRNAs for elastins b and c increase and decrease alternately. The relative amounts of mRNA for elastin a remain low, with only marginal increases with foetal age. A possible self-aggregation role of elastin a in elastogenesis is proposed.
Project description:The chain composition and relative abundance of type VI collagen synthesized by cells cultured from foetal bovine nuchal ligament and skin were compared with those of the type VI collagen present in these foetal tissues. Immunoprecipitation of intact collagen VI from medium and cell layers of nuchal ligament fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts at confluence revealed collagen type VI molecules with a chain composition consistent with an [alpha 1(VI)alpha 2(VI)alpha 3(VI)] monomeric assembly. Maintenance of cells in a post-confluent quiescent state promoted a marked phenotypic change in these ratios, with increased concentrations of assemblies composed of equimolar ratios of alpha 1(VI) and alpha 2(VI) chains detected in the medium of these cultures. Analysis of steady-state concentrations of mRNA for alpha 1(VI) and alpha 2(VI) chains revealed these species to be present in increased abundance at post-confluence in all the cultures, but no corresponding increase was observed in the alpha 3(VI) mRNA. In order to assess the physiological significance of these observations, the chain composition of the collagen VI content of the corresponding foetal tissues was assessed by Western blotting after extraction in guanidinium isothiocyanate under reducing conditions. Extracts of nuchal ligament revealed a collagen VI chain composition consistent with a heterotrimeric chain assembly. In contrast, the skin extracts revealed an abundance of alpha 1(VI) and alpha 2(VI) chains with only traces of the alpha 3(VI) chain detected. Increased equimolar concentrations of the alpha 1(VI)-chain and alpha 2(VI)-chain mRNAs in skin again reflected the increased concentrations of these polypeptide chains. Type VI collagen was present in greater abundance both in the nuchal ligament and in the corresponding nuchal-ligament fibroblast cultures. The results indicate that the chain composition of type VI collagen is subject to modulation at the level of transcription as a result of variations in the proliferative state of the cells, and demonstrate that different isoforms of collagen VI occur in foetal development.
Project description:Foetal-bovine nuchal ligament and aorta, together with adult-bovine aorta and pregnant uterus, were extracted under dissociative conditions in the absence and in the presence of a reducing agent. A collagenous glycoprotein of Mr 140000 [designated component 140K(VI)], identified in these extracts as the major periodate/Schiff-positive component, was shown to be related to collagen type VI. Digestion of non-reduced extracts with pepsin yielded periodate/Schiff-positive peptides that, on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities, amino acid analyses and peptide 'maps', were identical with type VI collagen fragments prepared by standard procedures. It is concluded that collagen type VI occurs in vivo as molecule comprising three chains of Mr 140000 in which the helical domains account for about one-third of each polypeptide. Biosynthetic experiments with nuchal-ligament fibroblasts in culture demonstrated that a bacterial-collagenase-sensitive [3H]fucose-labelled glycoprotein, Mr 140000, was immunoprecipitated from culture medium by a specific antibody to the pepsin-derived form of collagen type VI. This result suggests that the collagenous polypeptides [140K(VI) components] represent the biosynthetic precursors of type VI collagen that do not undergo processing to smaller species before deposition in the extracellular matrix. Analyses of 5M-guanidinium chloride extracts of tissues with markedly different elastin contents and at different stages of development suggested that there was no relationship between collagen type VI and elastic-fibre microfibrils, a conclusion supported by the observation that the immunoprecipitated glycoprotein, Mr 140000, was distinct from the glycoprotein MFPI, Mr 150000, believed to be a constituent of these microfibrils [Sear, Grant & Jackson (1981) Biochem. J. 194, 587-598].
Project description:Collagens extracted from heart valves by using limited pepsin digestion were fractionated by differential salt precipitation. Collagen types were identified by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis and cleavage with CNBr. Heart-valve collagen was heterogeneous in nature, consisting of a mixture of type-I and type-III collagens. The identity of type-III collagen was established on the basis of (a) insolubility in 1.7 M-NaC1 at neutral pH, (b) behaviour of this collagen fraction on gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions, (c) amino acid analysis showing a hydroxyproline/proline ratio greater than 1, and (d) profile of CNBr peptides on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showing a peak characteristic for type-III collagen containing peptides alpha1(III)CB8 and alpha1(III)CB3. In addition to types-I and -III collagen, a collagen polypeptide not previously described in heart valves was identified. This polypeptide represented approx. 30% of the collagen fraction precipitated at 4.0 M-NaCl, it migrated between beta- and alpha1-collagen chains on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and its electrophoretic behaviour was not affected by disulphide-bond reduction. All collagen fractions from the heart valves contained increased amounts of hydroxylysine when compared with type-I and -III collagens from other tissues. The presence of beta- and gamma-chains and higher aggregates in pepsin-solubilized collagen indicated that these collagens were highly cross-linked and suggested that some of these cross-links involved the triple-helical regions of the molecule. It is likely that the higher hydroxylysine content of heart-valve collagen is responsible for the high degree of intermolecular cross-linking and may be the result of an adaptive mechanism for the specialized function of these tissues.
Project description:1. First subcultures of fibroblast-like cells from adult monkey periodontal ligament were incubated in the presence of 14C-labelled amino acids and produced significant amounts of type-I and type-III collagens. 2. The proportion of type-III collagen produced was calculated on the basis of the recovery of procollagens from DEAE-cellulose chromatography to be approx. 20%, and at least 10% when analysed as collagens on CM-cellulose chromatography. 3. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the procollagens, the collagens and their CNBr peptides was used to confirm the identity of the collagen types. 4. In serum-free media extensive conversion of type-I procollagen, but not of type-III procollagen, into collagen was observed, suggesting that a specific type-I procollagen peptidase was produced. 5. The pattern of collagen synthesis was not significantly different from that obtained with fibroblasts derived from skin corium of the same animals.
Project description:Mature periodontal tissues from adult-mouse first mandibular molars were cultured in a continuous-flow organ-culture system which allowed the regulation of both ascorbic acid concentration and pO(2) (oxygen partial pressure). Protein synthesis was measured by analysing the incorporation of [(3)H]proline into collagenous and non-collagenous proteins during the last 24h of a 2-day culture. At low pO(2) [16.0kPa (approx. 120mmHg)] approx. 60% of protein-incorporated [(3)H]proline was found in collagenous proteins. However, it was evident that this collagen was considerably underhydroxylated. At high pO(2) [56.0kPa (approx. 420mmHg)], both the amount of collagen deposited in the tissues and the degree of hydroxylation were increased considerably. In contrast, no significant effect on non-collagenous protein was observed. Tissues cultured at low pO(2) for the first 48h were unable to respond to a subsequent increase in pO(2) during the last 24h. Analysis of pepsin-solubilized collagen alpha-chains labelled with [(14)C]glycine demonstrated the synthesis of both type-I and type-III collagens by explants cultured for 48h at high pO(2). Type-III collagen comprised 20-30% of the radioactivity in alpha-chains in both the periodontal ligament and the tissues of the alveolar process. The pattern of protein synthesis in the alveolar tissues at high pO(2) was similar to that observed in these tissues in vivo. However, in the cultured periodontal ligament the proportions of non-collagenous proteins and type-III collagens were increased in comparison with the tissue in vivo.
Project description:The collagens were studied in 13 normal and 19 myxomatous human mitral valves. The collagens of the valve were completely solubilized by using a method consisting of guanidinium chloride extraction, limited pepsin digestions and CNBr cleavage of the residue. The normal valves contained 74% type I, 24% type III and 2% type V collagen. The type I and type III collagens had similar solubility patterns, although only type I collagen was detected in the guanidinium chloride extract. Type V collagen was only detected in the first pepsin extract. The type I and III collagens had higher contents of hydroxylysine than did the same collagens from age-matched dermis. The two-dimensional electrophoretic 'maps' of CNBr-cleavage peptides showed low recoveries of the C-terminal alpha 1(I) CB6 and alpha 1(III) CB9 peptides, which are involved in forming intermolecular cross-linkages. Most of the reducible cross-linkages were present in large-Mr peptide complexes, and these complexes were shown by labelling with 125I to include the tyrosine-containing alpha 1(I) CB6 peptide. The myxomatous valves contained 67% type I, 31% type III and 2% type V collagens. There was a significant increase in the concentration of each type of collagen, which consisted of a 9% increase of type I collagen, a 53% increase of type III collagen and a 25% increase of type V collagen. The contents of hydroxylysine in type I and III collagens and the electrophoretic 'maps' of the CNBr-cleavage peptides involved in cross-linkages did not differ significantly from the results obtained from the normal valves. The biochemical findings suggest that there is an increased production of collagen, in particular type III collagen, and glycosaminoglycan as well as a proliferation of cells as part of a repair process in the myxomatous valves.
Project description:Eight monoclonal antibodies have been produced against human pepsin-soluble type III collagen. All antibodies were shown to be highly specific for type III collagen and did not cross-react with a range of other collagen types or connective-tissue proteins. Examination of type III collagen from other species showed that these antibodies had a wide range of species specificities, indicating that several distinct epitopes were being recognized. The location of the epitopes was investigated by using reactivity of the antibodies to CNBr fragments and to sequential fragments formed by tryptic digestion of renaturing type III collagen. These data also indicated that several distinct epitopes were recognized and that they were located over the length of the type III collagen.