Cadmium-binding proteins of rat testes. Characterization of a low-molecular-mass protein that lacks identity with metallothionein.
ABSTRACT: Cadmium-binding proteins in the cytosol of testes from untreated rats were separated by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. Three major testicular metal-binding proteins (TMBP), or groups of proteins, with relative elution volumes of approx. 1.0 (TMBP-1), 1.7 (TMBP-2) and 2.4 (TMBP-3) were separated. Elution of Zn-binding proteins exhibited a similar pattern. TMBP-3 has previously been thought to be metallothionein (MT), and hence this protein was further characterized and compared with hepatic MT isolated from Cd-treated rats. Estimation of Mr by gel filtration indicated a slight difference between MT (Mr 10000) and TMBP-3 (Mr 8000). Two major forms of MT (MT-I and MT-II) and TMBP-3 (TMBP-3 form I and TMBP-3 form II) were obtained after DEAE-Sephadex A-25 anion-exchange chromatography, with the corresponding subfractions being eluted at similar conductances. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis on 7% acrylamide gels indicated that the subfractions of TMBP-3 had similar mobilities to those of the corresponding subfractions of MT. However, SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/12% (w/v)-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis resulted in marked differences in migration of the two corresponding forms of MT and TMBP-3. Co-electrophoresis of MT-II and TMBP-3 form II by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed two distinct proteins. Amino acid analysis indicated much lower content of cysteine in the testicular than in the hepatic proteins. TMBP-3 also contained significant amounts of tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine, whereas MT did not. U.v.-spectral analysis of TMBP-3 showed a much lower A250/A280 ratio than for MT. Thus this major metal-binding protein in testes, which has been assumed to be MT is, in fact, a quite different protein.
Project description:Pantetheine phosphate adenylyltransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) and dephospho-CoA kinase (EC 220.127.116.11) were purified to near homogeneity from pig liver. The purification steps included the use of Sepharose-linked triazine dyes and affinity elution by CoA. Both activities co-purified at every stage of the 18 000-fold purification. An Mr of 115 000 was obtained by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150, and the final preparation yielded one major band on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, with a subunit Mr of 57 000. It is concluded that pantetheine phosphate adenylyltransferase and dephospho-CoA kinase exist as a bifunctional dimeric protein, which could be designated CoA synthetase.
Project description:Administration of a sublethal dose of lead acetate to rats induced the simultaneous synthesis of a Pb-metallothionein (Pb-MT)-like protein (Pb-BP) and Zn-thionein (Zn-BP) in the liver. The Pb-BP had an apparent molecule mass of 6900 Da and seemed to bind preferentially to lead in the liver cytosol. The Zn-BP was identified by comparison of the Mr, elution profiles from Sephadex G-75 and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 columns, and polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic mobility, with those of rat liver Zn-MT-II. The Pb-BP accumulated in the liver to a maximum 6 h after the intraperitoneal injection of lead acetate and accounted for about 60% of the lead in the liver cytosol at this stage. However, after that, it gradually decreased in the liver, until it was close to the basal amount 24 h after the induction. In contrast, the amount of Zn-MT increased gradually, reached a maximum 12 h after the administration of lead acetate and maintained a constant value until at least 24 h after the induction. Amino acid analysis of the Pb-BP indicated that it contained about 28% half-cysteine. These results strongly suggest that lead acetate induces the synthesis of Pb-MT as well as Zn-MT in rat liver.
Project description:BBP-II, the major biotin-binding protein from chicken oocytes, was purified 12,000-fold with a 22% yield. The purification procedure includes butan-1-ol extraction of yolk lipids, phosphocellulose chromatography of the water-soluble proteins, DEAE-cellulose chromatography at pH 7.4 and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. Final purification was obtained by using a second DEAE-cellulose column chromatography at pH 6.0. BBP-I activity separated from BBP-II activity during elution from the first DEAE-cellulose column. Purified BBP-II was homogeneous on both polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under conditions that would detect a 1% impurity. The subunit Mr determined from SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis was 18,200 (72,600 for tetramer), which compares favourably with an Mr value of 17,300 (69,100) calculated from the amino acid analysis. A single precipitin line formed when rabbit antiserum to the protein was directed against a crude chicken egg-yolk sample. BBP-II purified by this procedure lacked carbohydrate and phosphate, was stable indefinitely when frozen, and was quite stable at room temperature. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed polymorphism at three positions in the first 23 residues and was about 45% identical with the N-terminal 22 residues of avidin. Antiserum to BBP-II cross-reacted with BBP-I and similar proteins in the yolk of eggs from various birds and alligator as judged by immunodiffusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. No cross-reaction was observed with chicken egg-white by either of these methods.
Project description:An anti-epilepsy peptide (AEP) was isolated and purified from venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. The purification procedure included CM-Sephadex C-50 chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography. Its homogeneity was demonstrated by pH 4.3 polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, focusing electrophoresis and SDS/polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis. The Mr of this peptide, calculated from measurements in SDS/15%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel and SDS/20%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, is 8300. The isoelectric point is 8.52 by pH 8-9.5-range isoelectric focusing. No haemorrhagic or toxic activities were found. No toxicity was found even after the dose reached 28 mg/kg. The pharmacological tests showed that the AEP had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure or electrocardiogram, but strongly inhibited epilepsy induced by coriaria lactone and cephaloridine. The fluorescence spectrum showed that the peptide has a strong emission peak at 337 nm. Amino acid analysis suggested that the AEP is composed of 66 residues from 18 amino acids and has an Mr of 8290. The sequence of the first 50 N-terminal residues is as follows: Asp-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Arg-Gly-Ser-Asp-Asn-Cys-Lys-Val-Ser-Cys-Leu-Leu-Gly-Asn- Glu-Gly - Cys-Asn-Lys-Glu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Ala-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Tyr-Cys-Trp-Thr-Val- Lys-Leu - Ala-Gln-Asp-Cys-Glu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Asp-Thr-.
Project description:1. Purified stem bromelain (EC 18.104.22.168) was eluted from Sephadex G-100 as a single peak. The specific activity across the elution peak was approximately constant towards p-nitrophenyl hippurate but increased with elution volume with N(2)-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as substrate. 2. The apparent molecular weight, determined by elution analysis on Sephadex G-100, is 22500+/-1500, an anomalously low value. 3. Purified stem bromelain was eluted from CM-cellulose CM-32 as a single peak and behaved as a single species during column electrophoresis on Sephadex G-100. 4. Purified stem bromelain migrates as a single band during polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under a wide variety of conditions. 5. The molecular weight determined by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate is 28500+/-1000. 6. Sedimentation-velocity and equilibrium-ultracentrifugation experiments, under a variety of conditions, indicate that bromelain is an apparently homogeneous single peptide chain of mol.wt. 28400+/-1400. 7. The N-terminal amino acid composition is 0.64+/-0.04mol of valine and 0.36+/-0.04mol of alanine per mol of enzyme of mol.wt. 28500. (The amino acid recovery of the cyanate N-terminal amino acid analysis was standardized by inclusion of carbamoyl-norleucine at the cyclization stage.) 8. The pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters of the bromelain-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester was determined. 9. The magnitude and pH-dependence of the Michaelis parameters have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of the enzyme. 10. The enzyme is able to bind N-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-serine methyl ester relatively strongly but seems unable to make use of the binding energy to promote catalysis.
Project description:Alpha1-Antitrypsin was isolated from rabbit plasma by salting out with (NH4)2SO4 followed by ion-exchange chromatography either on DEAE-Sephadex or DEAE-cellulose (each at pH8.8 and 6.5), and affinity chromatography on Sepharose-Cibacron Blue and Sepharose-concanavalin A. The protein thus obtained was homogeneous during crossed immunoelectrophoresis by using an antiserum to whole rabbit plasma, but it migrated as two broad bands when electrophoresed in alkaline polyacrylamide gels. Under optimal loading conditions, two or three subcomponents could be distinguished in each band. The two major forms of rabbit alpha1-antitrypsin, designated components F and S, were separated by preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and some of their physico-chemical properties were established. Both forms reacted with trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:1. Their elution volumes from a Sephadex G-200 column were identical, corresponding to a mol.wt. of 58000; however, some heterogeneity was observed after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel in a pH 4-6 gradient revealed a multiple-band pattern for each form in the range of pH4.4-4.9. The two forms of rabbit alpha1-antitrypsin possessed the same N-terminal amino acid (glutamic acid) and had very similar amino acid and carbohydrate compositions.
Project description:An enzyme catalysing the O-methylation of isobutyraldoxime by S-adenosyl-L-methionine was isolated from Pseudomonas sp. N.C.I.B. 11652. The enzyme was purified 220-fold by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and chromatography on calcium phosphate gel. Homogeneity of the enzyme preparation was confirmed by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide gel and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed a narrow pH optimum at 10.25, required thiol-protecting agents for activity and was rapidly denatured at temperatures above 35 degrees C. The Km values for isobutyraldoxime and S-adenosyl-L-methionine were respectively 0.24 mM and 0.15 mM. Studies on substrate specificity indicated that attack was mainly restricted to oximes of C4-C6 aldehydes, with preference being shown for those with branching in the 2- or 3-position. Ketoximes were not substrates for the enzyme. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 gave an Mr of 84 000 for the intact enzyme, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated an Mr of 37 500, suggesting the presence of two subunits in the intact enzyme. S-Adenosylhomocysteine was a powerful competitive inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine, with a Ki of 0.027 mM. The enzyme was also susceptible to inhibition by thiol-blocking reagents and heavy-metal ions. Mg2+ was not required for maximum activity.
Project description:Fractionation of rat testicular cytosolic proteins by gel filtration indicates three major metal-binding proteins, or groups of proteins, termed testicular metal-binding protein (TMBP) 1, 2 and 3 by order of elution. The major heat-stable, metal-binding proteins in testes is TMBP-2, which has an Mr of approx. 25000. In most tissues, metallothionein (MT) is the major heat-stable, metal-binding protein, but it has an Mr of 6000. This testicular protein (TMBP-2) is much larger than MT, and since polymeric forms of MT have been previously reported, further characterization of TMBP-2 was performed. TMBP-2 was separated into two forms by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 anion-exchange chromatography. Amino acid analysis of both forms of TMBP-2 revealed that they differed markedly from MT, having particularly low cysteine contents. However, amino acid analysis showed that TBMP-2 was strikingly similar to TMBP-3, with an approximate stoichiometric relationship of 4:1. Therefore, experiments were conducted to determine if TMBP-3 could be a breakdown product of TMBP-2. Heat treatment of testicular cytosol in room air before gel filtration resulted in a marked increase in TMBP-3 and loss of TMBP-2. Storing intact testes at -20 degrees C for 2 weeks before processing for gel filtration also resulted in an increase in TMBP-3 and a loss of TMBP-2. Addition of a reducing agent (dithiothreitol) or proteinase inhibitor (N-ethylmaleimide) in processing of samples before gel filtration inhibited the appearance of TMBP-3. Results suggest that the low-Mr Cd-binding protein (TMBP-3) of rat testes results from either proteolytic or oxidative breakdown of a higher-Mr species, or from a combination of such factors.
Project description:A procedure for the purification of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase from Escherichia coli is described. Homogeneous enzyme of specific activity 17.7 units/mg was obtained in 22% yield. The key purification step involves substrate elution of the enzyme from a cellulose phosphate column. The subunit Mr was estimated to be 49 000 by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. The native Mr was estimated to be 55 000 by gel filtration, indicating that the enzyme is monomeric.
Project description:The plasminogen activator secreted by calcitonin-treated pig kidney cells was purified, characterized and compared with human urinary urokinase. The purification procedure was based on the following steps: sulphopropyl-Sephadex chromatography, p-aminobenzamidine-Sepharose chromatography, preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and isoelectrofocusing. The purified enzyme was obtained from the conditioned medium with a yield of 13% and a purification factor of 390-fold. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions showed one closely spaced doublet with an Mr of 50 000; in the presence of reducing agents, two additional bands of Mr 30 000 and 20 000 appeared. The purified enzyme resembles the 53 000-Mr components of human urinary urokinase in amino acid composition and two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps and in its catalytic properties, and the two enzymes cross-react immunologically with rabbit antibodies raised against either. The enzyme appears to be different from tissue plasminogen activator secreted by HeLa cells.