Purification of the Ca2+-and Mg2+-requiring ATPase from rat brain synaptic plasma membrane.
ABSTRACT: A Ca2+-ATPase (Ca2+- and Mg2+-requiring ATPase) was purified from a synaptic plasma-membrane fraction of rat brain. This enzyme had properties similar to those of plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPases from other organs: its splitting of ATP was dependent on both Ca2+ and Mg2+, it bound in a Ca2+-dependent fashion to calmodulin-Sepharose and it cross-reacted with specific antibodies raised against human erythrocyte-membrane Ca2+-ATPase. It had an apparent Mr of 138 000, similar to those of plasma-membrane ATPases from human erythrocyte and from dog heart sarcolemma. Previous high-Ca2+-affinity ATPases observed in brain had Mr 100 000; in at least one case, such an ATPase probably represented a different type of enzyme, derived from coated vesicles.
Project description:Solubilization of microsomal proteins followed by calmodulin affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of two distinct Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPases (Ca2+-regulated Mg2+-dependent ATPases), one being insensitive to calmodulin (ATPase-1), the other being stimulated about 5-fold by calmodulin (ATPase-2). ATPase-2 accounts for only 8% of total microsomal Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase-activity. ATPase-1 and -2 can also be distinguished by different pH optima, different sensitivity towards inhibition by vanadate and LaCl3, and different apparent Mr values of the phosphoenzyme intermediates (115,000 and 150,000 for ATPase-1 and ATPase-2 respectively). ATPase-1 from liver co-migrated with Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase from rat skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas ATPase-2 from liver co-migrated with calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase derived from rat skeletal-muscle sarcolemma. After separation of parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells, a calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase of Mr 150,000 was found only in the non-parenchymal cells. The kinetic parameters of ATPase-2 and the similarity of the apparent Mr of its phosphoenzyme intermediate to that of skeletal-muscle sarcolemma Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase makes it likely that the calmodulin-sensitive Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase found in rat liver microsomal fractions reflects a contamination with plasma membranes (possibly from non-parenchymal cells) rather than a true location in the endoplasmic reticulum of parenchymal liver cells.
Project description:Antibodies directed against the purified calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase [(Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase] from pig erythrocytes and from smooth muscle of pig stomach (antral part) were raised in rabbits. Both the IgGs against the erythrocyte (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase and against the smooth-muscle (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase inhibited the activity of the purified calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase from smooth muscle. Up to 85% of the total (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity in a preparation of KCl-extracted smooth-muscle membranes was inhibited by these antibodies. The (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity and the Ca2+ uptake in a plasma-membrane-enriched fraction from this smooth muscle were inhibited to the same extent, whereas in an endoplasmic-reticulum-enriched membrane fraction the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity was inhibited by only 25% and no effect was observed on the oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ uptake. This supports the hypothesis that, in pig stomach smooth muscle, two separate types of Ca2+-transport ATPase exist: a calmodulin-binding ATPase located in the plasma membrane and a calmodulin-independent one present in the endoplasmic reticulum. The antibodies did not affect the stimulation of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity by calmodulin.
Project description:A monoclonal antibody (2B3) directed against the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase from pig stomach smooth muscle was prepared. This antibody reacts with a 130,000-Mr protein that co-migrates on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with the calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase purified from smooth muscle by calmodulin affinity chromatography. The antibody causes partial inhibition of the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membranes from pig stomach smooth muscle, in pig erythrocytes and human erythrocytes. It appears to be directed against a specific functionally important site of the plasmalemmal Ca2+-transport ATPase and acts as a competitive inhibitor of ATP binding. Binding of the antibody does not change the Km of the ATPase for Ca2+ and its inhibitory effect is not altered by the presence of calmodulin. No inhibition of (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity or of the oxalate-stimulated Ca2+ uptake was observed in a pig smooth-muscle vesicle preparation enriched in endoplasmic reticulum. These results confirm the existence in smooth muscle of two different types of Ca2+-transport ATPase: a calmodulin-binding (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase located in the plasma membrane and a second one confined to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Project description:The gel-overlay technique with 125I-labelled calmodulin allowed the detection of several calmodulin-binding proteins of Mr 280 000, 150 000, 97 000, 56 000, 35 000 and 24 000 in canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. Only two calmodulin-binding proteins could be identified unambiguously. Among them, the 97 000-Mr protein that undergoes phosphorylation in the presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin, is likely to be glycogen phosphorylase. In contrast, the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase did not appear to bind calmodulin under our experimental conditions. The second known calmodulin target is dephosphophospholamban, which migrates with an apparent Mr of 24 000. The dimeric as well as the monomeric form of phospholamban was found to bind calmodulin. Phospholamban shifts the apparent Kd of erythrocyte (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-activated ATPase for calmodulin, suggesting thus a tight binding of calmodulin to the proteolipid. Interestingly enough, phospholamban phosphorylation by either the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase or the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phospholamban kinase was found to inhibit calmodulin binding.
Project description:High-affinity Ca(2+)-activated ATPases that do not show any demonstrable dependence on Mg2+ have been reported in the plasma membranes of different trypanosomatids, and it has been suggested [McLaughlin (1985) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 15, 189-201; Ghosh, Ray, Sarkar & Bhaduri (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11345-11351] that these enzymes may have a role in Ca2+ transport by the plasma membrane and in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ in these parasites. In this report we investigated Ca2+ transport by Trypanosoma cruzi plasma membrane vesicles using Arsenazo III as a Ca2+ indicator. These vesicles accumulated Ca2+ upon addition of ATP only when Mg2+ was present and released it in response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, but were insensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Ca2+ transport was insensitive to antimycin A, oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluorophenylhydrazone, ruling out any mitochondrial contamination. Staurosporine and phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on this activity, while low concentrations of vanadate (10 microM) completely inhibited it. In addition, we describe a high-affinity vanadate-sensitive (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase in the highly enriched plasma membrane fraction of T. cruzi. Kinetic studies indicated that the apparent Km for free Ca2+ was 0.3 microM. On the other hand, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Ca2+ transport were both stimulated by bovine brain calmodulin and by endogenous calmodulin purified from these cells. In addition, trifluoperazine and calmidazolium, at concentrations in the range in which they normally exert anti-calmodulin effects, inhibited the calmodulin-stimulated Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. These observations support the notion that a Mg(2+)-dependent plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is present in these parasites.
Project description:A membrane fraction enriched in endoplasmic reticulum was prepared from rat parotid glands by using sucrose-gradient centrifugation. The fraction showed a 10-fold increase in specific activity of NADPH: cytochrome c reductase activity over that of tissue homogenates and minimal contamination with plasma membranes or mitochondria. The endoplasmic reticulum fraction possessed both Mg2+ -stimulated ATPase as well as Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase [( Ca2+ + Mg2+)-stimulated ATPase]activity. The Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase required 2-5 mM-Mg2+ for optimal activity and was stimulated by submicromolar concentrations of free Ca2+. The Km for free Ca2+ was 0.55 microM and the average Vmax. was 60 nmol/min per mg of protein. The Km for ATP was 0.11 mM. Other nucleotides, such as GTP, CTP or ADP, could not substitute for ATP in supporting the Ca2+-activated nucleotidase activity. Increasing the K+ concentration from 0 to 100 mM caused a 2-fold activation of the Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase. Trifluoperazine, W7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulphonamide] and vanadate inhibited the enzyme. The concentration of trifluoperazine and vanadate required for 50% inhibition of the ATPase were 52 microM and 28 microM respectively. Calmodulin, cyclic AMP, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate had no effect on the ATPase. The properties of the Ca2+, Mg2+ -ATPase were distinct from those of the Mg2+-ATPase, but comparable with those reported for the parotid endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-transport system [Kanagasuntheram & Teo (1982) Biochem. J. 208, 789-794]. The results suggest that the Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase is responsible for driving the ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation by this membrane.
Project description:Preparations of enzymically dispersed rat pancreatic cells hydrolyse externally added nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates at high rates in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. The lack of response to specific inhibitors and activators differentiates this hydrolytic activity from that of other well-characterized ion-transporting ATPases. Studies based on inactivation of this hydrolytic activity by the covalently reacting, slowly permeating probe diazotized sulphanilic acid indicated that this nucleoside tri- and di-phosphatase is primarily a plasma-membrane ecto-enzyme. It is the major ATPase activity associated with intact cells, homogenates and isolated plasma-membrane fractions. Concanavalin A stimulates this ATPase activity of intact cells and isolated plasma-membrane fractions. The insensitivity of this ATPase activity to univalent ions and inhibitors of pancreatic electrolyte secretion, taken together with the evidence that the active site is externally located, suggests that this enzyme is not directly involved in HCO3- secretion in the pancreas. Its actual function remains unknown.
Project description:Ca2+-stimulated Mg2+-dependent ATPase (Ca2+ + Mg2+-ATPase) stimulated by calmodulin, by partial proteolysis or by oleic acid in erythrocyte membranes was inhibited by various derivatives of the naturally occurring alkaloid berbamine. The ability of these derivatives to inhibit trypsin-activated Ca2+ + Mg2+-ATPase correlated well with their ability to inhibit the calmodulin-stimulated enzyme. Inhibition of the trypsin-activated Ca2+ + Mg2+-ATPase by O-4-(ethoxybutyl)berbamine (EBB) was competitive with respect to ATP. The Ki for inhibition was about 8 microM. These results suggest that the binding site of EBB on the activated Ca2+ + Mg2+-ATPase may bear structural similarity to that on calmodulin, and may be closely related to the ATP-binding site on the enzyme.
Project description:The (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-dependent ATPase of human erythrocyte membranes was solubilized with deoxycholate and purified by calmodulin affinity chromatography to yield a functional enzyme. The method gave an enzyme purified 207-fold as compared with that of the erythrocyte membranes. The molecular weight of the ATPase was in the range 135 000-150 000, as revealed by a single major band after electrophoresis on dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gels. The isolated enzyme was highly sensitive to calmodulin, since the activity was increased about 9-fold. At 37 degrees C and in the presence of calmodulin the purified ATPase had a specific activity of 10.1 mumol/min per mg of protein. Triton X-100 or deoxycholate stimulated the calmodulin-deficient enzyme in a concentration-dependent fashion whereby the calmodulin-sensitivity was lost. The purification method is suitable for studying the lipid-sensitivity of the ATPase, since the lipids can easily be exchanged without a significant loss of activity. A purification procedure described by Niggli, Penniston & Carafoli [(1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 9955-9958] resulted in an enzyme that indeed was pure but was lacking a predominant feature, namely the modulation by calmodulin.
Project description:A membrane fraction isolated from lactating murine mammary tissue and enriched for the Golgi membrane marker enzyme galactosyltransferase exhibited Ca2+-stimulated ATPase activity (Ca-ATPase) in 20 microM-free Mg2+ and 10 microM-MgATP, with an apparent Km for Ca2+ of 0.8 microM. Exogenous calmodulin did not enhance Ca2+ stimulation, nor could Ca-ATPase activities be detected in millimolar total Mg2+ and ATP. When assayed with micromolar Mg2+ and MgATP the Ca-ATPases of skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and of calmodulin-enriched red blood cell plasma membranes were half-maximally activated by 0.1 microM- and 0.6 microM-Ca2+ respectively. All three Ca-ATPases were inhibited by similar micromolar concentrations of trifluoperazine, but the Golgi activity was unaffected by quercetin in concentrations which completely inhibited both the sarcoplasmic-reticulum and red-blood-cell enzymes. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the high-affinity Ca-ATPase is responsible for the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport exhibited by Golgi-enriched vesicles derived from lactating mammary gland [Neville, Selker, Semple & Watters (1981) J. Membr. Biol. 61, 97-105; West (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 673, 374-386].