Analysis and separation of natural and synthetic mixtures of uroporphyrins by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
ABSTRACT: A new method for the quantitative analysis of mixtures of the methyl esters of uroporphyrins I and III was developed; this can be applied both to the analysis of naturally occurring uroporphyrins and also to their semi-preparative isolation.
Project description:A reversed-phase gradient elution system is described for the simultaneous separation of the type I and type III isomers of 8-, 7-, 6-, 5- and 4-carboxylated porphyrins and isocoproporphyrins. The method, adaptable for isocratic and stepwise separation of individual groups of isomers, is also suitable for preparative isolation of pure porphyrins. The analyses of porphyrin isomers in the urine and faeces of porphyric patients are examples of applications.
Project description:The family of mycobactins from Mycobacterium smegmatis were resolved into seven fractions by high-pressure liquid chromatography. This separation was by virtue of the differences in length and character of the long acyl substituents as shown by g.l.c. of the methyl esters of the isolated fatty acids from the fractions. As t.l.c. could also resolve the individual mycobactin fractions, it too must rely on the same differences to effect separation. As the lengths of the acyl chains were modulated by the growth conditions, a specific range of acyl groups may not be needed for mycobactin to function. This technique provides a simple means of rapidly characterizing crude mycobactins from all mycobacteria.
Project description:A new strategy for the computer-assisted methods development in the reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separations of unknown sample mixtures has been developed using the latent spectral information in chromatogram raw data files of appropriately designed experiments, rather than resorting to elemental information functions (e.g., the number of peaks in chromatograms or similar criteria). The strategy developed allows unification of the approach for samples of both known and unknown composition and, thus, provide a general strategy for computer-aided tools in the chromatography laboratory. The operation principle of this strategy departs from extracting the spectra of components in the mixture chromatograms by resorting to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). This technique allows the estimation of the true spectra for the individual components except when they have identical spectra or are fully overlapped. Thus, a convenient experimental design will try to perform separations of the sample mixture having at least partial resolution of components in some runs. This will allow estimating the spectra of components and, then, assign these components to the peaks in each run chromatogram. In this way, a retention model can be built for each component so computerized optimization process can be developed to provide the chromatographer with the best possible separation programs. Following this approach, strategies for sample mixtures of known and unknown composition are only different in the need of an initial spectrum discovery process for unknown mixtures and therefore a real general approach for the computer-assisted LC methods development is now available for the first time.
Project description:Using optical microscopy, we have studied the phase behavior of mixtures of 12- to 22-bp-long nanoDNA oligomers. The mixtures are chosen such that only a fraction of the sample is composed of mutually complementary sequences, and hence the solutions are effectively mixtures of single-stranded and double-stranded (duplex) oligomers. When the concentrations are large enough, such mixtures phase-separate via the nucleation of duplex-rich liquid crystalline domains from an isotropic background rich in single strands. We find that the phase separation is approximately complete, thus corresponding to a spontaneous purification of duplexes from the single-strand oligos. We interpret this behavior as the combined result of the energy gain from the end-to-end stacking of duplexes and of depletion-type attractive interactions favoring the segregation of the more rigid duplexes from the flexible single strands. This form of spontaneous partitioning of complementary nDNA offers a route to purification of short duplex oligomers and, if in the presence of ligation, could provide a mode of positive feedback for the preferential synthesis of longer complementary oligomers, a mechanism of possible relevance in prebiotic environments.
Project description:Functionalized copolyimides continue to attract much attention as membrane materials because they can fulfill the demands for industrial applications. Thus not only good separation characteristics but also high temperature stability and chemical resistance are required. Furthermore, it is very important that membrane materials are resistant to plasticization since it has been shown that this phenomenon leads to a significant increase in permeability with a dramatic loss in selectivity. Plasticization effects occur with most polymer membranes at high CO? concentrations and pressures, respectively. Plasticization effects are also observed with higher hydrocarbons such as propylene, propane, aromatics or sulfur containing aromatics. Unfortunately, these components are present in mixtures of high commercial relevance and can be separated economically by single membrane units or hybrid processes where conventional separation units are combined with membrane-based processes. In this paper the advantages of carboxy group containing 6FDA (4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride) -copolyimides are discussed based on the experimental results for non cross-linked, ionically and covalently cross-linked membrane materials with respect to the separation of olefins/paraffins, e.g. propylene/propane, aromatic/aliphatic separation e.g. benzene/cyclohexane as well as high pressure gas separations, e.g. CO?/CH? mixtures. In addition, opportunities for implementing the membrane units in conventional separation processes are discussed.
Project description:Use of a single template-grown carbon nanotube as a separation column to separate attoliter volumes of binary mixtures of fluorescent dyes has been demonstrated. The cylindrical nanotube walls are used as stationary phase and the surface area is increased by growing smaller multi-walled carbon nanotubes within the larger nanotube column. Liquid-liquid extraction is performed to separate selectively soluble solutes in a solvent, and chromatographic separation is demonstrated using thin, long nanotubes coated inside with iron oxide nanoparticles. The setup is also used to determine the diffusion coefficient of a solute at the sub-micrometer scale. This study opens avenues for analytical chemistry in attoliter volumes of fluids for various applications and cellular analysis at the single cell level.
Project description:A reversed-phase h.p.l.c. system is described for the separation of all five naturally occurring pentacarboxylic porphyrinogen isomers. The compounds are detected electrochemically with high sensitivity. The peaks are positively identified by h.p.l.c. analysis of the pentacarboxylic porphyrinogens from reduction of pentacarboxylic porphyrins prepared by partial decarboxylation of hexa- and hepta-carboxylic porphyrin III of known structures. The resolution of pentacarboxylic porphyrinogens is superior to that of the porphyrins and the method is applicable to the small-scale preparative isolation of pure isomers.
Project description:Ribosomal proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were separated, on a preparative scale, by ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Proteins from the small and large ribosomal subunits were resolved, respectively, into 33 and 23 peaks, and most of the proteins present in these peaks were identified by using one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Several of the peaks appeared to contain a single protein uncontaminated by other species. Ribosomal proteins were also separated by using reverse-phase h.p.l.c. Analysis of the peaks resolved indicated that the order of elution for the proteins of both ribosomal subunits is, in certain cases, different for each of the two h.p.l.c. techniques used. Thus a combination of the two chromatographic methods employed here has the potential to facilitate the rapid and preparative separation of each of the proteins present in yeast ribosomes.
Project description:An effective method was developed for the preparative separation and purification of monoterpenoid indole alkaloid epimers from <i>Ervatamia yunnanensis</i> Tsiang using a combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. With this method, two pairs of MIA epimers including ervatamine (72 mg, <b>1</b>), 20-<i>epi</i>-ervatamine (27 mg, <b>4</b>), dregamine (95 mg, <b>2</b>), tabernaemontanine (129 mg, <b>3</b>), along with two MIAs, apparicine (112 mg, <b>5</b>) and isovoacangine (15 mg, <b>6</b>), were successfully purified from 2.1 g crude extract of <i>E. yunnanensis</i>, each with a purity of over 95% as determined by HPLC. The structures of the MIAs were identified by ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR.
Project description:Mass spectrometry has been coupled with flash liquid chromatography to yield new capabilities for isolating nonchromophoric material from complicated biological mixtures. A flash liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method enabled fraction collection of milk oligosaccharides from biological mixtures based on composition and structure. The method is compatible with traditional gas pressure-driven flow flash chromatography widely employed in organic chemistry laboratories. The online mass detector enabled real-time optimization of chromatographic parameters to favor separation of oligosaccharides that would otherwise be indistinguishable from coeluting components with a nonspecific detector. Unlike previously described preparative LC/MS techniques, we have employed a dynamic flow connection that permits any flow rate from the flash system to be delivered from 1 to 200 ml/min without affecting the ionization conditions of the mass spectrometer. A new way of packing large amounts of graphitized carbon allowed the enrichment and separation of milligram quantities of structurally heterogeneous mixtures of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMOs). Abundant saccharide components in milk, such as lactose and lacto-N-tetraose, were separated from the rarer and less abundant oligosaccharides that have greater structural diversity and biological functionality. Neutral and acidic HMOs and BMOs were largely separated and enriched with a dual binary solvent system.