Down regulation of Entamoeba histolytica virulence by monoxenic cultivation with Escherichia coli O55 is related to a decrease in expression of the light (35-kilodalton) subunit of the Gal/GalNAc lectin.
ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica virulence is related to a number of amebic components (lectins, cysteine proteinases, and amebapore) and host factors, such as intestinal bacterial flora. Trophozoites are selective in their interactions with bacteria, and the parasite recognition of glycoconjugates plays an important role in amebic virulence. Long-term monoxenic cultivation of pathogenic E. histolytica trophozoites, strains HK-9 or HM-1:IMSS, with Escherichia coli serotype O55, which binds strongly to the Gal/GalNAc amebic lectin, markedly reduced the trophozoites' adherence and cytopathic activity on cell monolayers of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Specific probes prepared from E. histolytica lectin genes as well as antibodies directed against the light (35-kDa) and heavy (170-kDa) subunits of the Gal/GalNAc lectin revealed a decrease in the transcription and expression of the light subunit in trophozoites grown monoxenically with E. coli O55. This effect was not observed when E. histolytica was grown with E. coli 346, a mannose-binding type I pilated bacteria. Our results suggest that the light subunit of the amebic lectin is involved in the modulation of parasite adherence and cytopathic activity.
Project description:Killing by Entamoeba histolytica requires parasite adherence to host galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-containing cell surface receptors. A 260-kDa heterodimeric E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin composed of heavy (Hgl) and light (Lgl) subunits has been previously described. Here we present the cloning and characterization of Igl, a 150-kDa intermediate subunit of the Gal/GalNAc lectin. Igl, Hgl, and Lgl colocalized on the surface membrane of trophozoites. Two unlinked copies of genes encoding Igl shared 81% amino acid sequence identity (GenBank accession no. AF337950 and AF337951). They encoded cysteine-rich proteins with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic signal sequences characteristic of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins. The igl genes lacked carbohydrate recognition domains but were members of a large family of amebic genes containing CXXC and CXC motifs. These data indicate that Igl is part of the parasite's multimolecular Gal/GalNAc adhesin required for host interaction.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica, the protist that causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess, has a truncated Asn-linked glycan (N-glycan) precursor composed of seven sugars (Man(5)GlcNAc(2)). Here, we show that glycoproteins with unmodified N-glycans are aggregated and capped on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites by the antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N and then replenished from large intracellular pools. Cyanovirin-N cocaps the Gal/GalNAc adherence lectin, as well as glycoproteins containing O-phosphodiester-linked glycans recognized by an anti-proteophosphoglycan monoclonal antibody. Cyanovirin-N inhibits phagocytosis by E. histolytica trophozoites of mucin-coated beads, a surrogate assay for amebic virulence. For technical reasons, we used the plant lectin concanavalin A rather than cyanovirin-N to enrich secreted and membrane proteins for mass spectrometric identification. E. histolytica glycoproteins with occupied N-glycan sites include Gal/GalNAc lectins, proteases, and 17 previously hypothetical proteins. The latter glycoproteins, as well as 50 previously hypothetical proteins enriched by concanavalin A, may be vaccine targets as they are abundant and unique. In summary, the antiretroviral lectin cyanovirin-N binds to well-known and novel targets on the surface of E. histolytica that are rapidly replenished from large intracellular pools.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes amoebiasis, including amebic dysentery and liver abscesses. E. histolytica invades host tissues by adhering onto cells and phagocytosing them depending on the adaptation and expression of pathogenic factors, including Gal/GalNAc lectin. We have previously reported that E. histolytica possesses multiple CXXC sequence motifs, with the intermediate subunit of Gal/GalNAc lectin (i.e., Igl) as a key factor affecting the amoeba's pathogenicity. The present work showed the effect of immunization with recombinant Igl on amebic liver abscess formation and the corresponding immunological properties.A prokaryotic expression system was used to prepare the full-length Igl and the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal fragments (C-Igl) of Igl. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenging hamsters with an intrahepatic injection of E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters intramuscularly immunized with full-length Igl and C-Igl were found to be 92% and 96% immune to liver abscess formation, respectively. Immune-response evaluation revealed that C-Igl can generate significant humoral immune responses, with high levels of antibodies in sera from immunized hamsters inhibiting 80% of trophozoites adherence to mammalian cells and inducing 80% more complement-mediated lysis of trophozoites compared with the control. C-Igl was further assessed for its cellular response by cytokine-gene qPCR analysis. The productions of IL-4 (8.4-fold) and IL-10 (2-fold) in the spleen cells of immunized hamsters were enhanced after in vitro stimulation. IL-4 expression was also supported by increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 gene.Immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggests the potential of recombinant Igl, especially the C-terminal fragment, as a vaccine candidate against amoebiasis. Moreover, protection through Th2-cell participation enabled effective humoral immunity against amebic liver abscesses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite of humans, produces dysenteric diarrhea, intestinal mucosa damage and extraintestinal infection. It has been proposed that the intestinal microbiota composition could be an important regulatory factor of amebic virulence and tissue invasion, particularly if pathogenic bacteria are present. Recent in vitro studies have shown that Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induced human colonic CaCo2 cells to synthesize TLR-2 and TLR-4 and proinflammatory cytokines after binding to the amebic Gal/GalNac lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The magnitude of the inflammatory response induced by trophozoites and the subsequent cell damage were synergized when cells had previously been exposed to pathogenic bacteria.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We show here that E. histolytica activation of the classic TLR pathway in CaCo2 cells is required to induce ? defensin-2 (HBD2) mRNA expression and production of a 5-kDa cationic peptide with similar properties to the antimicrobial HBD2 expressed by CaCo2 cells exposed to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The induced peptide showed capacity to permeabilize membranes of bacteria and live trophozoites. This activity was abrogated by inhibition of TLR2/4-NF?B pathway or by neutralization with an anti-HBD2 antibody.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites bind to human intestinal cells and induce expression of HBD2; an antimicrobial molecule with capacity to destroy pathogenic bacteria and trophozoites. HDB2's possible role as a modulator of the course of intestinal infections, particularly in mixed ameba/bacteria infections, is discussed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mixed intestinal infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and bacteria with exacerbated manifestations of disease are common in regions where amoebiasis is endemic. However, amoeba-bacteria interactions remain largely unexamined. METHODOLOGY: Trophozoites of E. histolytica and E. dispar were co-cultured with enteropathogenic bacteria strains Escherichia coli (EPEC), Shigella dysenteriae and a commensal Escherichia coli. Amoebae that phagocytosed bacteria were tested for a cytopathic effect on epithelial cell monolayers. Cysteine proteinase activity, adhesion and cell surface concentration of Gal/GalNAc lectin were analyzed in amoebae showing increased virulence. Structural and functional changes and induction of IL-8 expression were determined in epithelial cells before and after exposure to bacteria. Chemotaxis of amoebae and neutrophils to human IL-8 and conditioned culture media from epithelial cells exposed to bacteria was quantified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: E. histolytica digested phagocytosed bacteria, although S. dysenteriae retained 70% viability after ingestion. Phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria augmented the cytopathic effect of E. histolytica and increased expression of Gal/GalNAc lectin on the amoebic surface and increased cysteine proteinase activity. E. dispar remained avirulent. Adhesion of amoebae and damage to cells exposed to bacteria were increased. Additional increases were observed if amoebae had phagocytosed bacteria. Co-culture of epithelial cells with enteropathogenic bacteria disrupted monolayer permeability and induced expression of IL-8. Media from these co-cultures and human recombinant IL-8 were similarly chemotactic for neutrophils and E. histolytica. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial monolayers exposed to enteropathogenic bacteria become more susceptible to E. histolytica damage. At the same time, phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria by amoebae further increased epithelial cell damage. SIGNIFICANCE: The in vitro system presented here provides evidence that the Entamoeba/enteropathogenic bacteria interplay modulates epithelial cell responses to the pathogens. In mixed intestinal infections, where such interactions are possible, they could influence the outcome of disease. The results offer insights to continue research on this phenomenon.
Project description:A combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library was constructed from peripheral lymphocytes of an asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica cyst passer and screened for the production of Fab antibody to the parasite. One of the Fab clones, CP33, recognized the 260-kDa galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-specific lectin of E. histolytica. By shuffling the heavy and light chains of CP33 with the heavy and light chains of two libraries derived from the cyst passer and a liver abscess patient, 18 additional clones were obtained. Sequence analysis of the heavy-chain genes, including CP33-H, revealed that all the nearest V-segment germ lines belonged to the VH3 family (VH3-21, VH3-30, VH3-48, and VH3-53), but the levels of homology were only 85 to 95%. The closest D-segment germ line was D2-2 or D6-6, and for the J-segment the closest germ line was JH4b or JH6b. On the other hand, all the light-chain genes, including CP33-L, belonged to the V kappa 1 family, in which the closest V kappa germ line gene was 02/012 or L5, with the J kappa 1, J kappa 2, J kappa 4, or J kappa 5 segment. CP33 and three other Fabs obtained by light-chain shuffling were purified and analyzed further. All of these Fabs recognized the cysteine-rich domain of the 170-kDa heavy subunit of the Gal/GalNAc lectin. Preincubation of E. histolytica trophozoites with these Fabs significantly inhibited amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary cells and also inhibited erythrophagocytosis. The ability of the neutralizing antibodies to block erythrophagocytosis for the first time implicates the lectin in phagocytosis and VH3 antibodies in defense against parasitic infections. These results demonstrate the utility of a combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library for identifying and characterizing neutralizing antibodies from humans with amebiasis.
Project description:Galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) inhibitable lectin of Entamoeba histolytica, a common protozoan parasite, has roles in pathogenicity and induction of protective immunity in mouse models of amoebiasis. The lectin consists of heavy (Hgl), light (Lgl), and intermediate (Igl) subunits. Hgl has lectin activity and Lgl does not, but little is known about the activity of Igl. In this study, we assessed various regions of Igl for hemagglutinating activity using recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. We identified a weak hemagglutinating activity of the protein. Furthermore, we found novel hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the lectin, which resided in the carboxy-terminal region of the protein. Antibodies against Igl inhibited the hemolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. This is the first report showing hemagglutinating, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of an amoebic molecule, Igl.
Project description:The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica colonizes the human large bowel. Invasion of the intestinal epithelium causes amoebic colitis and opens the route for amoebic liver abscesses. The parasite relies on its dynamic actomyosin cytoskeleton and on surface adhesion molecules for dissemination in the human tissues. Here we show that the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) lectin clusters in focal structures localized in the region of E. histolytica that contacts monolayers of enterocytes. Disruption of myosin II activity impairs the formation of these structures and renders the trophozoites avirulent for liver abscess development. Production of the cytoplasmic domain of the E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin in engineered trophozoites causes reduced adhesion to enterocytes. Intraportal delivery of these parasites to the liver leads to the formation of a large number of small abscesses with disorganized morphology that are localized in the vicinity of blood vessels. The data support a model for invasion in which parasite motility is essential for establishment of infectious foci, while the adhesion to host cells modulates the distribution of trophozoites in the liver and their capacity to migrate in the hepatic tissue.
Project description:Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to colonic mucin, epithelium, and other target cells is mediated by the amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. We constructed in vitro expression vectors containing full-length (residues 1 to 1280), cysteine-poor (1 to 353 and 1 to 480), and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143 and 480 to 900) fragments of the gene encoding the heavy subunit of the adherence lectin, hgl2. In vitro transcription followed by translation using a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysate system was carried out. Immunoreactivity of in vitro-translated Hgl2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with lectin-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 1G7 and 8A3, which recognize linear epitopes. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) refolding of Hgl2 enhanced immunoreactivity (P < 0.05) with the conformationally dependent MAb 3F4. Binding of PDI-refolded full-length (P < 0.001) and cysteine-rich (P = 0.005) Hgl2 to CHO cells was galactose dependent and competitively inhibited by native hololectin (50% inhibitory concentration of 39.6 ng/ml). The cysteine-poor region (1 to 353) did not bind CHO cells. Both full-length (1 to 1280) and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143) Hgl2 bound the glyconeoconjugate GalNAc(19)BSA in a GalNAc-specific manner. The smaller cysteine-rich fragment (480 to 900) also exhibited GalNAc-specific binding but to a lesser extent (P < 0.05) than residues 1 to 1280 and 356 to 1143. Neither the cysteine-poor fragment (1 to 480), luciferase (protein control), nor control translation reactions (without hgl2 lectin mRNA) bound GalNAc(19)BSA. Binding to GalNAc(19)BSA was shown to be dependent on the concentration of GalNAc(19)BSA coated in each well or (35)S-lectin added (K(D) = 0.85 +/- 0.37 pM). Binding was competitively inhibited by the terminal GalNAc-containing glycoprotein asialofetuin (P < 0.005). Taken together, these data provide direct evidence that the cysteine-rich region of the Gal/GalNAc lectin heavy subunit contains one or more carbohydrate-binding domains.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica is a food- and waterborne parasite that causes amebic dysentery and amoebic liver abscesses. Adhesion is one of the most important virulence functions as it facilitates motility, colonization of host, destruction of host tissue, and uptake of nutrients by the parasite. The parasite cell surface adhesin, the Gal/GalNAc lectin, facilitates parasite-host interaction by binding to galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues on host components. It is composed of heavy (Hgl), intermediate (Igl), and light (Lgl) subunits. Igl is constitutively localized to lipid rafts (cholesterol-rich membrane domains), whereas Hgl and Lgl transiently associate with rafts. When all three subunits are localized to rafts, galactose-sensitive adhesion is enhanced. Thus, submembrane location may regulate the function of this adhesion. Rhomboid proteases are a conserved family of intramembrane proteases that also participate in the regulation of parasite-host interactions. In E. histolytica, one rhomboid protease, EhROM1, cleaves Hgl as a substrate, and knockdown of its expression inhibits parasite-host interactions. Since rhomboid proteases are found within membranes, it is not surprising that lipid composition regulates their activity and enzyme-substrate binding. Given the importance of the lipid environment for both rhomboid proteases and the Gal/GalNAc lectin, we sought to gain insight into the relationship between rhomboid proteases and submembrane location of the lectin in E. histolytica. We demonstrated that EhROM1, itself, is enriched in highly buoyant triton-insoluble membranes reminiscent of rafts. Reducing rhomboid protease activity, either pharmacologically or genetically, correlated with an enrichment of Hgl and Lgl in rafts. In a mutant cell line with reduced EhROM1 expression, there was also a significant augmentation of the level of all three Gal/GalNAc subunits on the cell surface and an increase in the molecular weight of Hgl and Lgl. Overall, the study provides insight into the molecular mechanisms governing parasite-host adhesion for this pathogen.