Hepatocyte differentiation in culture. Appearance of tyrosine aminotransferase.
ABSTRACT: Liver of rat foetuses from 14 to 19 days of gestation and cultured hepatocytes derived from foetuses of 14 or 15 days gestation show a limited capacity to transaminate tyrosine. This low tyrosine transamination activity can be ascribed to aspartate aminotransferase. Definitive tyrosine aminotransferase can be demonstrated in 1-day-old cultures of hepatocytes taken from 19-day foetuses, but not from 15-day foetuses. However, after 3 days of culture hepatocytes from 15-day foetuses are able to synthesize tyrosine aminotransferase. Induction studies reveal that dexamethasone is capable of increasing tyrosine aminotransferase activity once it is detectable in culture.
Project description:The glucocorticoid receptor activity that can be detected in the liver from 15-day foetal rats would appear to be associated with the haemopoietic cells. In hepatocytes, purified by culture for 1-2 days from 15-day foetal rats, the glucocorticoid receptor activity is low and dexamethasone does not induce the enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase. If culture is continued both receptor activity and steroid responsiveness are acquired. Cultured hepatocytes from 19-day foetal liver contain receptor from the first day of culture and, furthermore, the subsequent level of response to glucocorticoids is directly correlated with the actual receptor concentration. It would appear that the glucocorticoid receptor is not acquired by hepatocytes until after 18 days of gestation. Nevertheless, the fact that bromodeoxyuridine has no effect on the rate of accumulation of receptor in hepatocytes suggests that the differentiative event leading to the subsequent appearance of the receptor has already occurred before day 15 of gestation. However, the acquisition of the receptor would appear to be dependent on mitosis as cytosine arabinoside can inhibit the process.
Project description:A specific tyrosine aminotransferase, separate from the aspartate aminotransferases, is present in low concentration in foetal rat liver at the 21st day of gestation. Intraperitoneal injections of tyrosine methyl ester into the foetuses in utero increase the activity 2-fold, whereas glucose injections decrease it. Tyrosine, dexamethasone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP induce the enzyme activity in organ culture to the same extent as in adult rat liver in vivo.
Project description:1. The administration of glucagon, cAMP [adenosine 3',5'-(cyclic)-monophosphate], BcAMP [6-N-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-(cyclic)-monophosphate] or adrenaline to foetal rats during the last 2 days of gestation evoked the appearance of tyrosine aminotransferase and enhanced the accumulation of glucose 6-phosphatase in the liver. In foetuses 1-2 days younger only BcAMP was effective. After birth liver glucose 6-phosphatase no longer responds to glucagon or BcAMP. Tyrosine aminotransferase is still inducible by these agents in 2-day-old rats, but not in 50-day-old rats. After adrenalectomy of adults glucagon or BcAMP can enhance the induction of the enzyme by hydrocortisone. The results indicate that the ability to synthesize tyrosine aminotransferase and glucose 6-phosphatase when exposed to cAMP develops sooner than the ability to respond to glucagon with an increase in the concentration of cAMP; the responsiveness of enzymes to different hormones changes with age. A scheme illustrating the sequential development of competence in regulating the level of an enzyme is presented. 2. Actinomycin inhibited the effects of glucagon and BcAMP on liver tyrosine aminotransferase and glucose 6-phosphatase in foetal rats. Growth hormone, insulin and hydrocortisone did not enhance the formation of these enzymes. 3. The time-course of accumulation of glucose 6-phosphatase in the kidney is different from that in the liver. Hormones that increase the accumulation in foetal liver do not do so in the kidney of the same foetus or in the livers of postnatal rats.
Project description:1. The acquisition of dexamethasone-inducibility of tyrosine aminotransferase activity by hepatocytes cultured from 15-day-foetal rat liver is blocked in the presence of cytosine arabinoside. 2. Similar results are obtained in the presence of bormodeoxyuridine. 3. No effects on steroid-inducibility of tyrosine aminotransferase are obtained with either of the above compounds in hepatocytes cultured from 19-day-foetal liver. 4. the inhibitory effects of the agents are substantially reversed after their removal from the culture medium. 5. The effects of bromodeoxyuridine suggest that cell differentiation, with respect to tyrosine aminotransferase-inducibility, occurs in cultures of 15-day-doetal hepatocytes. 6. The effects of cytosine arabinoside suggest that such an event is dependent on mitosis.
Project description:1. Adrenaline increased hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity when injected into foetal rats or 2-day-old rats. 2. The inhibition of the postnatal increase in tyrosine aminotransferase activity which occurred in adrenalectomized newborn rats rapidly overcome by injection of adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. 3. The effects of adrenaline or dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the tyrosine aminotransferase activity in foetal, adrenalectomized newborn and 2-day-old rats could be partially or completely blocked by prior treatment with actinomycin D. 4. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induced tyrosine aminotransferase activity in hepatocytes cultured from 15-day foetal rats in glucocorticoid-free medium. 5. Actinomycin D at 0.2 microgram/ml in the culture medium completely prevented the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity by dibutyryl cyclic AMP in cultured cells. 6. The results suggest that adrenaline and cyclic AMP stimulate a transcriptional event during induction of tyrosine aminotransferase in perinatal liver.
Project description:In this study, the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into albumin and transferrin in early rat foetuses, vitelline plus amniotic membranes, chorioallantoic placenta and perinatal rat liver slices was measured and used to detect and compare the rates of synthesis of the two proteins. Albumin synthesis was detected in the body of foetuses from 13 days gestation onwards. Transferrin synthesis was detected only after day 15. Transferrin synthesis was demonstrable in the membranes but not in the chorioallantoic placenta of all the animals investigated, i.e. from 13 to 19 days gestation. Synthesis of albumin and transferrin by the liver of near-term and postnatal animals was shown to correlate with published data on the parenchymal cell number/unit wet wt. of liver. Near-term foetuses synthesized relatively more transferrin than albumin when compared with 10-day postnatal animals. The serum concentrations of the two plasma proteins were also determined. These increased before term whereas the rate of synthesis of albumin and transferrin declined. Postnatally, plasma albumin concentration increased but transferrin concentration decreased, yet the rates of synthesis of both proteins by the liver increased with age. This lack of correlation between the rates of synthesis of the two proteins and their respective plasma concentrations could be explained in part by their increased stability after birth. There was also evidence that the liver haemopoietic cells took up transferrin although they do not synthesize the protein. Thus the decrease in this population of cells during development could also contribute to the discrepancy between liver synthesis and serum concentrations of transferrin.
Project description:1. A precocious development of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity (EC 220.127.116.11) towards o-aminophenol is demonstrated in 15-17 day foetal rat liver in utero after dexamethasone administration to the mother. 2. This stimulation of liver transferase activity in utero is directly proportional to the dose of dexamethasone infected. 3. Precocious development of transferase activity in utero can also be effected with the natural glucocorticoid cortisol by multiple injections of large amounts of this hormone into the mother. 4. Transferase activity towards o-aminophenolin foetal lung, kidney and upper alimentary tract can also be precociously stimulated by dexamethasone in 17-day foetuses in utero. 5. Natural development of hepatic transferase activity between days 18 and 20 of gestation is retarded after foetal hypophysectomy by decapitation in utero. 6. Overall glucuronidation of o-aminophenol, as observed in foetal rat liver, is also precociously stimulated by dexamethasone. 7. From this and from evidence previously presented we suggest that glucocorticoids, which are known to increase in rat foetuses between days 17 and 20 of gestation, trigger the normal development in utero of hepatic transferase activity towards o-aminophenol which occurs at that time. We also suggest that these hormones are responsible for the rise in activity of the enzyme in foetal lung, kidney and upper alimentary tract which occurs during the same gestational period.
Project description:Oxfenicine [S-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)glycine] is transaminated in heart and liver to 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation shown in this study to act at the level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (EC 18.104.22.168). Oxfenicine was an effective inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation in heart, but not in liver. Tissue specificity of oxfenicine inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was due to greater oxfenicine transaminase activity in heart and to greater sensitivity of heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase I to inhibition by 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate [I50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 11 and 510 microM for the enzymes of heart and liver mitochondria, respectively]. Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase (isoenzyme I, EC 22.214.171.124) was responsible for the transamination of oxfenicine in heart. A positive correlation was found between the capacity of various tissues to transaminate oxfenicine and the known content of branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase in these tissues. Out of three observed liver oxfenicine aminotransferase activities, one may correspond to asparagine aminotransferase, but the major activity could not be identified by partial purification and characterization. As reported previously for malonyl-CoA inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate inhibition of this enzyme was found to be very pH-dependent. In striking contrast with the kinetics of malonyl-CoA inhibition, 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate inhibition was not affected by oleoyl-CoA concentration, but was partially reversed by increasing carnitine concentrations.
Project description:Indigenous preparations(IPs) for a male child is reported from some parts of India. The present study aims to explore the effects of IPs for sex selection or sex selection drugs (SSDs) on pregnancy outcomes in rat models. SSDs contain Bryonia laciniosa, Quercus infectoria and Putranjiva roxburghii along with other ingredients. Methods:An experimental design with successfully mated female rats were randomized into control and treatment groups. Phase 1 had 2 interventional arms while phase 2 had 3 interventional arms (12 rats/arm) besides control arm. In phase-1, pregnant females were dosed two SSDs(1000?mg/kg) on gestation days 1-5 whereas, in phase-2, on gestation days 6-19 to correlate the effect of the SSDs (500/1000/1500?mg/kg) consumption during different stages of pregnancy. Pregnant females were observed for clinical signs following treatment. The rats were sacrificed one day before expected day of delivery for evaluation. Pregnancy rate, gestation index, number of corpora lutea, and litter size were assessed. Foetuses were examined for sex, skeletal and soft tissue alterations. Discussion and conclusion:In phase 1, no appreciable findings were there with SSD exposure. In phase 2, intrauterine growth and survival of foetuses were affected when SSDs were administered during organogenesis period. Decreased number of live foetuses and increased incidence of early and late resorption, reduced fetal growth with significant alteration in skeleton and viscera were found in treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. This correlates well with findings from observational studies in pregnant women. However, such treatment at any dose did not effect sex differentiation.
Project description:By using an antiserum raised against rat liver tyrosine aminotransferase, it was shown that about 60% of tryptophan aminotransferase activity in rat liver extracts is catalysed by this enzyme. Induction of tryptophan aminotransferase activity by intraperitoneal injections of tryptophan or triamcinolone can be entirely attributed to the effects of these agents on tyrosine aminotransferase. The origin of the other 40% of tryptophan aminotransferase activity remains to be established. This activity increases after starvation for 48 h. It is unlikely that tryptophan transamination plays a quantitatively important role in the metabolism of tryptophan by the liver.