Chemical modification of the haem propionate of cytochrome c.
ABSTRACT: The significance of the exposed haem edge in cytochrome c was directly probed by chemically modifying the partially exposed haem propionate in the crevice region around residues threonine-78 and threonine-49. Reaction of tuna heart cytochrome c with a water-soluble carbodi-imide at pH 3.7 in the absence of any added nucleophilic base leads to the covalent addition of substituted N-acylureas to the protein at two sites. One site has been shown to be a haem propionate by isotope-tracer and i.r.-spectral analysis of haem purified from the apoprotein. The other site is aspartial acid-62 on the back of the molecule. The modified cytochrome c demonstrates abnormal properties, including auto-oxidizability, a reduction potential of + 105mV, a reversible transition to a high-spin species below pH 5.3, no 695 nm charge-transfer band in the ferric state and abnormal binding to mitochondrial membranes. The derivative does react with cytochrome oxidase in deoxycholate-treated submitochondrial particles or in purified preparations with a specific activity of 43-65% compared with that obtained with native cytochrome c. The results are consistent with the view that an intact haem crevice is essential for normal values for physiochemical characteristics, but the significant residual enzymic activity suggests that the electron-transfer interface and/or the cytochrome oxidase-binding site cannot be localized solely in the region of the exposed haem propionate.
Project description:The interaction between ferricytochrome c and cardiolipin was investigated by 1H n.m.r. at 270 MHz. From the phospholipid-induced changes of the protein spectral features it is concluded that the first 2 equivalents of cardiolipin cause a conformational change at the lower part of the solvent-exposed haem edge, involving a rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond interactions of propionate 6, thus partly accounting for the lowered redox potential of cytochrome c in the presence of cardiolipin. The increased value for the pK of the alkaline isomerization of ferricytochrome c shows that cardiolipin stabilizes the native structure of the protein, indicating that the oxidized form assumes ferrocytochrome c-like properties. Peroxidation of cardiolipin by superoxide radical ions drastically decreases the protein binding to this phospholipid. The implications of this finding, and the likelihood of the ternary cytochrome c-cardiolipin-cytochrome c oxidase complex, for the binding of cytochrome c to cytochrome c oxidase in vivo, are discussed in relation to peroxidative damage following ischaemia and reperfusion.
Project description:Cytochrome b5 of the body wall of adult Ascaris suum, a porcine parasitic nematode, is a soluble protein that lacks a C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain, but possesses an N-terminal pre-sequence of 30 amino acids. During the maturation of cytochrome b5, the N-terminal pre-sequence is proteolytically cleaved to form the mature protein of 82 amino acid residues. A. suum cytochrome b5 is a basic protein containing more lysine residues and exhibiting a higher midpoint redox potential than its mammalian counterparts. We developed an expression system for the production of the recombinant nematode cytochrome b5, which is chemically and functionally identical with the native protein. Using this recombinant protein, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of A. suum cytochrome b5 at 1.8 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution, and we have shown that this protein is involved in the reduction of nematode body-wall metmyoglobin. The crystal structure of A. suum cytochrome b5 consists of six alpha-helices and five beta-strands. It differs from its mammalian counterparts by having a head-to-tail disulphide bridge, as well as a four-residue insertion in the vicinity of the sixth ligating histidine, which forms an additional alpha-helix, alpha4A, between helices alpha4 and alpha5. A. suum cytochrome b5 exists predominantly as a haem-orientation B isomer. Furthermore, the haem plane is rotated approx. 80 degrees relative to the axis formed by haem-Fe and N atoms of the two histidine residues that are ligated to haem-Fe. The charge distribution around the haem crevice of A. suum cytochrome b5 is remarkably different from that of mammalian cytochrome b5 in that the nematode protein bears positively charged lysine residues surrounding the haem crevice. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that A. suum cytochrome b5 is present in the nematode hypodermis. Based on this histochemical and structural information, the physiological function of A. suum cytochrome b5 and its interaction with nematode metmyoglobin can be hypothesized.
Project description:A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization.
Project description:The gene coding for Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c-551 was expressed in Pseudomonas putida under aerobic conditions, using two different expression vectors; the more efficient proved to be pNM185, induced by m-toluate. Mature holo-(cytochrome c-551) was produced in high yield by this expression system, and was purified to homogeneity. Comparison of the recombinant wild-type protein with that purified from Ps. aeruginosa showed no differences in structural and functional properties. Trp56, an internal residue in cytochrome c-551, is located at hydrogen-bonding distance from haem propionate-17, together with Arg47. Ionization of propionate-17 was related to the observed pH-dependence of redox potential. The role of Trp56 in determining the redox properties of Ps. aeruginosa cytochrome c-551 was assessed by site-directed mutagenesis, by substitution with Tyr (W56Y) and Phe (W56F). The W56Y mutant is similar to the wild-type cytochrome. On the other hand, the W56F mutant, although similar to the wild-type protein in spectral properties and electron donation to azurin, is characterized by a weakening of the Fe-Met61 bond, as shown in the oxidized protein by the loss of the 695 nm band approx. 2 pH units below the wild-type. Moreover, in W56F, the midpoint potential and its pH-dependence are both different from the wild-type. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that hydrogen-bonding to haem propionate-17 is important in modulation of the redox properties of Ps. aeruginosa cytochrome c-551.
Project description:The alkaline transitions of tuna and horse ferricytochromes c and the trifluoroacetyl-lysine derivative of horse ferricytochrome c have been studied by Fourier-transform (FT) i.r. spectroscopy. The spectral perturbations resulting from the transition have been interpreted by reference to FT i.r. data on simple carboxylic-acid-containing compounds and a bacterial cytochrome c551 in which a haem propionate ionizes without causing a significant conformational change. The analysis strongly suggests that ionization of a haem propionate of mitochondrial cytochrome c triggers the alkaline conformation change.
Project description:The cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli is induced when the bacteria are cultured under microaerophilic or low-aeration conditions. This membrane-bound respiratory oxidase catalyses the two-electron oxidation of ubiquinol and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. The oxidase contains three haem prosthetic groups: haem b558, haem b595 and haem d. Haem d is the oxygen binding site, and it is likely that haem d and b595 form a bimetallic site in the enzyme. Haem b558 has been previously characterized spectroscopically as being low spin and has been shown to be located within subunit I (CydA) of this two-subunit enzyme. It is likely that haem b558 is associated with the quinol oxidation site, which has also been shown to be within subunit I. In a previous effort to locate the specific amino acids axially ligated to haem b558, all six histidines within subunit I were altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Only one, histidine-186, was identified as a likely ligand to haem b558. Hence it was suggested that haem b558 could not have bis(histidine) ligation. In the current work, a combination of low-temperature near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism (NIR-MCD) and EPR spectroscopies have been employed to identify the nature of the haem b558 axial ligands. The NIR-MCD spectrum at cryogenic temperatures is dominated by the low-spin haem b558 component of the complex, and the low-energy band near 1800 nm is strong evidence for histidine-methionine ligation. It is concluded that haem b558 is ligated to histidine-186 plus one of the methionines located within subunit I of the oxidase.
Project description:The reduction of cytochrome c oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) by dithionite was investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and flow-flash techniques in the presence of CO. Of the two haem groups present in the enzyme, that associated with cytochrome alpha is the first reduced. The second-order rate constants for reduction of a number of redox proteins (cytochrome c, stellacyanin and azurin) by the S2O4(2-) and SO2.- anions are reported, and the values are compared with those determined for cytochrome c oxidase. These results are discussed in terms of the accessibility and charge distribution of the electron-entry site of cytochrome c oxidase.
Project description:Horse heart and tuna heart cytochromes c were treated with the water-soluble carbodi-imide 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide. When the reaction is followed spectroscopically two kinetic phases are apparent. Alteration of the reactivity of the proteins with such ligands as CO, however, occurs in a single phase identical with the faster phase detected spectroscopically. The modified proteins both show spectroscopic and redox properties identical with those described for the tuna heart cytochrome c derivative by Timkovich [Biochem. J. (1980) 185, 47-57]. The use of radiolabelled carbodi-imide identifies two or three sites of reactivity. However, the addition of glycine methyl ester to the reaction mixture leads to the addition of nine glycine moieties in the case of the horse protein and seven in the case of the tuna protein, indicating a larger number of reactive sites than previously reported. A further set of reaction sites was identified by peptide mapping of the modified proteins, and these sites take part in intramolecular reactions leading to internal cross-linking and the formation of an enzymically indigestible 'core particle'. The haem group was identified as a site of reaction with the carbodi-imide, and is as a consequence covalently linked to the peptide by a bond in addition to the thioether bonds normally present. In the light of these findings, the alterations in the properties of the tuna protein, subsequent to reaction with the carbodi-imide, which have been previously explained in structural terms, must be re-evaluated. This study also highlights the importance of internal cross-link formation, which can occur by intramolecular nucleophilic attack, a process that has often been overlooked by investigators employing carbodi-imide modification of carboxylate groups in proteins.
Project description:We have confirmed the propensity of fragments of cytochrome c to form complexes that reproduce the structure and, in part, the functionality, of the native protein by preparing four novel complexes. We have used trypsin under three different sets of conditions in sequence to prepare a contiguous two-fragment complex (1-55).(56-104). One of the intermediates is a stable overlapping complex (1-65).(56-104). Conditions for limited acid hydrolysis of peptide bonds in cytochrome c have been developed that optimize the yield of fragments (1-50) and (51-104). These two fragments also form a stable association, as do (1-50) and (56-104). These complexes are potentially useful for the semisynthesis of analogues modified in the region of the cleavage sites, which include a number of highly conserved amino acid residues, and are being used for studies of protein folding, interactions with oxidase, cytochrome c immunogenicity and of artificially induced spontaneous resyntheses between complexing fragments. Like other known two-fragment complexes of cytochrome c, they exhibit normal visible spectra, including the presence of the 695 nm band, indicative of a functional haem crevice. Studies of their biological activities and redox potentials lead to a number of conclusions on structure-function relationships in cytochrome c. Most significantly there is a linear relationship between the logarithm of electron-transfer rates from cytochrome c reductase and redox potential in this series of analogues, indicating that such transfer is thermodynamically controlled. This discovery contributes to our understanding of the interaction of cytochrome and reductase. Since the relationship is obeyed by other types of analogues, except for those that involve modification of the active site of cytochrome c, we have a useful diagnostic for those residues that participate directly in electron transfer.
Project description:The binding of (+)-camphor to cytochrome P450cam (P450cam) expels a cluster of waters at the active site, raising the redox potential of the haem to an extent that allows reduction by the electron-transfer system. This binding was reported to involve no significant structural changes in the protein. Here, two ferric P450cam structures partially complexed with (+)-camphor were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.30-1.35 A resolution, revealing the structures of the substrate-free and substrate-bound forms. (+)-Camphor binding induces rotation of Thr101 to form a hydrogen bond that acts as a hydrogen donor to a peripheral haem propionate. This bonding contributes to the redox-potential change.