Metabolism of glucose in hyper- and hypo-thyroid rats in vivo. Minor role of endogenous insulin in thyroid-dependent changes in glucose turnover.
ABSTRACT: 1. Rates and rate coefficients of glucose utilization and replacement (glucose turnover) as well as its recycling were determined in rats by using [U-14C]- and [2-3H]-, [3-3H]- or [6-3H]-glucose. 2. In euthyroid rats, the blood concentration of glucose was 1.5 times and its turnover rate was 2 times as high in the fed state as in the starved state; consequently the rate coefficient, a measure of the capacity of rats to utilize blood glucose, was also higher in the former than in the latter. 3. Induction of mild diabetes by streptozotocin exerted little influence on the content and turnover of blood glucose in the starved state, whereas it caused hyperglycaemia and a decrease in the rate coefficient after feeding. 4. Induction of hyperthyroidism caused increases in rates and rate coefficients of glucose turnover to substantially the same extent whether or not the plasma concentration of insulin was lowered by treatment with streptozotocin or injection with anti-insulin serum. 5. It is concluded that thyroid hormones are capable of enhancing glucose turnover in the starved state independently of endogenous insulin, which plays a significant role in increasing glucose utilization in the fed state.
Project description:1. In euthyroid rats, treatment with reserpine of 6-hydroxydopamine, which deprived neuronal terminals of catecholamines, resulted in increases in rates and rate coefficients for blood glucose turnover in the starved states as determined by decay of [U-14C,6-3H]-glucose. Conversely, the injection of adrenaline or noradrenaline into starved euthyroid rats caused a marked decrease in rate coeeficients for glucose turnover. There was no change in the percentage glucose recycling under these conditions. 2. Adrenaline and noradrenaline caused more pronounced hyperglycaemia in hyperthyroid than in euthyroid rats owing to the greater activation of hepatic glucose production. 3. The increase in glucose turnover characteristics of hyperthyroidism was observed even after treatment with an alpha- or beta-adrenergic antagonist, showing the insignificant role of the balance between alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the thyroid-dependent metabolic changes. 4. Rate coefficients for glucose turnover were not affected by reserpine treatment or catecholamine injections when rats had been rendered hyperthyroid. 5. Thus catecholamines are direct determinants of glucose-turnover rates in the starved state, and depend to some extent on the prevailing thyroid state.
Project description:A gastric [U-14C]glucose load (4.8 mg/g body wt.) was delivered to unrestrained post-absorptive or 30 h-starved rats bearing peripheral and portal vein catheters and continuously perfused with [3-3H]glucose, in order to compare their metabolic and hormonal responses. In the basal state, portal and peripheral glycaemia were less in starved rats than in rats in the post-absorptive period (P less than 0.01), whereas blood lactate was similar. Portal insulinaemia (P less than 0.05) and protal glucagonaemia (P less than 0.005) were lower in starved rats, but insulin/glucagon ratio was higher in post-absorptive rats (P less than 0.005). The glucose turnover rate was decreased by starvation (P less than 0.005). After glucose ingestion, blood glucose was similar in post-absorptive and starved rats. A large portoperipheral gradient of lactate appeared in starved rats. Portal insulinaemia reached a peak at 9 min, and was respectively 454 +/- 68 and 740 +/- 65 mu-units/ml in starved and post-absorptive rats. Portal glucagonaemia remained stable, but was higher in post-absorptive rats (P less than 0.05). At 60 min after the gastric glucose load, 30% of the glucose was delivered at the periphery in both groups. The total glucose appearance rate was higher in starved rats (P less than 0.05), as was the glucose utilization rate (P less than 0.05), whereas the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose was similar. This was due to a non-suppressed hepatic glucose production in the starved rats, whereas it was totally suppressed in post-absorptive rats. At 1 h after the glucose load, the increase in both liver and muscle glycogen concentration was greater in starved rats. Thus short-term fasting induces an increased portal lactate concentration after a glucose load, and produces a state of liver insulin unresponsiveness for glucose production, whereas the sensitivity of peripheral tissues for glucose utilization is unchanged or even increased. This might allow preferential replenishment of the peripheral stores of glycogen.
Project description:1. Rates and rate coefficients of glucose utilization and replacement in post-absorptive rats, either conscious or under halothane anaesthesia, were determined in a thermoneutral environment by using [5-3H]- and [U-14C]glucose. Label was not injected into rats under halothane until about 0.5h after anaesthesia was initiated. 2. Comparison with the results for 24h-starved rats in the preceding paper [Heath et al. (1977) Biochem. J. 162, 643-651] showed that insulin concentrations were considerably higher but rate coefficients for glucose utilization were little altered in post-absorptive rats. Sensitivity to insulin was thus considerably increased by a 24h period of starvation in the rat. 3. Fractional recycling of glucose carbon in post-absorptive rats was under one-half of that in starved rats, reflecting the larger contribution of liver glycogenolysis to glucose production in the former. 4. In post-absorptive rats halothane decreased the mean rate of glucose utilization by about 17%. This decrease was associated with an increase in mean plasma insulin concentration, showing that halothane decreased sensitivity to insulin. 5. Recycling was slightly increased by halothane, indicating that the contribution of liver glycogen to the total glucogenic rate was decreased, probably because liver glycogen concentration were about 40% lower throughout the rate determinations in halothane. 6. Comparison of our results with earlier work shows that during and shortly after induction of halothane anaesthesia glucose turnover must have been greatly increased whereas from about 0.5h after induction it was decreased.
Project description:1. A trace amount of glucose labelled with 14C uniformly and with 3H at position 2, 3 or 6 was injected intravenously into starved rats to measure the turnover rate of blood glucose. 2. Reliable estimates were made based on the semilogarithmic plot of specific radioactivity of the glucose contained in whole blood samples taken from the tail vein. 3. Glucose turned over more rapidly in hyperthyroid and more slowly in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. The percentage contribution of glucose recycling (determined from the difference in replacement rates between [U-14C]glucose and [6-3H]glucose) to the glucose utilization increased on induction of hyperthyroidism. 4. Futile cycles between glucose and glucose 6-phosphate (determined from the difference between replacement rates of [2-3H]glucose and [6-3H]glucose) were activated and inactivated by induction of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid states respectively. 5. The hepatic content of glycogen was much lower in hyper- and hypo-thyroid than in euthyroid rats. The enhanced glucose production in hyperthyroid rats resulted from not only activationof hepatic gluconeogenesis but also diversion of the final product of gluconeogenesis from liver glycogen to blood glucose. In hypothyroidism, the inhibition of gluconeogensis led to suppression of both glucose production and glycogenesis in the liver.
Project description:1. Rates and rate coefficients of glucose utilization and replacement were determined with [5-3H]- and [U-14C]-glucose in rats starved for 24h, either conscious or under halothane anaesthesia, in a thermoneutral environment. Plasma insulin concentrations were also measured. 2. Halothane anaesthesia decreased the turnover rate by 20%, which was similar to previously reported decreases in metabolic rates caused by natural sleep. 3. Fractional recycling of glucose carbon was little affected by halothane. 4. Comparison of values in one rat with those in another, among both conscious rats and those under halothane anaesthesia, showed that rate coefficients were inversely correlated with plasma glucose concentrations. 5. These findings indicated that halothane, in the concentration used (1.25%, v/v), had little specific effect on glucose metabolism. 6. Although equilibrium plasma glucose concentrations in different rats under halothane were widely different (4-8 mmol/l) the rates of utilization were very similar (2.5-3.1 micronmol/min per 100 g), indicating that these rates were determined by the production of glucose from gluconeogenic precursors released by basal metabolism, the rate of which is necessarily similar in different rats. 7. Among rats under halothane anaesthesia plasma insulin concentrations were negatively correlated with rate coefficients, showing that the differences between rate coefficients were mostly accounted for by differences between rats in tissue sensitivities to insulin. Thus in each 24h-starved rat, sleeping or resting, the main regulators of the plasma glucose concentrations were the rate of supply of gluconeogenic substrates from energy metabolism and the intrinsic sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. 8. We found that a commonly used deionization method of purifying glucose for determination of its specific radioactivity was inadequate.
Project description:1. The effects of intragastric glucose feeding and L-tri-iodothyronine (T3) administration on rates of hepatic and brown-fat lipogenesis in vivo were examined in fed and 48 h-starved rats. 2. T3 treatment increased hepatic lipogenesis in the fed but not the starved animals. Brown-fat lipogenesis was unaffected or slightly decreased by T3 treatment of fed or starved rats. 3. Intragastric glucose feeding increased hepatic lipogenesis in control or T3-treated fed rats, but did not increase hepatic lipogenesis in starved control rats. Glucose feeding increased hepatic lipogenesis if the starved rats were treated with T3. Glucose feeding increased rates of brown-fat lipogenesis in all experimental groups. The effects of glucose feeding on liver and brown-fat lipogenesis were mimicked by insulin injection. 4. The increase in hepatic lipogenesis in T3-treated 48 h-starved rats after intragastric glucose feeding was prevented by short-term insulin deficiency, but not by (-)-hydroxycitrate, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase. The increase in lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue in response to glucose feeding was inhibited by both short-term insulin deficiency and (-)-hydroxycitrate. 5. The results tend to preclude pyruvate kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase as the sites of interaction of insulin and T3 in the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis in 48 h-starved rats. Other potential sites of interaction are discussed.
Project description:The turnover of 3-methylhistidine (N tau-methylhistidine) and in some cases actin, myosin heavy chain and aldolase in skeletal muscle was measured in a number of experiments in growing and adult rats in the fed and overnight-starved states. In growing fed rats in three separate experiments, measurements of the methylation rate of protein-bound 3-methylhistidine by either [14C]- or [3H]-methyl-labelled S-adenosylmethionine show that 3-methylhistidine synthesis is slower than the overall rate of protein synthesis indicated by [14C]tyrosine incorporation. Values ranged from 36 to 51%. However, in one experiment with rapidly growing young fed rats, acute measurements over 1 h showed that 3-methylhistidine synthesis could be increased to the same rate as the overall rate. After overnight starvation in these rats, the steady-state synthesis rate of 3-methylhistidine was 38.8% of the overall rate. This was a similar value to that in adult non-growing rats, in which measurements of the relative labelling of 3-methylhistidine and histidine after a single injection of [14C]histidine indicated that 3-methylhistidine synthesis was 37% of the overall rate in the fed or overnight-starved state. According to measurements of actin, myosin heavy-chain and aldolase synthesis in the over-night-starved state with young rats, with a variety of precursors, slow turnover of 3-methylhistidine results from the specific slow turnover of actin, since turnover rates of myosin heavy chain, mixed protein and aldolase were 2.5, 3 and 3.4 times faster respectively. However, in the fed state synthesis rates of actin were increased disproportionately to give similar rates for all proteins. These results show that (a) 3-methylhistidine turnover in muscle is less than half the overall rate in both young and adult rats, (b) slow 3-methylhistidine turnover reflects the specifically slow turnover of actin compared with myosin heavy chain and other muscle proteins, and (c) during growth the synthesis rate of actin is particularly sensitive to the nutritional state and can be increased to a similar rate to that of other proteins.
Project description:1. Measurements of arteriovenous differences across mammary glands of normal and starved lactating rats, and lactating rats made short-term insulin-deficient with streptozotocin or prolactin-deficient with bromocryptine, showed that only in the starved animals was there a significant decrease in glucose uptake. This decrease was accompanied by release of lactate and pyruvate from the gland, in contrast with the uptake of these metabolites by glands of normal lactating rats. 2. There were no marked differences in metabolite concentrations in freeze-clamped glands in the four conditions studied, apart from a decrease in [lactate] and [pyruvate] and an increase in [glucose] in the glands of the streptozotocin-treated group. 3. Acini isolated from the glands of starved, insulin or prolactin-deficient rats had a higher production of lactate and pyruvate from glucose than did glands from normal rats; this is in agreement with the reported decrease in the proportion of active pyruvate dehydrogenase in these situations [Field & Coore (1976) Biochem. J.156, 333-337; Kankel & Reinauer (1976) Diabetologia12, 149-154]. 4. Addition of insulin did not increase the uptake of glucose by acini from normal glands, but it caused a significant increase in the utilization of glucose by acini from glands of starved rats. Insulin did not decrease the accumulation of lactate and pyruvate in any of the experiments. 5. It is concluded that isolated acini represent a suitable model for the study of mammary-gland carbohydrate metabolism in that they reflect metabolism of the gland in vivo.
Project description:L-[U-14C]Threonine was infused at a steady rate to non-anaesthetized rats starved for 1 or 3 days and to diabetic rats starved for 1 day. The rates of turnover of threonine, calculated from the equilibrium specific radioactivity (SA) of plasma threonine, were 5.79 +/- 1.00, 11.67 +/- 1.43 and 13.35 +/- 1.85 mumol/min per kg body wt. in 1-day-starved, 3-day-starved and diabetic rats respectively. The calculated turnover rate of threonine agreed well with the rate expected from the rate of protein turnover reported in the literature. The equilibrium SA of plasma alanine was 5.1-9.8% of that of threonine in the three groups of rats. The equilibrium SA of glucose was 1.42 and 2.90% of that of threonine in 1-day- and 3-day-starved rats respectively. From the non-equilibrium SA of glucose, it is estimated that a higher percentage of 14C atoms is transferred from threonine to glucose in diabetic than in non-diabetic rats. In spite of increases in gluconeogenesis from threonine in long-starved or diabetic rats, we conclude that threonine remains a minor contributor to plasma glucose. Since it is an essential amino acid, its turnover and contribution to the formation of plasma glucose is an index of catabolism and gluconeogenesis from tissue protein.
Project description:1. Sodium acetoacetate was infused into the inferior vena cava of fed rats, 48h-starved rats, and fed streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with insulin. Arterial blood was obtained from a femoral artery catheter. 2. Acetoacetate infusion caused a fall in blood glucose concentration in fed rats from 6.16 to 5.11mm in 1h, whereas no change occurred in starved or fed-diabetic rats. 3. Plasma free fatty acids decreased within 10min, from 0.82 to 0.64mequiv./l in fed rats, 1.16 to 0.79mequiv./l in starved rats and 0.83 to 0.65mequiv./l in fed-diabetic rats. 4. At 10min the plasma concentration rose from 20 to 49.9muunits/ml in fed unanaesthetized rats and from 6.4 to 18.5muunits/ml in starved rats. There was no change in insulin concentration in the diabetic rats. 5. Nembutal-anaesthetized fed rats had a more marked increase in plasma insulin concentration, from 30 to 101muunits/ml within 10min. 6. A fall in blood glucose concentration in fed rats and a decrease in free fatty acids in both fed and starved rats is to be expected as a consequence of the increase in plasma insulin. 7. The fall in the concentration of free fatty acids in diabetic rats may be due to a direct effect of ketone bodies on adipose tissue. A similar effect on free fatty acids could also be operative in normal fed or starved rats.