The distribution of iron between the metal-binding sites of transferrin human serum.
ABSTRACT: The Makey & Seal [(1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 453, 250--256] method of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in buffer containing 6 M-urea was used to determine the distribution of iron between the N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding sites of transferrin in human serum. In fresh serum the two sites are unequally occupied; there is preferential occupation of the N-terminal site. On incubation of the serum at 37 degrees C the preference of iron for the N-terminal site becomes more marked. On storage of serum at -15 degrees C the iron distribution changes so that there is a marked preference for the C-terminal site. Dialysis of serum against buffer at pH 7.4 also causes iron to be bound much more strongly by the C-terminal than by the N-terminal site. The original preference for the N-terminal site can be resroted to the dialysed serum by addition of the diffusible fraction.
Project description:1. The distribution of iron between the two iron-binding sites in partially saturated ovotransferrin was studied by labelling with 55Fe and 59Fe and by gel electrophoresis in a urea-containing buffer. 2. When iron is added in the form of chelate complexes at alkaline pH, binding occurs preferentially at the N-terminal binding site. In acid, binding occurs preferentially at the C-terminal site. 3. When simple iron donors (ferric and ferrous salts) are used the metal is distributed at random between the binding sites, as judged by the gel-electrophoresis method. The double-isotope method shows a preference of ferrous salts for the N-terminal site. 4. Quantitative treatment of the results of double-isotope labelling suggests that in the binding of iron to ovotransferrin at alkaline pH co-operative interactions between the sites occur. These interactions are apparently absent in the displacement of copper and in the binding of iron at acid pH.
Project description:1. Spermine and spermidine were the main polyamines detectable in Bacillus stearothermophilus. 2. When grown at 65 degrees B. stearothermophilus contained lower concentrations of polyamines per mg. of RNA than when grown at 45 degrees or at 55 degrees . 3. Ribosomes isolated from B. stearothermophilus in 0.01m-tris-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH7.4)-0.01m-magnesium chloride contained sufficient polyamines to neutralize between 4% and 9% of their RNA phosphorus. 4. Removal of polyamines from the ribosomes by dialysis against m-potassium chloride did not appreciably alter the hypochromicity or thermal denaturation profiles of the ribosomes when measured in 0.01m-tris-hydrochloric acid buffer (pH7.4)-0.01m-magnesium chloride, though it did cause a loss of ribosome particles sedimenting at greater than 78s. 5. When ribosomes were dialysed against acridine orange solutions acridine orange bound to the ribosomes and did not displace spermine, but when a mixture of ribosomal RNA and spermine was dialysed against acridine orange the acridine orange displaced the spermine. It is concluded that polyamines in the ribosomes are less accessible for displacement by acridine orange than when polyamines are bound to ribosomal RNA.
Project description:When rat liver homogenate or its postmitochondrial supernatant was incubated with L-cysteine, but not D-cysteine, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) lost more than half of its catalytic activity within 30 min and, at a slower rate, its immunoreactivity. The inactivation correlated with production of H2S during the incubation. These changes did not occur in liver homogenates from vitamin B6-deficient rats. A heat-stable inactivating factor was found in both dialysed cytosol and washed microsomes obtained from the postmitochondrial supernatant incubated with cysteine. The microsomal inactivating factor was solubilized into Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.4, containing dithiothreitol. Its absorption spectrum in the visible region resembled that of Fe2+ X dithiothreitol in Tris/HCl buffer. On the other hand FeSO4 inactivated partially purified ODC in a similar manner to the present inactivating factor. During the incubation of postmitochondrial supernatant with cysteine, there was a marked increase in the contents of Fe2+ loosely bound to cytosolic and microsomal macromolecules. Furthermore, the content of such reactive iron in the inactivating factor preparations was enough to account for their inactivating activity. These data suggested that H2S produced from cysteine by some vitamin B6-dependent enzyme(s) converted cytosolic and microsomal iron into a reactive loosely bound form that inactivated ODC.
Project description:1. Purified caeruloplasmin was shown to inhibit lipid autoxidation induced by ascorbic acid or inorganic iron in the following systems: (a) an emulsion of linolenic acid in water; (b) an untreated ox brain homogenate in phosphate buffer; (c) a similar homogenate whose susceptibility to autoxidation had been abolished by dialysis or by heating and then restored by the above pro-oxidants. 2. The optimum conditions for this antioxidant activity were studied. 3. Caeruloplasmin did not inhibit autoxidation by u.v. irradiation in dialysed or preheated homogenates. 4. The apoprotein (without copper) had no antioxidant activity, whereas CuSO4 alone was much less effective as an antioxidant. 5. Iron-free transferrin also had some antioxidant activity.
Project description:1. Whole blood was incubated at 37 degrees , while being dialysed against a large volume of iso-osmotic bicarbonate buffer, pH7.4. The buffer contained glucose and the essential inorganic components of blood plasma in proportion. 2. After 3hr. of incubation in vitro there is a loss of red-cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. 3. Isotope experiments show that this is due to an accelerated rate of destruction of this compound. 4. Simultaneously, there is an increase in the median of red-cell osmotic fragility. 5. After extended periods of incubation there is a decrease in the metabolic rate and a decrease in the ratio of the rates of lactate production to glucose consumption. 6. There is a continuous loss of total adenine nucleotide and, after the first 12hr. of incubation, a tendency for the intracellular Na(+) and K(+) to equilibrate with the plasma. 7. The standard deviation of red-cell osmotic fragility expressed among the red-cell population increases exponentially with the time of incubation.
Project description:1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.
Project description:We have investigated the effect in solution of synthetic carrier ampholytes on the saturation of human serum transferrin. By spectrophotometric titrations of human serum transferrin with various Fe3+-carrier ampholyte solutions, we demonstrated that under these conditions carrier ampholytes behave as typical chelators, their binding curves being very similar to that obtained with disodium nitrilotriacetate. On performing titration experiments at three different pH values, carrier ampholytes act like nitrilotriacetate at pH 7.5, but the former are more effective iron donors at pH 8.4 and worse iron donors at pH 5.2. Spectrophotometric titrations of isolated C-terminal and N-terminal fragments obtained from human serum transferrin by thermolysin cleavage show no differences between them, and no differences with respect to the whole protein except that they contain half the number of binding sites. In order to determine a site-specificity of iron in the presence of ampholytes, the classical urea/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis technique was adopted. Under saturating conditions carrier ampholyte solutions act mostly on the C-terminal site, whereas desaturating agents remove iron preferentially from the N-terminal site. Our findings support the hypothesis that Ampholine may chelate Fe3+ as well as many other compounds.
Project description:The aim of the present study was morphological and histochemical analysis of the lacrimalgland (LG) in African black ostrich Struthio camelus domesticus in the embryonic and postnatalperiod. Studies were conducted on 50 ostriches aged between the 28th day of incubation until7 months old. Tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Azan trichrome,periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialysed iron. The LGin ostrich was classified as a tubulo-acinar type. The primordia of the lobes were determinedin the LG structure on the 28th day of incubation, whilst the weakly visible lobes with aciniand tubules were observed on the 40th day of incubation. Morphometric studies of the LGshowed steady growth, characterised by an increase in both length and width. Histometricmeasurements of lobe size showed little difference between the first, second and third agegroups, whilst in the fourth age group a marked increase in size of lobes was observed.The study showed that, apart from morphological changes, during the growth of the LGthe character of acid mucopolysaccharides changed. Sulphated acid mucopolysaccharideswere indicated, particularly with aldehyde fuchsin (AF) staining in the fourth age group.The Hale's dialysed iron (HDI) staining showed a low concentration of carboxylated acidmucopolysaccharides in the first and second age groups and a higher concentration in thethird and fourth age groups. Periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS)-positive cells were observedin each age group, but only a small number of cells with a weakly PAS-positive reaction weredemonstrated in the first age group.
Project description:Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in urea was used to prepare the four molecular species of transferrin:diferric transferrin, apotransferrin and the two monoferric transferrins with either the C-terminal or the N-terminal metal-binding site occupied. The interaction of these 125I-labelled proteins with rabbit reticulocytes was investigated. At 4 degrees C the average value for the association constant for the binding of transferrin to reticulocytes was found to increase with increasing iron content of the protein. The association constant for apotransferrin binding was 4.6 X 10(6)M-1, for monoferric (C-terminal iron) 2.5 X 10(7)M-1, for monoferric (N-terminal iron) 2.8 X 10(7)M-1 and for diferric transferrin, 1.1 X 10(8)M-1. These differences in the association constants did not affect the processing of the transferrin species by the cells at 37 degrees C. Accessibility of the proteins to extracellular proteinase indicated that the transferrin was internalized by the cells regardless of the iron content of the protein, since in each case 70% was inaccessible. Cycling of the cellular receptors may also occur in the absence of bound transferrin.
Project description:1. We have shown that the characteristic lag in cresolase activity of human skin tyrosinase at inhibitory concentration of tyrosine was absent at all pH values studied, i.e. pH 5.2, 5.7, 6.2 and 6.8, if the enzyme solubilized at low pH was used as the source of enzyme, but the same enzyme when dialysed against buffers of various pH values showed linear activity only at pH 5.2 and was not inhibited by excess tyrosine, whereas at higher pH values it exhibited a lag and inhibition by excess tyrosine. 2. However, the enzyme solubilized in buffer/detergent, pH 6.8, when dialysed against buffer of the same pH showed linear activity at pH 5.2 and non-linear activity at pH 6.8. 3. The water/detergent-solubilized enzyme from human skin melanosomes showed linear activity even at inhibitory concentrations of tyrosine at pH 5.2 and 6.8 up to 2 h, but acceleration of rate was observed after 2 h for the enzyme measured at pH 6.8. 4. After dialysis of the water/detergent-solubilized enzyme against double-glass-distilled water, it still exhibits linear activity at inhibitory concentration of tyrosines at pH 6.8 for the first 2 h, but the same enzyme when dialysed against 0.02 M-sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, exhibits negligible activity up to 1/2 h, in contrast with considerable activity before dialysis during the same interval of time, but without any loss of activity at later intervals of incubation time. 5. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that the enzyme exists in at least two interconvertible forms, one without lag and inhibition by excess tyrosine and the other with lag and inhibition by excess tyrosine. These two forms are interconvertible only by gradual change in pH over a period of hours.