Biosynthesis of ethylene from methionine. Isolation of the putative intermediate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate from culture fluids of bacteria and fungi.
ABSTRACT: Methods are described for identifying the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate by means of t.l.c., n.m.r. and mass spectroscopy. By using these methods 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate, a putative intermediate in the biosynthesis of ethylene from methionine, has been identified in culture fluids of Aeromonas hydrophila B12E and a coryneform bacterium D7F grown in the presence of methionine. Relative to 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate, the yield of 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) from the same cultures was less than 1%. Because 4-[2H]methylthio-2-oxobutanoate was obtained from cultures grown on [Me-2H]methionine, the 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate must be derived from methionine. By means of t.l.c. alone, 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate was identified in the culture fluids of a range of bacteria, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fungus Penicillium digitatum. A photochemical assay developed for 4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoate shows it to be a product of the metabolism of methionine by Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Rhizobium and Corynebacterium species.
Project description:4-Methylthio-2-oxobutanoic acid is the direct precursor of methional, which is a potent inducer of apoptosis in a BAF3 murine lymphoid cell line which is interleukin-3 (IL3)-dependent. Cultures treated for 8 h with methional in the presence of IL3 show extensive DNA double-strand breaks on flow cytometric analysis, increases in DNA fragmentation as measured by the amount of non-sedimentable DNA present in the 30,000 g supernatant of cell lysates and the typical laddering pattern of multiples of 180 bp seen upon agarose gel electrophoresis. No such features of apoptosis were found in cells treated with 4-methylthio 2-oxobutanoic acid or propanal, suggesting that the simultaneous presence of the methylthio group on the propanal moiety is essential for apoptosis to take place. Methional is further metabolized in cells by two reactions: oxidation via aldehyde dehydrogenase to (methylthio)propionic acid or beta-hydroxylation to malondialdehyde. The formation of malondialdehyde from methional in vitro by chemical hydroxylation under the conditions of the Fenton reaction provides a mechanism for the beta-hydroxylation which takes place in vivo. During apoptosis induced by IL3 deprivation, the ratio of 2,4-DNPH MDA to 2,4-DNPH methional is 0.94 in cells in IL3- medium compared with 0.54 in cells in IL3+ medium. These results support a role of cellular methional and malondialdehyde in apoptosis.
Project description:Methional is a potent inducer of apoptosis in an interleukin 3-dependent murine lymphoid cell line BAF3 b0 when it is added to the culture medium. In these cells transfected with the bcl2 gene, BAF3 bcl2, the apoptotic-inducing activity of methional is dramatically reduced. The addition of disulfiram (an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase) in order to reduce methional oxidation brought about an increase in apoptosis in BAF3 b0 but not in BAF3 bcl2 cells. In contrast, the addition of quercetin (an inhibitor of aldehyde reductase) in an attempt to diminish methional reduction increased apoptosis in both BAF3 b0 and BAF3 bcl2 cells. The extent of DNA fragmentation in BAF3 bcl2 cells approached that in BAF3 b0 cells in the presence of quercetin and exogenous methional, suggesting a defect in methional biosynthesis in BAF3 bcl2 cells. Direct evidence for this was obtained by measuring labelled methional in cells incubated with the sodium, salt of [U-14C]4-methylthio-2-oxobutanoic acid (MTOB), the precursor of methional. The 80% decrease in labelled methional in BAF3 bcl2 compared with BAF3 b0 cells was accompanied by a concomitant rise in the transamination of [14C]MTOB to [14C]methionine in BAF3 bcl2 cells. Inhibition of the transaminase, however, by a synthetic transition-state-type compound, pyridoxal-L-methionine ethyl ester, induced apoptosis in BAF3 b0 but not in BAF3 bcl2 cells, confirming that the defect in BAF3 bcl2 cells was not in the transaminase itself but rather in the oxidative decarboxylation step MTOB --> methional. In addition, no evidence was obtained for the synthesis of [14C]malondialdehyde from [14C]methional in BAF3 bcl2 cells. As these cells show no deficiency in their content of reactive oxygen species compared with that of BAF3 b0 cells, they may possess some other defect in the beta-hydroxylase enzyme system itself.
Project description:The mol-ecule of the title oxobutanoate derivative, C(12)H(13)ClN(2)O(3), is nearly planar; the inter-planar angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane through the hydrazono-3-oxobutanoate unit is 2.69?(3)°. An intra-molecular N-H?O hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal packing, C-H?O(3-oxo) inter-actions link mol-ecules into dimers. The dimers thus formed are linked through C-H?O(carboxyl-ate C=O) inter-actions, leading to the formation of ribbons along the  direction, which are stabilized via Cl?Cl [3.2916?(3)?Å] contacts. The ribbons are stacked via C?O contacts [3.2367?(12)-3.3948?(12)?Å].
Project description:A direct one-pot base-induced alkenylation of indolin-2-ones has been developed by using 6-aryl-4-methylthio-2H-pyran-2-one-3-carbonitriles. Different bases such as MeONa, NaH and t-BuONa have been used to optimize the reaction conditions to obtain the desired product. NaH in THF was found to be the most suitable for the alkenylation of indolin-2-ones. Reaction in the presence of other bases led to the formation of 1-aryl-3-methoxy/methylthio-5H-dibenzo[d,f][1,3]diazepin-6(7H)-ones. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed to explain the nature of the weak noncovalent interactions operating in the supramolecular architectures of alkenylated indoline-2-ones and to explain the relative stability of one of the tautomers with respect to the others.
Project description:Rhodospirillum rubrum produces 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) from S-adenosylmethionine in polyamine biosynthesis; however, R. rubrum lacks the classical methionine salvage pathway. Instead, MTA is converted to 5-methylthio-d-ribose 1-phosphate (MTR 1-P) and adenine; MTR 1-P is isomerized to 1-methylthio-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (MTXu 5-P) and reductively dethiomethylated to 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP), an intermediate in the nonmevalonate isoprenoid pathway [Erb, T. J., et al. (2012) Nat. Chem. Biol., in press]. Dethiomethylation, a novel route to DXP, is catalyzed by MTXu 5-P methylsulfurylase. An active site Cys displaces the enolate of DXP from MTXu 5-P, generating a methyl disulfide intermediate.
Project description:1. The formation of ethylene from cauliflower florets is stimulated by the addition of either methionine or its hydroxy analogue. 2. Formation of ethylene from these compounds may also be demonstrated in cell-free extracts, but the most rapid formation is achieved by the addition of methional. 3. Fractionation of such extracts has shown that both particulate and non-particulate fractions are necessary for the formation of ethylene from methionine or its hydroxy analogues, but only the non-particulate fraction is necessary for its formation from methional. 4. A study of this system has shown that the conversion of methional into ethylene requires the presence of two enzyme systems, the first generating peroxide and the second catalysing the conversion of methional into ethylene in the presence of peroxide. 5. The presence of a heat-stable factor in cauliflower extracts that is necessary for the full activity of the enzyme converting methional into ethylene has also been shown. 6. The nature of this factor is at the present unknown; it is not a metal nor is it identifiable with many of the known coenzymes.
Project description:The biosynthesis of 9-[5'-deoxy-5'-(methylthio)-beta-D-xylofuranosyl]adenine (xylosyl-MTA), a naturally occurring analogue of 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) recently characterized, was studied in the nudibranch mollusc Doris verrucosa. Experiments performed in vivo with putative labelled precursors such as [8-14C]adenine, [Me-14C]methionine and [Me-14C]MTA indicate that xylosyl-MTA originates from MTA. Experiments with MTA double-labelled at critical positions are consistent with a 3'-isomerization of the nucleoside through the formation of a 3'-oxo intermediate. In addition, experiments with the newly synthesized [3'-3H]xylosyl-MTA are indicative for a very low turnover rate of this molecule, which therefore accumulates in the mollusc.
Project description:Two novel aspochalasins, 20-?-methylthio-aspochalsin Q (named as aspochalasin V), (1) and aspochalasin W (2), were isolated from culture broth of Aspergillus sp., which was found in the gut of a marine isopod Ligia oceanica. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and mass spectral data analysis. This is the first report about methylthio-substituted aspochalasin derivatives. Cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer PC3 cell line and HCT116 cell line was assayed using the MTT method. Apochalasin V showed moderate activity at IC50 values of 30.4 and 39.2 ?M, respectively.
Project description:Highly purified branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex (BCOADC) oxidizes 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxobutyrate, with Km values of 67 microM and 18 microM respectively. The Vmax. for oxidation of these substrates is 27% and 53% respectively of that for 3-methyl-2-oxobutyrate. Highly purified pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes 2-oxobutyrate (Km 100 microM; Vmax. 49% of that for pyruvate) but not 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate, whereas 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex will not utilize either 2-oxo acid as substrate. BCOADC kinase is inhibited by both 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxobutyrate, with half-maximal inhibition by 45 microM and 50 microM respectively. Phosphorylation of BCOADC in isolated adipocytes is inhibited by both 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate and 2-oxobutyrate, consistent with their inhibitory action of BCOADC kinase. Phosphorylation of PDC is decreased by 2-oxobutyrate, but not by 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyrate.
Project description:Carvacrol (1) and thymol (2) were converted to their alkyl 4-oxobutanoate derivatives (7-20) in three steps, and evaluated for tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The compounds showed structure-dependent activity, with all alkyl 4-oxobutanoates, except 7 and 20, showing better inhibitory activity than the precursor 4-oxobutanoic acids (5 and 6). In general, thymol derivatives exhibited a higher percent inhibitory activity than carvacrol derivatives at 500??M. Derivatives containing three-carbon and four-carbon alkyl groups gave the strongest activity (carvacrol derivatives 9-12, IC50?=?128.8-244.1??M; thymol derivatives 16-19, IC50?=?102.3-191.4??M).