Purification of the membrane-bound hydrogenase of Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: The membrane-bound hydrogenase (EC class 1.12) of aerobically grown Escherichia coli cells was solubilized by treatment with deoxycholate and pancreatin. The enzyme was further purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by chromoatographic methods, including hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, with a yield of 10% as judged by activity and an overall purification of 2140-fold. The hydrogenase was a dimer of identical subunits with a mol.wt. of 113,000 and contained 12 iron and 12 acid-labile sulphur atoms per molecule. The epsilon 400 was 49,000M-1 . cm-1. The hydrogenase catalysed both H2 evolution and H2 uptake with a variety of artificial electron carriers, but would not interact with flavodoxin, ferredoxin or nicotinamide and flavin nucleotides. We were unable to identify any physiological electron carrier for the hydrogenase. With Methyl Viologen as the electron carrier, the pH optimum for H2 evolution and H2 uptake was 6.5 and 8.5 respectively. The enzyme was stable for long periods at neutral pH, low temperatures and under anaerobic conditions. The half-life of the hydrogenase under air at room temperature was about 12 h, but it could be stabilized by Methyl Viologen and Benzyl Viologen, both of which are electron carriers for the enzyme, and by bovine serum albumin. The hydrogenase was strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide (Ki = 1870Pa), heavy-metal salts and high concentrations of buffers, but was resistant to inhibition by thiol-blocking and metal-complexing reagents. These aerobically grown E. coli cells lacked formate hydrogenlyase activity and cytochrome c552.
Project description:The membrane-bound hydrogenase from the anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (Norway strain) has been purified to homogeneity, with an overall 80-fold purification and a specific activity of 70 mumol of H2 evolved/min per mg of protein. The hydrogenase had a relative molecular mass of 58 000 as determined by gel filtration and was estimated to contain six iron atoms and six acid-labile sulphur groups per molecule. The absorption spectrum of the enzyme was characteristic of an iron-sulphur protein. The E400 and E280 were 28 500 and 109 000 M-1.cm-1 respectively. The e.s.r. of the oxidized protein indicated the presence of [4Fe-4S]3+ or [3Fe-3S]3+, and another paramagnetic centre, probably Ni(III). The hydrogenase was inhibited by heavy-metal salts, carbon monoxide and high ionic strength. However, it was resistant to inhibition by thiol-blocking and metal-complexing reagents. N-Bromosuccinimide totally inhibited the enzyme activity at low concentrations. The enzyme was stable to O2 over long periods and to high temperatures. It catalyses both H2-evolution and H2-uptake with a variety of artificial electron carriers. D. desulfuricans cytochrome C3, its natural electron carrier, had a high affinity for the enzyme (Km = 2 microns). Rate enhancement was observed when cytochrome C3 was added to Methyl Viologen in the H2-evolution assay. The pH optimum for H2-evolution was 6.5.
Project description:The agarose-coupled triazine dye Procion Red HE-3B has been demonstrated to be applicable as an affinity gel for the purification of five diverse hydrogenases, namely the soluble, NAD-specific and the membrane-bound hydrogenase of Alcaligenes eutrophus, the membrane-bound hydrogenase of the N2-fixing Alcaligenes latus, the reversible H2-evolving and the unidirectional H2-oxidizing hydrogenase of Clostridium pasteurianum. In the case of the soluble hydrogenase of A. eutrophus, chromatography on Procion Red-agarose even permitted the separation of inactive from active enzyme, thus yielding a 2-3-fold increase in specific activity. For the homogeneous enzyme preparation obtained after two column steps (Procion Red-agarose, DEAE-Sephacel), a specific activity of 121 mumol of H2 oxidized/min per mg of protein was determined. Kinetic studies with free Procion Red provided evidence that the diverse hydrogenases are competitively inhibited by the dye, each with respect to the electron carrier (NAD, Methylene Blue, Methyl Viologen), indicating a specific interaction between Procion Red and the catalytic centres of the enzymes. For the highly purified preparations of the soluble and the membrane-bound hydrogenase of A. eutrophus, in 50 mM-potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, Ki values for Procion Red of 103 and 19 microM have been determined.
Project description:A method was devised that allows measurement in vivo of hydrogenase-catalysed H2 evolution from the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica, independent of nitrogenase activity, which is also present. Addition of low concentrations of reduced Methyl Viologen (1-10mM) to intact heterocystous filaments of the organism resulted in H2 evolution, but produced conditions giving total inhibition of nitrogenase (acetylene-reducing and H2-evolving) activity. That the H2 formed under these conditions was not contributed to by nitrogenase was also supported by the observation that its rate of formation was similar in the dark or with Ar replaced by N2 in the gas phase, and also in view of the pattern of H2 evolution at very low Methyl Viologen concentrations. Conclusive evidence that the H2 formed in the presence of Methyl Viologen was solely hydrogenase-mediated was its evolution even from nitrogenase-free (non-heterocystous) cultures; by contrast 'uptake' hydrogenase activity in such cultures was greatly decreased. The hydrogenase activity was inhibited by CO and little affected by acetylene. Finally the hydrogenase activity was shown to be relatively constant at different stages during the batch growth of the organism, as opposed to nitrogenase activity, which varied.
Project description:Escherichia coli uptake hydrogenase 2 (Hyd-2) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 to protons and electrons. Hyd-2 synthesis is strongly upregulated during growth on glycerol or on glycerol-fumarate. Membrane-associated Hyd-2 is an unusual heterotetrameric [NiFe]-hydrogenase that lacks a typical cytochrome b membrane anchor subunit, which transfers electrons to the quinone pool. Instead, Hyd-2 has an additional electron transfer subunit, termed HybA, with four predicted iron-sulfur clusters. Here, we examined the physiological role of the HybA subunit. During respiratory growth with glycerol and fumarate, Hyd-2 used menaquinone/demethylmenaquinone (MQ/DMQ) to couple hydrogen oxidation to fumarate reduction. HybA was essential for electron transfer from Hyd-2 to MQ/DMQ. H2 evolution catalyzed by Hyd-2 during fermentation of glycerol in the presence of Casamino Acids or in a fumarate reductase-negative strain growing with glycerol-fumarate was also shown to be dependent on both HybA and MQ/DMQ. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibited Hyd-2-dependent H2 evolution from glycerol, indicating the requirement for a proton gradient. In contrast, CCCP failed to inhibit H2-coupled fumarate reduction. Although a Hyd-2 enzyme lacking HybA could not catalyze Hyd-2-dependent H2 oxidation or H2 evolution in whole cells, reversible H2-dependent reduction of viologen dyes still occurred. Finally, hydrogen-dependent dye reduction by Hyd-2 was reversibly inhibited in extracts derived from cells grown in H2 evolution mode. Our findings suggest that Hyd-2 switches between H2-consuming and H2-producing modes in response to the redox status of the quinone pool. Hyd-2-dependent H2 evolution from glycerol requires reverse electron transport.
Project description:Hydrogenases are key enzymes of the energy metabolism of many microorganisms. Especially in anoxic habitats where molecular hydrogen (H2) is an important intermediate, these enzymes are used to expel excess reducing power by reducing protons or they are used for the oxidation of H2 as energy and electron source. Despite the fact that hydrogenases catalyze the simplest chemical reaction of reducing two protons with two electrons it turned out that they are often parts of multimeric enzyme complexes catalyzing complex chemical reactions with a multitude of functions in the metabolism. Recent findings revealed multimeric hydrogenases with so far unknown functions particularly in bacteria from the class Clostridia. The discovery of [FeFe] hydrogenases coupled to electron bifurcating subunits solved the enigma of how the otherwise highly endergonic reduction of the electron carrier ferredoxin can be carried out and how H2 production from NADH is possible. Complexes of [FeFe] hydrogenases with formate dehydrogenases revealed a novel enzymatic coupling of the two electron carriers H2 and formate. These novel hydrogenase enzyme complex could also contribute to biotechnological H2 production and H2 storage, both processes essential for an envisaged economy based on H2 as energy carrier.
Project description:A moving front has been observed as a special pattern during the hydrogenase-catalyzed reaction of hydrogen uptake with benzyl viologen as electron acceptor in a thin-layer reaction chamber. Such fronts start spontaneously and at random times at different points of the reaction chamber; blue spheres are seen expanding at constant speed and amplitude. The number of observable starting points depends on the hydrogenase concentration. Fronts can be initiated by injecting either a small amount of completed reaction mixture or activated hydrogenase, but not by injecting a low concentration of reduced benzyl viologen. These characteristics are consistent with an autocatalytic reaction step in the enzyme reaction. The special characteristics of the hydrogen-uptake reaction in the bulk reaction (a long lag phase, and the enzyme concentration dependence of the lag phase) support the autocatalytic nature. We conclude that there is at least one autocatalytic reaction step in the hydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. The two possible autocatalytic schemes for hydrogenase are prion-type autocatalysis, in which two enzyme forms interact, and product-activation autocatalysis, where a reduced electron acceptor and an inactive enzyme form interact. The experimental results strongly support the occurrence of prion-type autocatalysis.
Project description:We have identified an NiFe-hydrogenase exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 (T. kodakaraensis hydrogenase). A gene cluster encoding T. kodakaraensis hydrogenase was composed of four open reading frames (hyhBGSL(Tk)), where the hyhS(Tk) and hyhL(Tk) gene products corresponded to the small and the large subunits of NiFe-hydrogenase, respectively. A putative open reading frame for hydrogenase-specific maturation endopeptidase (hybD(Tk)) was found downstream of the cluster. Polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant HyhL(Tk) were used for immunoaffinity purification of T. kodakaraensis hydrogenase, leading to a 259-fold concentration of hydrogenase activity. The purified T. kodakaraensis hydrogenase was composed of four subunits (beta, gamma, delta, and alpha), corresponding to the products of hyhBGSL(Tk), respectively. Each alphabetagammadelta unit contained 0.8 mol of Ni, 22.3 mol of Fe, 21.1 mol of acid-labile sulfide, and 1.01 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide. The optimal temperature for the T. kodakaraensis hydrogenase was 95 degrees C for H(2) uptake and 90 degrees C for H(2) production with methyl viologen as the electron carrier. We found that NADP(+) and NADPH promoted high levels of uptake and evolution of H(2), respectively, suggesting that the molecule is the electron carrier for the T. kodakaraensis hydrogenase.
Project description:To date, NAD(P)H, ferredoxin, and coenzyme F420 have been identified as electron donors for thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). In this study, we present a novel electron source for TrxR. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, the frhAGB-encoded hydrogenase, a homolog of the F420-reducing hydrogenase of methanogens, was demonstrated to interact with TrxR in coimmunoprecipitation experiments and in vitro pulldown assays. Electrons derived from H2 oxidation by the frhAGB-encoded hydrogenase were transferred to TrxR and reduced Pdo, a redox partner of TrxR. Interaction and electron transfer were observed between TrxR and the heterodimeric hydrogenase complex (FrhAG) as well as the heterotrimeric complex (FrhAGB). Hydrogen-dependent reduction of TrxR was 7-fold less efficient than when NADPH was the electron donor. This study not only presents a different type of electron donor for TrxR but also reveals new functionality of the frhAGB-encoded hydrogenase utilizing a protein as an electron acceptor.IMPORTANCE This study has importance in that TrxR can use H2 as an electron donor with the aid of the frhAGB-encoded hydrogenase as well as NAD(P)H in T. onnurineus NA1. Further studies are needed to explore the physiological significance of this protein. This study also has importance as a significant step toward understanding the functionality of the frhAGB-encoded hydrogenase in a nonmethanogen; the hydrogenase can transfer electrons derived from oxidation of H2 to a protein target by direct contact without the involvement of an electron carrier, which is distinct from the mechanism of its homologs, F420-reducing hydrogenases of methanogens.
Project description:Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli can carry out a mixed-acid fermentation that ultimately produces molecular hydrogen. The enzyme directly responsible for hydrogen production is the membrane-bound formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which links formate oxidation to proton reduction and has evolutionary links to Complex I, the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. Although the genetics, maturation, and some biochemistry of FHL are understood, the protein complex has never been isolated in an intact form to allow biochemical analysis. In this work, genetic tools are reported that allow the facile isolation of FHL in a single chromatographic step. The core complex is shown to comprise HycE (a [NiFe] hydrogenase component termed Hyd-3), FdhF (the molybdenum-dependent formate dehydrogenase-H), and three iron-sulfur proteins: HycB, HycF, and HycG. A proportion of this core complex remains associated with HycC and HycD, which are polytopic integral membrane proteins believed to anchor the core complex to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. As isolated, the FHL complex retains formate hydrogenlyase activity in vitro. Protein film electrochemistry experiments on Hyd-3 demonstrate that it has a unique ability among [NiFe] hydrogenases to catalyze production of H2 even at high partial pressures of H2. Understanding and harnessing the activity of the FHL complex is critical to advancing future biohydrogen research efforts.
Project description:The effects of NO on the H2-oxidizing and diaphorase activities of the soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 were investigated. With fully activated enzyme, NO (8-150 nM in solution) inhibited H2 oxidation in a time- and NO-concentration-dependent process. Neither H2 nor NAD+ appeared to protect the enzyme against the inhibition. Loss of activity in the absence of an electron acceptor was about 10 times slower than under turnover conditions. The inhibition was partially reversible; approx. 50% of full activity was recoverable after removal of the NO. Recovery was slower in the absence of an electron acceptor than in the presence of H2 plus an electron acceptor. The diaphorase activity of the unactivated hydrogenase was not affected by NO concentrations of up to 200 microM in solution. Exposure of the unactivated hydrogenase to NO irreversibly inhibited the ability of the enzyme to be fully activated for H2-oxidizing activity. The enzyme also lost its ability to respond to H2 during activation in the presence of NADH. The results are interpreted in terms of a complex inhibition that displays elements of (1) a reversible slow-binding inhibition of H2-oxidizing activity, (2) an irreversible effect on H2-oxidizing activity and (30 an irreversible inhibition of a regulatory component of the enzyme. Possible sites of action for NO are discussed.