The size of collagen fibrils that stimulate platelet aggregation in human plasma.
ABSTRACT: Suspensions of collagen fibrils of different size were prepared from solutions of radioactive tropocollagen type I by either differential centrifugation or differential incubation at elevated temperature. The fractions were compared with respect to their ability to stimulate human blood platelet aggregation in plasma, their binding to human platelets, and their morphology, as seen in the electron microscope. Although small particles with a sedimentation coefficient as low as 4.5 S bound to platelets, aggregation was not observed in the presence of collagen multimers and protofibrils without visible cross-bands in stained specimens. The onset of platelet-aggregating activity before the appearance of turbidity in collagen solutions incubated at elevated temperature is due to the formation of a few banded fibrils; this early onset and the fibrils do not appear in collagen solutions that have been ulctracentrifuged before incubation.
Project description:Bacterial collagenase was used to compare the extent of digestion of tropocollagen monomers in solution and in reconstituted fibrils with that of tropocollagen molecules intermolecularly cross-linked within insoluble polymeric collagen fibrils obtained from mature tendons at given time-intervals. The extent of digestion of tropocollagen monomers in solution was directly proportional to the enzyme concentration (a range of enzyme substrate molar ratios 1:200 to 1:10 was used). The extent of digestion of polymeric collagen was followed by measuring the solubilization of fluorescent peptides from fluorescent-labelled insoluble polymeric collagen fibrils. The extent of digestion of tropocollagen within polymeric collagen was linear over a very small range of enzyme concentrations, when the enzyme/substrate ratio in the reaction mixture was less than 1:400 on a molecular basis. The behavior of tropocollagen in the form of reconstituted collagen fibrils, which had been matured at 37 degrees C for 8 weeks, was intermediate between the behaviour of solutions of tropocollagen and insoluble polymeric collagen fibrils. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of the structure of polymeric collagen fibrils and the protection against enzymic attack provided by tropocollagen molecules on the circumference of the fibril. The results suggest that assays of collagenase activities based on tropocollagen as substrate cannot be directly related to the ability of these enzymes to degrade mature insoluble collagen fibrils.
Project description:Gene targeting of Cdc42 GTPase has been shown to inhibit platelet activation. In this study, we investigated a hypothesis that inhibition of Cdc42 activity by CASIN, a small molecule Cdc42 Activity-Specific INhibitor, may down regulate platelet activation and thrombus formation. We investigated the effects of CASIN on platelet activation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo. In human platelets, CASIN, but not its inactive analog Pirl7, blocked collagen induced activation of Cdc42 and inhibited phosphorylation of its downstream effector, PAK1/2. Moreover, addition of CASIN to washed human platelets inhibited platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. Treatment of human platelets with CASIN inhibited collagen or thrombin induced: (a) ATP secretion and platelet aggregation; and (b) phosphorylation of Akt, ERK and p38-MAPK. Pre-incubation of platelets with Pirl7, an inactive analog of CASIN, failed to inhibit collagen induced aggregation. Washing of human platelets after incubation with CASIN eliminated its inhibitory effect on collagen induced aggregation. Intraperitoneal administration of CASIN to wild type mice inhibited ex vivo aggregation induced by collagen but did not affect the murine tail bleeding times. CASIN administration, prior to laser-induced injury in murine cremaster muscle arterioles, resulted in formation of smaller and unstable thrombi compared to control mice without CASIN treatment. These data suggest that pharmacologic targeting of Cdc42 by specific and reversible inhibitors may lead to the discovery of novel antithrombotic agents.
Project description:1. It was found that the precipitation of collagen fibrils at 37 degrees from mixtures of chondroitin sulphate-protein and tropocollagen at physiological ionic strength and pH takes place in two distinct phases. The first occurs immediately on mixing either at 4 degrees or at 37 degrees , and the second occurs only at 37 degrees and after a lag phase whose magnitude depends on the proportions of components. 2. When the second stage of precipitation was inhibited by mixing the reactants at 4 degrees , the initial precipitate was found to contain ;native-type' collagen fibrils and chondroitin sulphate-protein. 3. On the basis of kinetic experiments it was concluded that aggregates of chondroitin sulphate-protein and tropocollagen form instantaneously and that these act as sites for the second stage of precipitation of fibrils. 4. The gels that result after continued incubation at 37 degrees are fibrous in appearance if formed in the presence of the initial precipitate of chondroitin sulphate-protein and tropocollagen. 5. On the basis of these experiments in vitro the authors propose a sequence of events for collagen fibrogenesis in vivo.
Project description:The ion-binding capacity of highly purified reconstituted calf-skin collagen, and the effects of these ions on the precipitation and solubility of the collagen, were studied with a variety of salt solutions at ionic strength 0.16 and pH7.4. Only a small percentage of the total theoretically available anionic and cationic groups was available for ion-binding. In view of this, it appears that most of the ionizable groups of collagen are involved in intramolecular or intermolecular linkages, or both. Nevertheless, marked differences in the binding of the various ions by collagen were observed. Bivalent cations were bound in extremely small but remarkably similar quantities. In contrast, sodium was bound both in much higher and more variable quantities. Of the anions, pyrophosphate and sulphate were bound in the largest quantities, followed by phosphate, fluoride and chloride, in that order. Despite the minimal uptake by collagen of bivalent cations, they prevented the aggregation of tropocollagen into fibrils, and disaggregated fibrillar collagen. In the presence of multivalent anions, tropocollagen aggregated readily and its fibrillar stability was maintained. On the basis of the imbalance in the binding of ion pairs by the sodium pyrophosphate- and sodium phosphate-treated collagens, it was apparent that a reduced number of side-chain carboxyl groups were dissociated in the presence of these salts.
Project description:The interaction between a small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan isolated from human uterine cervix and collagen type I from human and rat skin was investigated by collagen-fibrillogenesis experiments. Collagen fibrillogenesis was initiated by elevation of temperature and pH after addition of proteoglycan, chondroitinase-digested proteoglycan or isolated side chains, and monitored by turbidimetry. Collagen-associated and unbound proteoglycan was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after aggregation was complete. (1) The binding of proteoglycan to collagen could be explained by the presence of two mutually non-interacting binding sites, with Ka1 = 1.3 x 10(8) M-1 and Ka2 = 1.3 x 10(6) M-1. The number of binding sites per tropocollagen molecule was n1 = 0.11 and n2 = 1.1. The 0.1 high-affinity binding site per tropocollagen molecule indicates that the strong interaction between proteoglycan and collagen results from a concerted action of tropocollagen molecules in fibrils. Digestion of the proteoglycan with chondroitinase ABC did not affect these binding characteristics. (2) Proteoglycan did not affect the rate of fibrillogenesis, but increased the steady-state A400 by up to 90%. This increase was directly proportional to the saturation of the high-affinity type of binding sites. Neither isolated core protein nor isolated side chains induced a similar high increase in steady-state A400. (3) Electron micrographs showed that the fibril diameter was affected only to a minor extent, if at all, by the proteoglycan, whereas bundles of laterally aligned fibrils were common in the presence of proteoglycan. (4) Results obtained with human and rat collagen were similar.
Project description:1. The pharmacological characteristics of solid-phase von Willebrand factor (svWF), a novel platelet agonist, were studied. 2. Washed platelet suspensions were obtained from human blood and the effects of svWF on platelets were measured using aggregometry, phase-contrast microscopy, flow cytometry and zymography. 3. Incubation of platelets with svWF (0.2 - 1.2 microg ml(-1)) resulted in their adhesion to the ligand, while co-incubations of svWF with subthreshold concentrations of ADP, collagen and thrombin resulted in aggregation. 4. 6B4 inhibitory anti-glycoprotein (GP)Ib antibodies abolished platelet adhesion stimulated by svWF, while aggregation was reduced in the presence of 6B4 and N-Acetyl-Pen-Arg-Gly-Asp-Cys, an antagonist of GPIIb/IIIa. 5. Platelet adhesion stimulated with svWF was associated with a concentration-dependent increase in expression of GPIb, but not of GPIIb/IIIa. 6. In contrast, collagen (0.5 - 10.0 microg ml(-1)) caused down-regulation of GPIb and up-regulation of GPIIb/IIIa in platelets. 7. Solid-phase vWF (1.2 microg ml(-1)) resulted in the release of MMP-2 from platelets. 8. Inhibition of MMP-2 with phenanthroline (10 microM), but not with aspirin or apyrase, inhibited platelet adhesion stimulated with svWF. 9. In contrast, human recombinant MMP-2 potentiated both the effects of svWF on adhesion and up-regulation of GPIb. 10. Platelet adhesion and aggregation stimulated with svWF were reduced by S-nitroso-n-acetyl-penicillamine, an NO donor, and prostacyclin. 11. Thus, stimulation of human platelets with svWF leads to adhesion and aggregation that are mediated via activation of GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa, respectively. 12. Mechanisms of activation of GPIb by svWF involve the release of MMP-2, and are regulated by NO and prostacyclin.
Project description:Essentials Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NOX2 plays a critical role in platelet activation. Rac1 regulation of NOX2 is important for ROS generation. Small molecule inhibitor of the Rac1-p67phox interaction prevents platelet activation. Pharmacologic targeting of Rac1-NOX2 axis can be a viable approach for antithrombotic therapy. SUMMARY:Background Platelets from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease or mice deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) oxidase isoform NOX2 exhibit diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and platelet activation. Binding of Rac1 GTPase to p67phox plays a critical role in NOX2 activation by facilitating the assembly of the NOX2 enzyme complex. Objective We tested the hypothesis that Phox-I, a rationally designed small molecule inhibitor of Rac-p67phox interaction, may serve as an antithrombosis agent by suppressing ROS production and platelet activation. Results Collagen-related peptide (CRP) induced ROS generation in a time-dependent manner. Platelets from Rac1-/- mice or human platelets treated with NSC23766, a specific Rac inhibitor, produced significantly less ROS in response to CRP. Treatment of platelets with Phox-I inhibited diverse CRP-induced responses, including: (i) ROS generation; (ii) release of P-selectin; (iii) secretion of ATP; (iv) platelet aggregation; and (v) phosphorylation of Akt. Similarly, incubation of platelets with Phox-I inhibited thrombin-induced: (i) secretion of ATP; (ii) platelet aggregation; (iii) rise in cytosolic calcium; and (iv) phosphorylation of Akt. In mouse models, intraperitoneal administration of Phox-I inhibited: (i) collagen-induced platelet aggregation without affecting the tail bleeding time and (ii) in vivo platelet adhesion/accumulation at the laser injury sites on the saphenous vein without affecting the time for complete cessation of blood loss. Conclusions Small molecule targeting of the Rac1-p67phox interaction may present an antithrombosis regimen by preventing GPVI- and non-GPVI-mediated NOX2 activation, ROS generation and platelet function without affecting the bleeding time.
Project description:1. Human platelet nucleotides were labelled by incubating platelet-rich plasma with [U-(14)C]adenine. With such platelets, the effects of prostaglandin E1, theophylline and aspirin were determined on collagen-induced platelet aggregation and release of platelet ATP and ADP. Intracellular changes of platelet radioactive nucleotides, particularly 3':5'-cyclic AMP, were also determined both with and without collagen treatment. 2. Prostaglandin E1, theophylline and aspirin inhibited collagen-induced aggregation of platelets in a dose-dependent manner. Collagen-induced release of ATP and ADP and breakdown of radioactive ATP were also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. 3. Prostaglandin E1 stimulated the formation of platelet radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP in a dose-dependent manner. With a given dose of prostaglandin E1, maximum formation of radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP occurred by 10-30s and thereafter the concentrations declined. The degree of inhibition of aggregation produced by prostaglandin E1, however, increased with its time of incubation in platelet-rich plasma before addition of collagen, so that there was an inverse relationship between the radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP concentration measured at the time of collagen addition and the subsequent degree of inhibition of aggregation obtained. 4. Neither theophylline nor aspirin at a concentration in platelet-rich plasma of 1.7mm altered platelet radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP contents. In the presence of prostaglandin E1, theophylline increased the concentration of radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP over that noted with prostaglandin E1 alone, but aspirin did not. 5. Mixtures of prostaglandin E1 and theophylline had a synergistic effect on inhibition of platelet aggregation. The same was true to a lesser extent with mixtures of prostaglandin E1 and aspirin. Such mixtures also inhibited collagen-induced release of platelet ATP and ADP and breakdown of platelet radioactive ATP. 6. Certain concentrations of either theophylline or aspirin and mixtures of small concentrations of prostaglandin E1 with either theophylline or aspirin caused little or no increase of radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP at the time of collagen addition, but inhibited aggregation to a marked degree, whereas higher concentrations of prostaglandin E1 alone caused a much greater increase of radioactive 3':5'-cyclic AMP at the time of collagen addition but inhibited aggregation to a lesser extent. With these compounds there does not appear to be a correlation between these parameters.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Monitoring endogenous platelets during intravital microscopy often involves two approaches: fluorescently labeled antibodies or genetic models of platelet-specific fluorescent protein expression. Due to limited data available on platelet functional changes induced by these methods, we compared functional effects of these methods on platelets. METHODS:Platelet aggregation to collagen and thrombin, and collagen matrix-mediated platelet adhesion/aggregation under flow were tested. We assessed platelets from mice expressing EYFP on platelets (Cre(+)), littermate controls (Cre(-)), C57BL/6 mice, and platelets from vehicle control and x-488 treatment. We utilized intravital microscopy to monitor platelets in vivo using Cre(+) mice and x-488 treatment. RESULTS:Both genetic and antibody-based approaches yielded substantial platelet-specific fluorescence. Platelets from Cre(+) and Cre(-) mice behaved similarly in aggregation and adhesion/aggregation under flow. However, they exhibited significantly enhanced aggregation and higher adhesion/aggregation as compared to platelets from C57BL/6 mice. Compared to vehicle control, x-488 platelet labeling did not induce significant functional changes in vitro. Both methods of platelet labeling provided satisfactory platelet detectability in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:x-488 antibody labeling of platelets induced less alteration of platelet function than genetic approaches under our experimental conditions and seems more suitable for monitoring of endogenous platelets.
Project description:Aggregation of platelets by fibrils formed from collagens type I, II and III could be inhibited by coating the fibrils with anti-collagen antibodies or Fab fragments. Similar results were obtained in a clot-retraction assay. Inhibition was achieved with stoichiometric amounts of antibodies and was specific for each type of collagen. Aggregation caused by a mixture of type-I and -III collagens could only be inhibited by a mixture of antibodies against both collagens. The data show that each interstitial collagen is capable of interacting with platelets and do not support the concept of an outstanding activity of type-III collagen.