Microbial metabolism of amino alcohols. Biosynthetic utilization of ethanolamine for lipid synthesis by bacteria.
ABSTRACT: 1. Ten bacteria utilizing [2-14C]ethanol-2-amine as the sole or major source of nitrogen for growth on glycerol + salts medium incorporated radioactivity into a variety of bacterial substances. A high proportion was commonly found in lipid fractions, particularly in the case of Erwinia carotovora. 2. Detailed studies of [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into lipids by five bacteria, including E. carotovora, showed that all detectable lipids were labelled. Even where phosphatidylethanolamine was the major lipid labelled, radioactivity was predominantly in the fatty acid rather than the base moiety. The labelled fatty acids were identified in each case. 3. The addition of acetate to growth media decreased the incorporation of radioactivity from ethanolamine into both fatty acid and phosphatidyl-base fragments of lipids from all the bacteria except Mycobacterium smegmatis. Experiments with [3H]ethanolamine and [14C]acetate confirmed that unlabelled acetate decreased the incorporation of both radioactive isotopes into lipids, except in the case of M. smegmatis. 4. Enzyme studies suggested one of two metabolic routes between ethanolamine and acetyl-CoA for each of four bacteria. A role for ethanolamine O-phosphate was not obligatory for the incorporation of [14C]ethanolamine into phospholipids, but correlated with CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.
Project description:Lipid biosynthesis has been studied in photosynthetic cultures of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides that had been synchronized by stationary-phase cycling or by a centrifugation selection procedure. Synchrony index values in the range 0.70-0.80 were obtained for the first cell cycle with both synchronization methods. The major membrane lipids phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were accumulated discontinuously during the cell cycle, their mass doubling immediately before cell division. This accumulation of lipid corresponded to peaks in incorporation of radioactivity from either [1-14C]acetate or [2-3H]glycerol into individual acyl lipids as measured in individual portions of bacteria. For phosphatidylglycerol an additional peak of incorporation of radioactivity from [2-3H]glycerol was found midway through the cell cycle. In spite of their rather similar endogenous fatty acid compositions, the individual phosphoacylglycerols showed distinctive patterns of incorporation of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate into their acyl moieties. The discontinuous synthesis of acyl lipids observed in cultures of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides synchronized by either stationary-phase cycling or centrifugation selection procedures contrasted with the accumulation of chlorophyll-protein complexes whose amounts were found to increase throughout the cell cycle. The implications of these findings for the control of lipid synthesis in bacterial photosynthetic membranes are discussed.
Project description:1. The incorporation of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate into the leaf lipids of barley, pea and wheat has been studied in pulse-labelling experiments. 2. There was little increase in the total labelling of lipids after the leaves were transferred to non-radioactive medium. However, there was an increase in the relative labelling of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, there was an increase in the relative labelling of diacylgalactosylglycerol. 3. The principal radioactively labelled acyl lipids were diacylgalactosylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. Phosphatidylcholine showed a decreasing proportion of [14C]oleate and an increasing amount of [14C]linoleate with time. Diacylgalactosylglycerol also had decreasing amounts of [14C]oleate but, in addition, had an increasing proportion of [14C]linolenate with time. 4. The absence of significant amounts of [14C]linolenate in phosphatidylcholine appeared to exclude a role for this phospholipid in linoleate desaturation. 5. The specific radioactivities of oleate and linoleate in phosphatidylcholine, diacylgalactosylglycerol and diacylgalabiosylglycerol were very similar in any single experiment. It was concluded that these fatty acids can rapidly exchange between the three intact lipids.
Project description:1. When [2-3H]glycerol was supplied to developing maize-leaf laminae, label entered 3-sn-phosphatidycholine at a linear rate essentially from zero time, whereas other lipids were labelled at accelerating rates. On transfer of laminae from [3H]glycerol to unlabelled glycerol, radioactivity was rapidly lost from 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine and accumulated in other lipids, principally monogalactosyl diacyglycerol. 2. Degradation of these lipids showed that 3H was present only in the glycerol moiety of the lipids. 3. In double-labelling pulse-chase experiments with [14C]acetate, which labelled essentially only fatty acids and [3H]glycerol similar amounts of 14C and 3H radioactivity were lost from 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine and accumulated by monogalactosyl diacylglycerol. 4. The different molecular species of both lipids isolated from laminae during a double-labelled pulse-chase study were separated by argentation t.l.c., and the changes in the amount of radioactivity and the 14C/3H ratio in different species were compared. The greatest loss of radioactivity during the period in unlabelled substrates occurred from the 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine species containing oleate and from the dilinoleate species, and radioactivity accumulated by monogalactosyl diacyglycerol was mainly in the dilinolenate species. However, despite the considerable change in the radioactivity in these species during the chase, the 14C/3H ratio in each of them remained relatively unchanged. 5. It is proposed that 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine in the developing leaf may serve as a donor or linoleate-containing diacyl-glycerols which are incorporated into other lipids, principally monogalactosyl diacylglycerol.
Project description:The metabolism of acetoacetate via a proposed cytosolic pathway in brain of 1-week-old rats was investigated. (-)-Hydroxycitrate, an inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase, markedly inhibited the incorporation of carbon from labelled glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate into cerebral lipids, but had no effect on the incorporation of labelled acetate and acetoacetate into brain lipids. Similarly, n-butylmalonate and benzene-1,2,3-tricarboxylate inhibited the incorporation of labelled 3-hydroxybutyrate but not of acetoacetate into cerebral lipids. These inhibitors had no effect on the oxidation to 14CO2 of the labelled substrates used. (-)-Hydroxycitrate decreased the incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into cerebral lipids by slices metabolizing either glucose or 3-hydroxybutyrate, but not in the presence of acetoacetate. (-)-Hydroxycitrate also differentially inhibited the incorporation of [2-14C]-leucine and [U-14C]leucine into cerebral lipids. The data show that, although the acetyl moiety of acetyl-CoA generated in brain mitochondria is largely translocated as citrate from these organelles to the cytosol, a cytosolic pathway exists by which acetoacetate is converted directly into acetyl-COA in this cellular compartment.
Project description:The pattern of incorporation of radioactivity from [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate into the polyprenyl side-chain of ubiquinones in bacteria (Azotobacter vinelandii, Pseudomonas sesami, Escherichia coli and Rhodopseudomonas capsulata) was studied. For this purpose, a new degradation method involving a modified Barbier-Wieland reaction of laevulinic acid was developed, and used along with the iodoform reaction. Both C-1 and C-2 of acetate were incorporated exclusively into C-2 of laevulinic acid suggesting that the well-known pathway through acetoacetyl-CoA ('acetoacetate pathway') was not operative in these bacteria. An alternative pathway ('acetolactate pathway'), starting with pyruvate and acetaldehyde as the distal precursors, and utilizing the reactions of leucine and valine metabolism, was postulated. It was also postulated that C-1 of acetate is incorporated not directly, but after oxidation to CO2. The pattern of incorporation of radioactivity from [U-14C]valine, [U-14C]alanine and NaH14CO3 into the side-chain of ubiquinone of R. capsulata was in agreement with the operation of the 'acetolactate pathway'.
Project description:1. The effects of thyrotrophin in vitro on the incorporation of [(14)C]-glucose, -glycerol, -palmitate and -oleate into the lipids of thyroid tissue were examined. 2. Thyrotrophin increased the incorporation of these (14)C-labelled precursors into phosphatidylinositol specifically. 3. Thyrotrophin also increased the proportion of (14)C radioactivity from labelled glucose, glycerol, palmitate and oleate incorporated into the 1,2-diglycerides. 4. The addition of thyrotrophin to thyroid slices for 10min., after 2hr. of prelabelling with [(14)C]glycerol, also increased the proportion of (14)C radioactivity incorporated into the 1,2-diglyceride fraction. 5. After incubation of thyroid tissue with [1-(14)C]palmitate, thyrotrophin caused a two- to three-fold increase in the specific radioactivity of palmitate isolated from phosphatidylinositol and 1,2-diglycerides. In contrast, the specific radioactivity of palmitate isolated from the choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides, 1,3-diglycerides and triglycerides was not increased by thyrotrophin.
Project description:The synthesis of very long chain (C24 to C36) polyunsaturated (four, five and six double bonds) fatty acids (VLCPUFA) is investigated in bovine retina using [14C]acetate. Saturates on the one hand (mainly palmitate), and polyenes on the other (mainly VLCPUFA), incorporate most of the label found in lipids. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most highly labelled lipid class, since both types of 14C-labelled fatty acids, but especially this novel series of VLCPUFA, are concentrated in this phospholipid. Radioactivity from [14C]acetate is found in very long chain tetra, penta and hexaenoic fatty acids of PC. The labelling of 20:4(n - 6), 20:5(n - 3), 22:5(n - 6) and 22:6(n - 3) is much lower than that of longer polyenes of each of these series, indicating that VLCPUFA are synthesized in situ by successive elongations of the above polyenes, pre-existing in retina lipids. In various subcellular fractions isolated from retinas after incubations with [14C]acetate (including cytosol, microsomes, mitochondria and photoreceptor membranes), the labelling of the VLCPUFA of PC is very high, even at relatively short intervals of incubation. The results suggest that not only the synthesis but also the intracellular traffic among membranes of VLCPUFA-containing species of PC are very active processes in the retina.
Project description:Isolated alveolar epithelial type II cells were exposed to paraquat and to hyperoxia by gas diffusion through the thin Teflon bottom of culture dishes. After exposure, type II cells were further incubated in the presence of labelled substrates to assess their capacity to synthesize lipids. Hyperoxia alone (90% O2; 5 h) had minor effects on lipid metabolism in the type II cells. At low paraquat concentrations (5 and 10 microM), hyperoxia enhanced the paraquat-induced decrease of [Me-14C]choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholines. The incorporation rates of [Me-14C]choline, [1-14C]palmitate, [1-14C]glucose and [1,3-3H]glycerol into various phospholipid classes and neutral lipids were decreased by paraquat, depending on the concentration and duration of the exposure. The incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylglycerols and neutral lipids appeared to be very sensitive to inactivation by paraquat. At 5 microM-paraquat the rate of [1-14C]acetate incorporation was decreased to 50% of the control values. The rate of [1-14C]palmitate incorporation into lipids was much less sensitive; it even increased at low paraquat concentrations. At 10 microM-paraquat both NADPH and ATP were significantly decreased. It is concluded that lipid synthesis in isolated alveolar type II cells is extremely sensitive to paraquat. At low concentrations of this herbicide, lipid synthesis, and particularly fatty acid synthesis, is decreased. The effects on lipid metabolism may be partly related to altered NADPH and ATP concentrations.
Project description:Olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures were incubated with [2-14C]ethanolamine and [Me-14C]choline in order to study phospholipid synthesis. Radioactivity from [Me-14C]choline was shown to be incorporated into the phosphatidylcholine via the CDP-base pathway. [2-14C]Ethanolamine was primarily incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine, but significant radio-activity was also detected in phosphatidylcholine, indicating the operation of a methylation route. Incubation with [2-14C]ethanolamine indicated that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated radiolabel over a similar time course. This led us to investigate the possibility that phosphatidylcholine was being synthesized by a methylation pathway distinct from the direct methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. There was extensive incorporation of [2-14C]ethanolamine into different components of the aqueous phase of the incubations, within which phospho-base derivatives of ethanolamine were prominent. These intermediates were identified and provided evidence for the operation of an alternative methylation pathway via phosphodimethylethanolamine for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in olives.
Project description:Spinach chloroplasts, isolated by techniques yielding preparations with high O2- evolving activity, showed rates of light-dependent acetate incorporation into lipids 3-4 fold higher than any previously reported. Incorporation rates as high as 500 nmol of acetate/h per mg of chlorophyll were measured in buffered sorbitol solutions containing only NaHCO3 and [1-14C]acetate, and as high as 800 nmol/h per mg of chlorophyll when 0.13 mM-Triton X-100 was also included in the reaction media. The fatty acids synthesized were predominantly oleic (70-80% of the total fatty acid radioactivity) and palmitic (20-25%) with only minor amounts (1-5%) of linoleic acid. Linolenic acid synthesis was not detected in the system in vitro. Free fatty acids accounted for 70-90% of the radioactivity incorporated and the remainder was shared fairly evenly between 1,2-diacylglycerols and polar lipids. Oleic acid constituted 80-90% of the free fatty acids synthesized, but the diacylglycerols and polar lipids contained slightly more palmitic acid than oleic acid. Triton X-100 stimulated the synthesis of diacylglycerols 3-6 fold, but stimulated free fatty acid synthesis only 1-1.5-fold. Added glycerol 1-phosphate stimulated both the synthesis of diacylglycerols and palmitic acid relative to oleic acid, but did not increase acetate incorporation into total chloroplast lipids. CoA and ATP, when added separately, stimulated acetate incorporation into chloroplast lipids to variable extents and had no effect on the types of lipid synthesized, but when added together resulted in 34% of the incorporated acetate appearing in long-chain acyl-CoA. Pyruvate was a much less effective precursor of chloroplast fatty acids than was acetate.