Metabolism of sialic acid in regenerating rat liver.
ABSTRACT: In regenerating rat liver slices 24 h after partial hepatectomy, the incorporation of [1-14C]glucosamine into 'free sialic acid' (N-acetylneuraminic acid + CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid) decreased to below 50% of the control values and the incorporation into protein-bound sialic acid decreased to the same extent. The incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into 'free sialic acid' decreased during the period from 6 to 47 h after hepatectomy, showing a minimum at 12 h, and recovered to the control value by 96 h. At 12 h, the activities of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-2-acetoamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose 2-epimerase, EC 126.96.36.199) and N-acyl-D-mannosamine kinase (ATP: 2-acylamino-2-deoxy-D-mannose 6-phosphotransferase, EC 188.8.131.52) in the liver were significantly decreased. The amount of protein-bound sialic acid in the liver was not changed after partial hepatectomy, but the amount in plasma was changed, with a similar pattern to that of the incorporation of [14C]glucosamine into slice 'free sialic acid'. These results indicate that the synthesis of sialic acid in the liver much decreases in the early stage of regeneration and that this may be correlated with the decreased synthesis of plasma sialoglycoproteins.
Project description:1. Glycoprotein synthesis was investigated with [1-14C]glucosamine in vivo. [14C]Glucosamine was administered intravenously 24h after hepatectomy to rats. 2. Incorporation into the acid-soluble fraction was maximum at 15 min after injection both in sham-operated and hepatectomized rats. 3. Enhancement of incorporation into UDP-N-acetylhexosamine in regenerating liver was observed. However, its specific activity was lower, because of a greater enhancement of synthesis de novo of the amino sugar. 4. In the liver acid-insoluble fraction, maximum incorporation of [14C]glucosamine was at 30 min in sham-operated rats and 2 h in hepatectomized rats respectively. 5. In sham-operated rats, incorporation into the plasma acid-insoluble fraction followed that of the liver acid-insoluble fraction, but hepatectomy resulted in a rapid enchancement of incorporation into plasma. 6. It is concluded that synthesis of liver glycoproteins is stimulated after partial hepatectomy and that glycoproteins synthesized are released rapidly into the plasma.
Project description:The activities of ten enzymes involved in sialic acid metabolism were measured in colonic mucosal cells from rats and compared with those in liver. A methodology was devised that enabled all ten enzyme activities to be evaluated in a single rat colon preparation. Enzyme assays with radioactively labelled substrates were developed for maximum sensitivity, and the identification of substrates and products was carefully checked to assess the contribution of contaminants to enzyme reactions with low activity. The activities of most enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (NeuAc) from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine were found to be more than 20-fold lower than those in liver. The activities of CMP-NeuAc synthase, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase, sialyltransferase and sialidase were similar to or 2-4-fold lower than in liver. The biosynthesis of NeuAc via its 9-phosphate was demonstrated in the 100 000 g supernatant of colonic-cell homogenates by enzymic assay and precursor experiments with N-acetyl[14C]-mannosamine. No alternative route for NeuAc formation could be detected. The 100 000g supernatant fractions of liver, kidney and colonic mucosal cells utilized N-acetyl[14C]mannosamine with differing efficiencies. Radioactive products identified as sialic acid biosynthetic intermediates amounted to 49%, 0.04% and 5.6% of added precursor in liver, kidney and colon respectively. Catabolism of labelled precursor to non-hexosamine products was high in kidney and colonic mucosal-cell fractions.
Project description:The incorporation in vivo of D-[1-14C]glucosamine into serum glycoproteins and proteins of liver microsomal fractions shows a decrease in the early stages (24h) after partial hepatectomy compared with sham-operated animals; 72h after partial hepatectomy the specific radioactivity of hexosamines bound to liver microsomal fractions reaches the same value as for sham-operated animals.
Project description:1. Sheep colonic mucin contains three types of sialic acids, separable from the macrostructure by mild acidic hydrolysis. These are composed chiefly of N-acetyl-and N-glycollyl-neuraminic acid in ratios between 1:1.2 and 1:3.5 for different preparations of the mucin. The third sialic acid appears to be a diacetylated neuraminic acid. 2. A particle-free enzyme preparation, obtained from sheep colonic mucosa by gentle homogenization and high-speed centrifugation, catalyses a series of reactions involving N-acylamino sugars and leading to the formation of sialic acids in vitro: (i) phosphorylation by ATP of d-glucosamine, N-acetyl-and N-glycollyl-d-glucosamine; (ii) conversion of N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate into N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 1-phosphate; (iii) formation of sialic acids from phosphoenolpyruvate and N-acetyl- or N-glycollyl-d-glucosamine; (iv) formation of N-acetylneuraminic acid from uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine or from N-acetylmannosamine; (v) incorporation of l-[U-(14)C]serine into the mucin by whole mucosal preparations.
Project description:1. A method was developed whereby [1-14C]glucosamine was used in a perfused rat liver system to prepare over 2 mg of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein with highly radioactive sialic acid and glucosamine residues. 2. The liver secreted radioactive alpha 1-acid glycoprotein over a 4-6 h period, and this glycoprotein was purified from the perfusate by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH 3.6. 3. The sialic acid on the isolated glycoprotein had a specific radioactivity of 3.1 Ci/mol, whereas the glucosamine-specific radioactivity was 4.3 Ci/mole. The latter amino-sugar residues on the isolated protein were only 13-fold less radioactive than the initially added [1-14C]glucosamine. Orosomucoid with a specific radioactivity of 31.3 microCi/mg of protein was obtainable by using [6-3H]glucosamine. 4. The amino acid composition of the purified orosomucoid was comparable with that found by others for the same glycoprotein isolated from rat serum. A partial characterization of the carbohydrate structure was done by sequential digestion with neuraminidase, beta-D-galactosidase and beta-D-hexosaminidase. 5. Many other radioactive glycoproteins were found to be secreted into the perfusate by the liver. Thus this experimental system should prove useful for obtaining other serum glycoprotein with highly radioactive sugar moieties.
Project description:Kinetic measurement of the uptake of N-acetyl[4,5,6,7,8,9-14C]neuraminic acid by Escherichia coli K-235 was carried out in vivo at 37 degrees C in 0.1 M-Tris/maleate buffer, pH 7.0. Under these conditions uptake was linear for at least 30 min and the Km calculated for sialic acid was 30 microM. The transport system was osmotic-shock-sensitive and was strongly inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation [2,4-dinitrophenol (100%); NaN3 (66%]) and by the metabolic inhibitors KCN (84%) and sodium arsenate (76%). The thiol-containing compounds mercaptoethanol, glutathione, cysteine, dithiothreitol and cysteine had no significant effect on the sialic acid-transport rate, whereas the thiol-modifying reagents N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate and p-chloromercuribenzoate almost completely blocked (greater than 94%) the uptake of this N-acetyl-sugar. N-Acetylglucosamine inhibited non-competitively the transport of N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas other carbohydrates (hexoses, pentoses, hexitols, hexuronic acids, disaccharides, trisaccharides) and N-acetyl-sugars or amino acid derivatives (N-acetylmannosamine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetylproline and N-acetylglutamic acid) did not have any effect. Surprisingly, L-methionine and its non-sulphur analogue L-norleucine partially blocked the transport of this sugar (50%), whereas D-methionine, D-norleucine, several L-methionine derivatives (L-methionine methyl ester, L-methionine ethyl ester, L-methionine sulphoxide) and other amino acids did not affect sialic acid uptake. The N-acetylneuraminic acid-transport system is induced by sialic acid and is strictly regulated by the carbon source used for E. coli growth, arabinose, lactose, glucose, fructose and glucosamine being the carbohydrates that cause the greatest repressions in this system. Addition of cyclic AMP to the culture broth reversed the glucose effect, indicating that the N-acetylneuraminic acid-uptake system is under catabolic regulation. Protein synthesis is not needed for sialic acid transport.
Project description:Sialuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation and increased urinary excretion of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc, sialic acid). Overproduction of NeuAc is believed to result from loss of feedback inhibition of uridinediphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) by cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac). We report the cloning and characterization of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase cDNA, with mutation analysis of three patients with sialuria. Their heterozygote mutations, R266W, R266Q, and R263L, indicate that the allosteric site of the epimerase resides in the region of codons 263-266. The heterozygous nature of the mutant allele in all three patients reveals a dominant mechanism of inheritance for sialuria.
Project description:Five cell cultures of Huntington's-chorea fibroblasts exhibit greater than normal protein and lipid glycosylation when labelled with [U-14C]glucosamine. Oligosaccharide--polypeptide chains from all molecular-weight ranges are labelled differentially on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This difference in protein glycosylation is not accompanied by any apparent difference in general cellular protein synthesis or by a differential rate of glucosamine uptake or decreased degradation of [14C]glycosylated macromolecules. Additionally [U-14C]glucosamine exclusively labels hexosamines and sialic acid of cellular macromolecules.
Project description:A protein-NeuAc complex involved in colominic acid biosynthesis has been identified in membrane preparations of Escherichia coli K-235. This compound had an Mr (estimated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and autoradiography) of about 100,000 and played the role of an 'initiator' or 'primer' (endogenous acceptor) in the synthesis of the whole polymer. Incubations of E. coli membranes with CMP-[14C]NeuAc (CMP-N-[14C]acetylneuraminic acid) pointed to the existence of a protein fraction (primer acceptor) that linked residues of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuAc) up to a maximal size, later releasing them as low-Mr sialyl polymers (LMrS, Mr less than 10,000). In the presence of colominic acid (final acceptor) the radioactivity linked to the protein quickly decreased, appearing stoichiometrically bound to the whole polysaccharide. When membrane preparations were previously digested with Streptomyces proteinase or de-activated by heating (80 degrees C, 10 min), no incorporation of labelled NeuAc into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material was detected. These results suggested that colominic acid molecules are synthesized while they are bound to a proteinaceous acceptor that is subsequently excised in the presence of colominic acid, generating the native protein. The antibiotic tunicamycin inhibited the biosynthesis of colominic acid, affecting the synthesis of this protein-(NeuAc)n intermediate. All these results are described here for the first time.
Project description:Adult male rats, under starving and normal conditions, were injected intravenously with N-acetyl[3H]mannosamine and after various time intervals the specific radioactivities of free N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid were determined in the liver. The specific radioactivity of free NeuAc was high even within 20s after injection; the maximum was reached between 7 and 10 min. The specific radioactivity of CMP-NeuAc showed a lag phase of approx. 1 min. Thereafter it increased quickly and rose above the specific radioactivity of free NeuAc, reaching a maximum about 20 min after injection. These results point to a channelling of the newly synthesized NeuAc molecules into a special compartment, from which they are preferentially used by the enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthetase. It is suggested that the cytosolic enzyme N-acetylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate phosphatase is working in concert with the nuclear localized enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase. Incorporation of radioactive sialic acid into sialoglycoproteins in liver occurred 2 min after injection, and after 10 min bound radioactivity began to appear in the circulation, indicating a transport time of 8 min of sialoglycoproteins from the point of attachment of sialic acid to the point of excretion.