Quantitative analysis of neutral glycosphingolipids from human lymphocyte subpopulations.
ABSTRACT: The glycosphingolipids of normal human lymphocytes from individual donors were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition, purified T- and B-lymphocytes were examined separately. Lactosylceramide was shown to be the major neutral glycosphingolipid in human lymphocytes, and monohexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, globoside and paragloboside were all detected in smaller amounts. Analysis of purified B- and T-cell fractions revealed that each of these populations contained a similar qualitative profile for neutral glycosphingolipids, but that quantitatively, B-cells contained several times more of each glycosphingolipid per cell than did T-cells.
Project description:Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide.
Project description:In order to help determine whether alterations of the profiles of glycosphingolipids occur consistently in human tumours, the neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides of nine lung tumours (one adenocarcinoma, four squamous cell, two mixed adeno-squamous cell, one large cell and one oat-cell carcinomata) were analysed. The control tissue consisted of adjacent lung; it contained neutral glycosphingolipids corresponding in properties to glucosyl-, lactosyl-, globotriaosyl- and globotetraosyl-ceramides. All of the tumours also contained these four neutral glycosphingolipids. However, in addition, five of the tumours (two of the squamous, the large cell and the two mixed adeno-squamous cell carcinomata) contained neutral glycosphingolipids corresponding in properties to lactotriaosyl- and neolactotetraosyl-ceramides; these same tumours also exhibited higher amounts of lactosylceramide than the other tumours analysed. Both of the two former neutral glycosphingolipids and very substantial amounts of the latter neutral glycosphingolipid were detected in pneumonic lung and in polymorphonuclear leucocytes; it thus appears possible that these particular compounds were derived from these latter cells rather than from the tumour cells. The ganglioside patterns of the tumours were almost equivalent in complexity to that exhibited by the control lung tissue. This study shows that the profiles of two major classes of glycosphingolipids (neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides) occurring in lung tumours are almost as complex as those of the parent tissue, a finding in contrast with the notably simplified patterns of these lipids found in many cancer cells grown in vitro. It also suggests that when lactotriaosyl- and neolactotetraosyl-ceramides and high amounts of lactosylceramide are detected in human tumours, the possibility must be considered that these compounds are derived from polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen associated with hospital-acquired infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and wound infections. Recognition of host cell surface carbohydrates plays a crucial role in adhesion and enables microbes to colonize different host niches. Here the potential glycosphingolipid receptors of A. baumannii were examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. Thereby a selective interaction with two non-acid glycosphingolipids of human and rabbit small intestine was found. The binding-active glycosphingolipids were isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, identified as neolactotetraosylceramide (Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) and lactotetraosylceramide (Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer). Further binding assays using reference glycosphingolipids showed that A. baumannii also bound to lactotriaosylceramide (GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) demonstrating that GlcNAc was the basic element recognized. In addition, the bacteria occasionally bound to galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, isoglobotriaosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and gangliotetraosylceramide, in analogy with binding patterns that previously have been described for other bacteria classified as "lactosylceramide-binding". Finally, by isolation and characterization of glycosphingolipids from human skin, the presence of neolactotetraosylceramide was demonstrated in this A. baumannii target tissue.
Project description:The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAc?3Gal?4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Gal?3Gal?3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.
Project description:The binding profile of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 2 to various glycosphingolipids was evaluated by using thin-layer chromatogram overlay. A. pleuropneumoniae whole cells recognized glucosylceramide (Glcbeta1Cer), galactosylceramide (Galbeta1Cer) with hydroxy and nonhydroxy fatty acids, sulfatide (SO(3)-3Galbeta1Cer), lactosylceramide (Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1Cer), gangliotriaosylceramide GgO3 (GalNAcbeta1-4Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1Cer), and gangliotetraosylceramide GgO4 (Galbeta1-3GalNAcbeta1-4Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1Cer) glycosphingolipids. We observed no binding to globoseries, globotriaosylceramide Gb3, globoside Gb4, or Forssman Gb5 glycosphingolipids or to gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, and GT1b. The A. pleuropneumoniae strains tested also failed to detect phosphatidylethanolamine or ceramide. Interestingly, extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of serotype 1 and serotype 2 as well as detoxified LPS of serotype 1 showed binding patterns similar to that of whole bacterial cells. Binding to GlcCer, GalCer, sulfatide, and LacCer, but not to GgO3 and GgO4 glycosphingolipids, was inhibited after incubation of the bacteria with monoclonal antibodies against LPS O antigen. These findings indicate the involvement of LPS in recognition of three groups of glycosphingolipids: (i) GlcCer and LacCer, where glucose is probably an important saccharide sequence required for LPS binding; (ii) GalCer and sulfatide glycosphingolipids, where the sulfate group is part of the binding epitope of the isoreceptor; and (iii) GgO3 and GgO4, where GalNacbeta1-4Gal disaccharide represents the minimal common binding epitope. Taken together, our results indicate that A. pleuropneumoniae LPS recognize various saccharide sequences found in different glycosphingolipids, which probably represents a strong virulence attribute.
Project description:Recent genetic evidence suggests that aberrant glycosphingolipid metabolism plays an important role in several neuromuscular diseases including hereditary spastic paraplegia, hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1, and non-5q spinal muscular atrophy. Here, we investigated whether altered glycosphingolipid metabolism is a modulator of disease course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Levels of ceramide, glucosylceramide, galactocerebroside, lactosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide, and the gangliosides GM3 and GM1 were significantly elevated in spinal cords of ALS patients. Moreover, enzyme activities (glucocerebrosidase-1, glucocerebrosidase-2, hexosaminidase, galactosylceramidase, ?-galactosidase, and ?-galactosidase) mediating glycosphingolipid hydrolysis were also elevated up to threefold. Increased ceramide, glucosylceramide, GM3, and hexosaminidase activity were also found in SOD1(G93A) mice, a familial model of ALS. Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthesis accelerated disease course in SOD1(G93A) mice, whereas infusion of exogenous GM3 significantly slowed the onset of paralysis and increased survival. Our results suggest that glycosphingolipids are likely important participants in pathogenesis of ALS and merit further analysis as potential drug targets.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Generation of anti-oligosaccharide antibodies that recognize mammalian glycoproteins by immunization with a novel artificial glycosphingolipid" (Okuda and Fukui, 2018) . This article describes the immunogenicity of a mammalian glycosphingolipid (globoside) carrying very long-chain fatty acids. Analysis of serum antibody titer by ELISA showed that this globoside had a strong immunogenicity in mice and could immediately induce production of anti-globoside IgGs. Isolated an IgG3 (?) monoclonal antibody (mAb PA4.2) from the immunized mouse showed high specificity and reactivity against globoside. These data provide a novel antigen design method useful for obtaining IgG antibodies against glycosphingolipids.
Project description:The insolubility of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in certain detergents appears to be an intrinsic property of their association with sphingolipids and cholesterol in lipid rafts. We show that the GPI-anchored protein membrane dipeptidase is localized in detergent-insoluble lipid rafts isolated from porcine kidney microvillar membranes, and that these rafts, which lack caveolin, are enriched not only in sphingomyelin and cholesterol, but also in the glycosphingolipid lactosylceramide (LacCer). Dipeptidase purified from porcine kidney was reconstituted into artificial liposomes in order to investigate the relationship between glycosphingolipids and GPI-anchored protein detergent-insolubility. Dipeptidase was insoluble in liposomes containing extremely low concentrations of LacCer. In contrast, identical concentrations of glucosylceramide or galactosylceramide failed to promote significant detergent-insolubility. Cholesterol was shown to enhance the detergent-insoluble effect of LacCer. GC-MS analysis revealed dramatic differences between the fatty acyl compositions of LacCer and those of the other glycosphingolipids. However, despite these differences, we show that the unusually marked effect of LacCer to promote the detergent-insolubility of dipeptidase cannot be singularly attributed to the fatty acyl composition of this glycosphingolipid molecule. Instead, we suggest that the ability of LacCer to confer detergent-insolubility on this GPI-anchored protein is dependent on the structure of the lipid molecule in its entirety, and that this glycosphingolipid may have an important role to play in the stabilization of lipid rafts, particularly the caveolin-free glycosphingolipid signalling domains.
Project description:In recent years, obesity has been considered a pathological stage of early lifestyle-related diseases, and adipose tissue and adipocyte research has been active. Glycosphingolipids are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes induced by insulin resistance, but the details of the glycosphingolipid molecular species composition of adipocytes have yet to be elucidated. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the 1,2-dichloroethane-wash method to remove triacylglycerols, which are abundant in adipocytes, and analyzed the structures of glycosphingolipids, particularly neutral glycosphingolipids, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Project description:Due to their pluripotency and growth capability, there are great expectations for human embryonic stem cells, both as a resource for functional studies of early human development and as a renewable source of cells for use in regenerative medicine and transplantation. However, to bring human embryonic stem cells into clinical applications, their cell surface antigen expression and its chemical structural complexity have to be defined. In the present study, total non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions were isolated from two human embryonic stem cell lines (SA121 and SA181) originating from leftover in vitro fertilized human embryos, using large amounts of starting material (1 × 10(9) cells/cell line). The total non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions were characterized by antibody and lectin binding, mass spectrometry, and proton NMR. In addition to the globo-series and type 1 core chain glycosphingolipids previously described in human embryonic stem cells, a number of type 2 core chain glycosphingolipids (neo-lactotetraosylceramide, the H type 2 pentaosylceramide, the Le(x) pentaosylceramide, and the Le(y) hexaosylceramide) were identified as well as the blood group A type 1 hexaosylceramide. Finally, the mono-, di-, and triglycosylceramides were characterized as galactosylceramide, glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, galabiaosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide, and lactotriaosylceramide. Thus, the glycan diversity of human embryonic stem cells, including cell surface immune determinants, is more complex than previously appreciated.